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Full text of "Plant names, scientific and popular, including in the case of each plant the correct botanical name in accordance with the reformed nomenclature, together with botanical and popular synonyms .."


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PLANT NAMES 



WITH A VIEW TO A_. 

"^ilii^r— PPVJgpn EDITION 

^ ,jft Jfc v* -^ .J* 

The Author of **PIant Names and Synonyms'* re- 
quests that any one who finds omitted from the list of 
populai synonyms any name in actual use in any part 
of the United States, shall communicate such omission 
to him at once, at the address below. Do not delay be- 
cause' it is only a single name, or because the name is 
misapplied. If possible state in what region the name 
is known to be in use. Any other corrections that 
should be made in names or in statements of fact will 
be gratefully received. 

A. B. LYONS. 
Laboratory of 
NELSON, BAKER & CO., 
DETROIT, MICH. 



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PLANT NAMES 

SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR 

INCLUDING IN THE CASE OF EACH PLANT 



CORRECT BOTANICAL NAME 

IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REFORMED NOMENCLATURE, 
TOGETHER WITH BOTANICAL AND 

POPULAR SYNONYMS 

AND VERNACULAR GERMAN, FRENCH AND SPANISH NAMES. THE LIST COM- 
PRISES ALL IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH THEIR PHARMA- 
COPOEIAL NAMES, THE PRINCIPAL FOOD PLANTS OF THE 
WORLD AND ALL OTHERS OF ANY ECONOMIC IMPORT- 
ANCE, GIVING ESPECIAL PROMINENCE TO THOSE 
WHICH ARE INDIGENOUS IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 



COMPILED FROM THE MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES 
—BY— 



A. B. LYONS, M. D 




vSW YORK 

DETROIT. X. K C T A N I C .^ 

NELSON, BAKP:K & CO., Publi^Heb^, , „.-%., 

"N^- ' P ~ ^- ^Z^ 



OKI 
.1^ 



Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1900 

By a. B. Lyons, M. D. 

In the r>ffice of the Librarian of Congress at AVashington, D. C. 



PREFACE 




Plum svnouomy is a last-inatiug but a iiK»t imrioate study. 
Every plant is supposed to have a ''correct" botanical name, and 
-can have only one such. As a matter of fact there are fevr plants 
that have not been over and over rechristened by scientific botanists, 
each one maintaining that his is its only really ' 'correct' ' designa- 
tion. Out of the endless confusion there is at last emerging order 
4\nd uniformity. 

At the Botanical Congress held at Paris in 1867 the principle 
-was definitely adopted that the scientific designation of a plant 
should be in every case the name first applied to it (with suitable 
definition and description 1. provided that name had not been pre- 
A'iously applied to another plant. This rule has necessitated many 
■changes in the current nomenclature. The names adopted in this 
book have been brought as far as possible into accordance with the 
reformed nomenclature. In the case of our indigenous plants, the 
names given by Britton and BroAvn in their recently published "Flora 
of the Northern States and Canada, have been adopted with very 
few exceptions as conforming to the new rules. The attempt has 
been made to adhere to the principle also in the case of exotic 
^^ plants, but it has not been always possible to consult original au- 
CJ> thorities. In a number of inst;mces where the new rule requires 
<"hanges in name which have undoubtedly been already made by 
botanists, but for which authority could not be found, my own name 
appears as authority, indicating that the responsibility is mine. 
J It has been my endeavor to make the list of popular synonyms 

1 as complete and at the same time as authentic as possible. It has 
not been difficult to gather popular names of the plants of Europe, 
particularly of Great Britain. In our own country popular names 
are used in a very haphazard manner, and there has never been any 
attempt to gather all the names adopted in different localities. 
From the most reliable sources of information at ray command I 
have gleaned a large number of the current popular names. 



Book names, such as those adopted by botanists for the various 
species of a genus, hardly come witliin the scope of this work, al- 
though some such are given. Where there are several plants be- 
longing to one genus, there is likely to be a good deal of interchang- 
ing of popular names. In general, however, each name is consider- 
ed to belong properly to some one species and should be restricted 
thereto, and in a book of synonyms like this, names must be given 
as though this were the actual practice. 

Although aside from the main purpose of this work, I have 
indicated the origin and meaning of many popular names, and I 
have also given as far as possible, the etymologies of the Latin 
generic names. 

The principle of double credit for authority of botanical names 
has been applied whenever practicable. It has not been possible 
always to ascertain which was the earlier of two specific names. In 
such cases only the single credit is given. 

Synonyms under the various genera are in the true sense 
synonyms only when followed by authority. Synonyns "in part" 
are generic names that, for reasons good or bad, have been applied 
by botanists to some of the plants of the genus in question. 

In the English names, the orthography of the Century Diction- 
ary has been given the preference, alternative forms being, how- 
ever, also recognized, those now obsolete often in parenthesis. 

I have endeavored to include in this enumeration: 1st. All 
the more important plants used medicinally in our country, in- 
cluding many which are practically obsolete yet may be sometimes 
asked for in drug stores. 2nd. Plants of economic value, especially 
those furnishing important food stuffs. Pasture grasses, however, 
and many forage plants, as well as the multitude of plants cultivat- 
ed in gardens and greenhouses for ornament, I have been com- 
pelled Vjy limit of space to omit. 3rd. Plants indigenous to any 
part of the United States. The name of every genus of flower- 
ing plants known to occur in North America, north of Mexico is 
given, with a brief description and statement of its geographical dis- 
tribution. Only genera of grasses and of sedges are excepted, this 
omission giving room to include those of ferns and Lycopods. In 
each case a statement is made of the number of species found ' 'in 
U. S." which must be understood to include also those of British 
America, the number being generally that of the species included in 
the catalogue recently (1898) published by A. A. Heller, of North 
American plants North of Mexico. 



I'RKFAVK. 

The book should thus be of interest and value to every one in- 
terested in American botany. It is, however, more especially in- 
tended to meet the practical needs of the retail druggist^ who is of- 
ten called upon to supply some root, bark or herb of which only an 
unfamiliar popular name is known to the customer. For the benefit 
of the druggist also the pharmacopoeial names are given of all drugs 
official in the United States, Great Britain, Germany and France, 
and also the unofficial Latin as well as the vernacular German, 
French and Spanish names of the several drugs or plants. Medicin- 
al properties are also succinctly stated. 

The greatest care has been taken to render the book accurate 
in its scientific information and complete and authentic in itssynon- 
omy. A copious index serves as a key to this mass of information, 
enabling the reader to turn instantly to the desired ])aragraph. 

Laboratory of NELSON, BAKER & CO. 
January, 1900. 



EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS AND 

SYMBOLS. 

Adv . Ad venti ve . 

Br. British Pharmacopoeia. 

Cort. Cortex. 

Cult. Cultivated. 

Fol. Folia. 

Fr. French name. 

Ger. German name. 

H. Herb. 

(Kew) Name given preference in Index Kewensis. 

P. G. German Pharmacopoeia. 

Nat. Naturalized. 

R. Radix. 

Rh. Rhizome. 

Sp. Spanish name. 

sp. Species. 

Syn. Synonym or Synonyms. 

U. S. United States, (i. e. N. Americ:i, North of Mexico). 

U. S. P. United Sj^ates Pharmacopoeia. 

* Name better applied to another plant. 

t Name improperly applied to this plant. 

X A verbal corruption. 

^ Book name, found in manuals of Botany, etc. 

II Obsolete, vulgar or provincial name. 



PLANT NAMES 

AND 

SYNONYMS- 



1. ABAMA, Adans. 1763. Bog Asphodel. - Melanthaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Narthecium, Juss, 1789. 
Small perennial herbs. Four known species, northern Hemis- 
phere; 2 in U. S. 

a. A. Americana (Ker) Morong ( Narthecium Americana Ker, N. 
ossifragum var. Americanum Gray). Southern New Jersey. 
American Bog Asphodel, Bastard or Lancashire Asphodel, 
Moor- grass, Eosa-Solis*. 

2. ABIES, Juss. - - Fir. - - ' Pinaceie. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Pinus, Picea, in part. Ever- 
green trees, mountains and high latitudes of north temperate 
zone. About 20 species; 12 in U. S. 

a. A. Abies (L. ) Kusby (Pinns Abies L., P. excelsa Lara., P. Picea 

Du Roi, Picea excelsa Link). Northern Europe and Asia, also 
in Alps. Norway Spruce, Spruce Fir, Galipot tree; Ger. Fich- 
te; Fr. Pesse, Epic^a, Faux Sapiu (Codex). The remious exu- 
date is known as frankincense; from this is prepared Bur- 
gundy Pitch; Fix Burdundica U. S. P., Br., Resina pini bur- 
gundica. Pix alba; Ger. Burgunder Harz, Burgunder Pech; 
Fr. Poix de Bourgogne, Poix des Vosges, Poix jaune (Codex). 
Stimulant, vulnerary, revulsive, etc. Leaf buds and shoots used 
in making spruce beer. 

b. A. balsaniea (L. )Mill. (PinusbalsameaL. ). British America. 

south to Virginia and Aljnnesota. Balsam Fir, Balm of Gilead 
Fir, Balsam tree, American Silver Fir, Fir Pine, Blister Pine, 
Single Spruce". Oleoresin from the hark: Canada Balsam, Bal- 
sam of Fir; Terebinthina canadensis, _U. S. P., Br., Balsamum 
Canadense; Ger. Canadischer Terpenlin; Fr, Baume du ("ana- 
da (Codex), Terebiuthiue du Canada. Terebinthinate, ex- 
pectorant, etc. 

c. A. Fniseri (Pursh) Lindl. (Pinus Fraseri Pursh). Virginia 

to Tennessee. Eraser's Balsam Fir, Soutliern Balsam Fir, 
Mountain Balsam-tree, Balsam, She-balsam, Double Spruce*. 
Oleoresin resembles that of (b) and is sometimes substituted 
therefor. 



8 PLANT KAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. A. magrnifica Murray. California Magnificent Fir^, California 

Silver Fir, Rf d Firj Queen-of-the Sierras. The largest of all 
Firs. A valuable timber tree. The Shasta Fir and Golden 
Fir are varieties of this species. 

e. A. nobilis Lind. Washington and Oregon. Noble Fir, Larch. + 

f. A. Picea (L. ) Lvons (Pinus Picea L. , Finns pectinata Lam., 

P. Abies DuRoi, A. alba Mill., A. pectinata D.C. (Kew. ), A. 
excelsa Link., not Poir). Europe. Silver Fir, European Silver 
Fir, Silver Pine, Strassburg Pine, Tanne; Ger. Weisstanne, 
Edeltanne; Fr. Sapin argente. JResinous exudate, Strassburg 
Turpentine; Terebinthina argentoratensis; Fr. Terebenthine 
d' Alsace, des Vosges ou de Strasbourg, Terebenthine au citron 
(Codex). Resembles Venice turpentine. 

3. ABROXIA, Juss. - Abionia. - Nyctaginaceae. 

From Greek, "graceful," of the floweif*. Syn. Cycloptera, 
Tricratus, in part. Annual or perennial herbs, some ornamen- 
tal. About 15 species; 12 in U. S., mostly western. 

i, ABRUS, L. Abrus, Lidian Licorice, etc. Papiliouaceae. 

From Greek, "graceful," of the seeds. Syn. Zaga, in part. 
Shrubby climbers or sub-shrubs. About 5 species, tropical 
regions. 

a. A. precatorius L. (Glycine Abrus L., A. minor Desv.). India, 
cult, in most tropical countries. Indian Licorice (Liquorice), 
AVild Licorice, Red-bean vine; Ger. Indisches Slissholz; Fr. 
Liane h, reglisse. Reglisse indienne, Herbe a beau-pere. Seeds, 
Jequirity (Brazil), Quequiri, Crab's-eyes, Jumble-beads, John- 
Crow beans. Love-peas, Black-eyed Susan; Semen abri; Ger. 
Paternostererbsen; Fr. Pois d' Amerique. Irritant, used in 
treatment of ophthalmia. Boot, a poor substitute for licorice 
root. 

5. ABUTA, Aubl. False Pareira Brava. Menispemiaceae. 

From vernacular Brazilian name. Syn. Auelasma, Miers. 

Shrubby climbers with coriaceous leaves. About 8 species, 
tropical America. 

a. A. amara Aublet. (The Index Kewensis makes this a synonym 

of AristolochiaglaucescensH. B. K. ). Brazil. Reputed source 
of Yellow Pareira brava. 

b. A. riifesoeiis Aublet. Brazil. White Pareira brava, Butua 

(vernacular). 

<>. ABUTILON, Gaertn. (Abutilaea). Abutilon. Malvaceae. 
Name given by Arabian Avicenna, d. 1037. Herbs, shrubs 
or even trees. About 90 species, mostly tropical and sub-tropic- 
al; 18 in U. S., mostly south-western. 

a. A. Abutilon (L. ) Rusby (A. Avicenna*^ Gaertn.). Southern 
Asia, nat. in U. S. and widely elsewhere. Velvet-leaf, Indian 
Mallow, American Jute, Butter-weed, Butter-print, Button- 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 9 

weed, Cotton-weed, American Hemp* Indian Hemp-, Mormon- 
weed, Pie-miirker, Pie-print, Sheep-weed, Velvet-weed. Plants 
especial] y jiowers, mucilaginous like Altliaea. 

b. A. Indiciiiii Don, India, and other species have similar proper- 
ties. 

7. ACACIA, Adans. Acacia, Wattle (^ Australia). Mimosaceae. 
The Greek name, meaning "thorny." Trees and shrubs. 
About 4")0 species, mostly sub-tropical, especially of Africa and 
Australia; 16 in U. S. 

a. A. Arabica (Lam.) AVilld.( Mimosa Arabica Lam. The species 

probably includes also A. Adansonii Guil. cV: Per., A. Nilolica 
Delile and A. vera Willd. ). India to Senegambia. Egyptian 
(ium Arabic tree, Egyptian Thorn. Vernacular names are Kikar 
and Babur. Bark, (Babul, Babulah or Baboot bark) astrin- 
gent, used in tanning as are the pods ( nebneb). The tree is the 
probable source of gum Mogador, called also Morocco and Bar- 
bary gum. See (k. ) The tree produces also lac. See Croton 
aromaticus. 

b. A. Catechu (L. f.) Willd. (Mimosa Catechu L. f . ) East 

Indies and Ceylon, nat. in Jamaica Catechu tree. Extract pre- 
pared j'r am the wood is the Catechu of medicine and the cutch of 
tannery also called cashoo and gambir*; Citechul • S. P., P. G. , 
Terra jauonica, Catechu nigrum; (xer. Katechu, Pegukatechu; 
Fr. Cachou de Pegu, Cashcuttie (Codex). A powerful astring- 
ent. 

c. A. deciirrens Willd. Australia. Black Wattle-tree. Bark as- 

tringent, used in tanning and for making a variety of cutch or 
terra japouica. The tree yields also a fair quality of gum, 
(Australian gum, Wattle gum). 

d. A. Fariiesiana Willd. (A. Indica Desv. "i. Tropical and sub- 

tropical America, Texas to California, also cult, in Europe. 
Cassie, Cassia-flower tree, Sponge tree, Hui^ache (Texas), 
Matitas (Mexico.), Kalu (Hawaii), Opopanax*. ' Flon-ers, 
much used in perfumery. Shrub also yields gum. 

e. A. steiiocsirpa Ilochst. .Abyssinia and Nubia. Source of Suakin 

or Savakiu gum, called also Suak, Talha and Talca gum. 

f. A. (ilregsrii A. Gray. Texas to Mexico. One of the plants 

which yields lac. See Croton aromaticus. 

g. A. lloinal(»ph}ila Cunningham. Australia. Myall., A'iolet- 

wood. Wood fragrant, used for tobacco-pipes, etc. 

h. A. horrida Willd. South Africa. Doom-boom (i. e. Thorn- 
tree) Karra-doorn, Karoo Thorn. Source of the Cape gum. 
Bark used in tanuing. 

i. A. melanoxyloii R. Br. Southeastern Australia. Black-wood 
tree. Light wood*. Wood valuable for cabinet work. 



10 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

j. A. pycndntha Benth. Australia. Golden Wattle. Bark yields 
a fine quality of cutch. « 

k. A Senegal Willd(A. Verek Guil. & Per.) Kordofan to the 
Senegal. Gum Arabic tree, Acacia. Gummy exudate of this 
and other species is gum acacia or gum Arabic; Acacia, U. S. 
P., Acaciae Gummi, Br., Gummi arabicum, Gummi mimosae, 
P. G. ; Ger. Arabisches Gummi, Mimosen-gummi; Fr. Gomme 
arabique vraie ( Codex ) ; Sp. Goma arabiga. ^ Mucilaginous, 
demulcent. 

I. A. Sunin (Koxb. ) Kurz (Mimosa Sunia Eoxb., A. Catechu W. 

& A., not Willd. ). Southern India. Source of part of the 
Catechu of commerce. Other species of Acacia yielding gum are 
(m. ) A. Ehreubergidna Hayne, Arabia and upper Egypt, 
Seyah; (n. ) A. Seyal Delile (A. fistula Schweinf. ), Thii-sty 
Thorn and (o. ) A. tortilis Hayne called Seyal or Seyaleh. 
Commercial varieties of gum are Hashabi or Kordofan pum, 
Sennaar or Sennari gum, Gedda or Jidda gum and gum Tor 
or Turic, besides those already mentioned. The finest selected 
white gum is known as Turkey gum. 

8. ACAENA, L. - Acaena. - Rosaceae. 

Syn. Ancistrum, Forst. Herbs, some shrubby. About 40 
species. New World, especially S. America, to Australia; 1 in 
U. S. 

9. ACALYPHA, L. Three-seeded Mercury. Eupliorbiace*. 

Greek name of a Nettle. Syn. Cupameni, Adans. Herbs 
or shrubs. About 230 species, mostly tropical and sub-tropi- 
cal; 9 in U. S. 

a. A. Yirginica L. Ontario and eastern U. S. Mercury- weed, 
Virginia Three-seeded Mercury §. Plant reputed expectorant 
and diuretic. 

10. ACAMPTOPAPFUS, A. Gray. - - Compositie. 

From Greek, ''rigid pappus." Syn. Aplopappus, (Haplo- 
pappus) in part. Low desert shrubs. Two known species, 
both in southwestern U. S. 

II. ACANTH<iCHITON, Torr. Acanthochiton. Amaraiithaeeae. 

From Greek, "Thorny Cloak. " Dioecious herb, one species. 
Texas to Arizona. 

12. ACANTHOmInTHA, a. Gray. Acanthomintha. Labiatae. 

From Greek, "thorny Mint." Low annuals. Two knowa 
species. Pacific Coast, L. S. 

13. ACANTH6sCYPHUS, Small. - - Polygonaceae. 

From Greek, "thorny cup. 1 in U. S. 

14. ACANTHOSPERMUM. Schrank. - - Compositae. 

From Greek, "thorny seed." Syn. Centrospermum, H. B. 
K. DiflTuse annuals with bur-like fruit. About 5 species, tro- 
pical regions; 2 nat. in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 11 

16. ACInTHUS.L. - Acanthus. - Acaiithaccae. 

Ancient Greek name of any thorny or prickly plant, ap- 
plied later particularly to this genus. Kobust herbs with orna- 
mental foliage. About 15 species, Mediterranean region. 

a, A. mollis L. Southern Europe. Acanthus, Bran c-ursine, Bear* & 
breech, Culberdill||, Sedocke||. 

16. ACER, L. - Maple. - Aceraceae. [Sapindaceas.] 

The Latin name, from "pointed" lobes of the leaves. Syn. 
Negundo, in part. Trees and shrubs. About 100 species, 
North temperate zone; 15 in U. S. 

a. A. nigrum Michx. (A. saccharinum, var nigrum T. & Gr. ) 

Ontario to Alabama, west to Louisiana and Minnesota. Black 
Sugar Maple, Black Maple, Hard Maple. Sap rich in sugar. 

b. A. Negiindo L. (Negundo aceroides Moench, N. Negundo (L. ) 

Karst. ). Ontario to Mexico, but rare near Atlantic coast. 
Ash-leaved Maple, Box Elder, Cut-leaved or Red River Maple,. 
Black Ash*, Maple Ash, Water Ash, Sugar Maple*. 

c. A. Peunsylyaniciim L. (A. striatum Du Roi). Nova Scotia, 

south to Tennessee. Striped or Goose-foot Maple, Northern 
Maple, Moosewood, False or Striped Dogwood, Whistle-wood, 

d. A. Pseud 0- PI atamis L. Europe and western Asia, cult, in 

U. S. Sycamore Maple, SuccamoreJ, Spurious or Mock Plane- 
tree, Whistle- wood. 

e. A. rvibrum L. Canada to Florida and Texas. Red, Scarlet or 

Water Maple, Swamp Maple; White, Hard or Shoe-peg Maple, 
also Soft Maple^. 

f. A. saccharinum L. (A. dasycarpum Erhr., A. eriocarpum 

Michx. ). Canada to Florida, west to Indian Territory and Da- 
kota. Silver or Silver-leaf Maple, Soft or White Maple; Creek, 
River, Swamp or AVater Maple, Red Maple*. Sap yields com- 
paratively little sugar. 

g. A. Sdcchfirum Marsh (A. saccharinum Wang, not L., A. bar- 

batum Michx. ). Canada to Florida, west to Texas and Nebras- 
ka. Sugar Maple, Rock Maple, Sugar Tree, Black Maple. 
Sop the source of most of the maple sugar, 

h. A. spicatum Lam, (A. montanum Ait.). Canada to N. Caro- 
lina, west to Minnesota. Mountain Maple; Low, Moose, Swamp 
or Water Maple. 

17. ACERATES, Ell. 1817. Milk-weed*. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "hornless," of the corona. Syn. Polyotus, 
Nutt., 1835., Asclepias in part. Milky perennial herbs, resemb- 
ling Asclepias. Seven species. North America; 5 in U. S. 

18. ACHILLEjV. L. - Yarrow, Milfoil. - Compositae. 

Greek name, the plant with which '* Achilles" healed Tele- 
phus. Herbs, mostly perennial, with numerous small flower- 
heads. About 75 species, mostly of Old World; 3 nat. in V. S. 



12 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. A. Millefolium L. Europeand Asia, naturalized in U. S. Yar- 

row, (Yarroway, Yerrow) Milfoil, Tiiousand-leaf, Thousand- 
leaved Clover, Green-arrow, CamilJ, Cainmock*, Dog-daisy 
(xordolobo, Nosebleed, Bloodwort, Carpenter' s-grass, Sanguinary, 
Soldiers' Woundwort, Old-man's-pepper, Tansyj; Ger. Schaf- 
garbe, Schafgrippe, Gachelkraut, Feldgarbe; Fr. Millefeuille, 
Herbe aux Charpentiers. The jiowerimj plant or floiveis, Sum- 
mitates (Flores) millefolii s. Aeliillese. Stiniulant tonic, 
vulnerary, astringent, diuretic. 

b. A. moschata, Jacq. ( Ptarmica moschata DC.,) Switzerland. 

Iva; Ger. Iva, Genippkrauter; Fr. Genepi blanc. The plant, 
Herba ivae, H, genippi veri, stimulant, autispasmodic. 

c. A. iiobilis L. Central and Southern Europe. Noble Y'arrowj^ 

Ger Edelgarbe, Edelschafgarbe. Considered more active than 
common Yarrow. 

<1. A. Ptarmica Ij. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Sneezewort 
(Neesewort), White Tansy, Sneezewort Yarrow or Tansy, Goose- 
tongue; Wild, European or Bastard Pellitory, Fair-maid-of- 
France, Seven-yeays-love; Ger. Bertramgarbe, Bf-rtramskraut; 
Fr. Herbe a Eternuer. Moot sternutatory, acrid, sialagogue. 
[Other European sppcies used like A. Millefolium are (e. ) A. 
ageratum L., Maudlin Tansy, (f. ) A. atrata L., Iva, (g. ) 
A. nana L., Dwarf Iva.] 

19. ACHLYS, DC. - Achlys. - Berberidaceie. 

From Greek, "mist." Scapose herbs. Two known species, 
one in Japan; 1 in U. S. 

20. ACHRAS. L. - - Sapodilla. - - Sapotaceae. 

Greek name of a wild Pear. A tree. One species -pnly. 

a. A. Sapota L. (Sapota Achras Mill. ) Tropical America. Sapo- 
dilla, Sapodilla Plum, Naseberry. Bark, (Jamaica bark,) 
astringent, febrifuge. Seeds aperient, diuretic. The tree is said 
to jneld also chicle gum. See Mimusops. 

21. ACHROANTHES, Raf. 1808. Adder' s-mouth. Orcliidaceae. 

From Greek "green flowered." Syn. Microstylis, Nutt, 
1818. Low perennials with racemes of small flowers. About 
40 species; 4 in XJ. S. 

22. ACHYRACHAENA. Schauer. Achyrachaena. Compositae. 

From Greek, "chaffy fruited." Annual herb, the rather 
large heads nearly rayless. One species, California. 

23. ACLEISANTHUS, A. Gray. Acleisanthus. Nyctaginacea). 

From Greek, with "flowers not enclosed." Herbs, some 

shrubby. About 6 ipecies, warmer region N. America; 5 in 

southwestern l^. S. 

/ 

24. ACNIDA, L. - Water-hemp. - Amaranthaceae. 

From Greek, "stingless." Syn. Amaranthus, in part. An- 
nual herbs resembling Amaranth. About 5 species, all of 
Eastern N. America and West Indies. 



SCIENTIFIC AX1> rOPULAR. lo 

25. A.CONiTl]M,Tv. Monkshood, AVolfsbane,etc. Raniiuculaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Ornamental, but poisonous peren- 
nial herbs resembling Delphinium. About 18 species, moun- 
tainous regions of north temperate zone; 7 in U. S. 

a. A. Anthora Lin. Europe. Yellow Helmet-flower. Hoot bit- 

ter, tonic. 

b. A. Cllineiise Siebold and ( c. ) A. Japoiiicuiu Thuuberg, yield 

respectively the Chinese and Japanese Aconite roots, (d. ) A. 
FischerLKeich. of Japan is, however, more active than either 
of these. 

e. A. ferox Wallich (A. virosum Don). Himalaya mountains. 

Indian Aconite, Bish, Bishma, Bikh-root; Fr. Aconit feroce 
(Codex ). Root even more active than that of (i. ) 

f. A. heterophylluiu Wallich. Himalaya mountains. Atis. Root 

tonic,^ febrifuge, not acrid. 

g. A. Lycoctoniini L. Europe. Great Yellow Wolfsbane, Bad- 

gei-'s-bane, Bear's-bane, Hare's-bane, Beast-bane. Leaves used 
as a pot herb in Lapland. 

h. A. palmatum Don. India. Px^oot, called Bishma or Bikhma, 
bitter, not acrid. 

r. A. Napellus L. ( A. variabile Hayne, A. vulgare DC). Moun 
tains of Europe and Asia. Aconite, Monkshood, Monkeyt, 
Wolfsbane^ Friars'-cap, Friars' -cowl, Cuckoo's-cap, Face-in-hood , 
Jacob' s-chariot, Blue-rocket, 01d-wives-mutches||, IMousebane, 
Wolfroot; Ger. Eisenhut, Sturmhut;Fr. Aconit ^Slapel (Codex). 
The tuberous root, Aconitum, U. S. P., Aconiti radix Br., Tubera 
aconiti, P. G. Arterial and nervous sedative, anodyne. The 
principal alkaloid, aconitine, is one of the most active poisons 
known. Leaves, Aconiti folia, Br., much inferior in activity to 
the tubers. 

j. A. reclinatum A. Gray. Virginia to Georgia. Trailing Wolfs- 
bane or Monkshood. 

k. A. uncinatum L. Pennsylvania to Georgia, west to \\'isconsin. 
Wild Monkshood or Wolfsbane. 

26. ACORUS, L. - Sweet Flag. - Araceae. 

The Greek name. Reed-like plants with thick root-stocks. 
Only 2 species, 1 of Japan, the other of north temperate zone. 

a. A. CaLanms L. Europe, Asia and K. America. Sweet Flag, 
Calamus, Calmus (New Jersev), Sweet Cane, Sweet Grass, Sweet 
Mvrtle, Sweet Push, Sweet 'Sedge, Sweet Segg, Sweet root. 
Cinnamon Sedge, Mvrtle Flag, Myrtle Grass, Myrtle Sedge, 
Beewort;Ger. Kalmus; Fr. Acorevrai, (Codex), Acoreodorant; 
Sp. Ital. Calamo aromatico. The Rhizome, Calamus, V. S. P.; 
Rhizoma Calami, P. G., Radix acori, Rad. calami aromatici. 
Aromatic, stimulant, carminative. 



14 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

27. ACROSTICHUM, L. Acrostichum. Polypodiaceae. 

From Greek, meaning not evident. Syn. Chrysodium, in 
part. A large evergreen fern. One species. Mai-shes in tro- 
pical regions (Florida). 

28. ACTAEA. L. Baneberry, Cohosh. Raimiicnlaceae. 

Greek name of the Eldei*. Perennial herbs with compound 
leaves. Four species, north temperate zone; 3 in U. S. 

n. A. dlba ( L. ) Mill. (A. spicata var. alba L. ). British America, 
south to Georgia and Missouri. White Cohosh, "White Bane- 
berry, Herb Christopher, Kattlesnake-herb, Xecklace-weed, 
Blue Cohosh, White-beads, White Grapewort, White-berry, 
Snakeroot*. Rhizome of this and the two following species acrid, 
eraeto-cathartic, parasiticide. 

b. A. riibra ( Ait. ) Willd. ( A. spicata var. rubra Ait. ) Canada and 

northeastern U. S. Ked Cohosh, Eed Bane-berry, Coral-and- 
pearl. Poison-berry, Red-berry, Red-berry Snakeroot, Snake- 
berry, Toad-root, Herb Christopher, Rattlesnake-herb. 

c. A. spicata L. Europe and Asia. Baneberry, Herb Christoph- 

er, Grapewort, Rattlesnake-herb, Scalbegres|| ; Ger. Christophs- 
wurz, Wolfswurz; Fr. Racine de Saint Christophe. 

29. AdTINOLEPIS, A. Gray. Actinolepis. Coui posit*. 

From Greek, "ray scale." Syn. Eriophyllum, in part. 
Low winter-annuals. Five known species, all of California. 

30. ACTINOSPERMUM, Ell. 1824. Actinospermura. Compositae 

From Greek, "ray seed." Syn. Baldwina, jSTutt. 1818 [not 
Baldwinia, Raf. 1818, although this name lias been commonly 
applied. ] Annual or perennial herbs with large yellow-rayed 
flower heads. Two species, both of southeastern U. S. 

;]1. ACUAN, Med. Theod., 1786. Mimosa. Miuiosacea?. 

Vernacular name. Syn. Desmanthus, Willd. 1806 and Dar- 

lingtonia, DC. 1825. Perennial herbs or Mimosa-like shrubs. 

About 12 species, all but one of New World; 10 of Mexican 

border, U. S. 

32. ADANS6nIA, L. Baobab, etc. Boinbacete (Malvace*). 

Named for Michal Adanson, French naturalist, d. 1806. 
Syn. Baobab, Adans., Ophelus, Lour. Trees. Three known 
species, Old World. 

a. A. digitdta L. Tropical Africa, nat. in East and West Indies. 
Baobab, Calabash-tree, African Cream-of-tartar tree, Ethio- 
pian Sour-gourd tree. Fruit, Monkey-bread, Bread-nut, Sour 
-gourd; Ger. Afienbrod; Fr. Pain des Singes. Acidulous, re- 
frigerant as in the following species. Bark reputed febrifuge. 

\\ A. Gre^orii F. Muell. Australia. Gouty-stem tree, Austral- 
ian Baobab or Sour-gourd tree. 

<•. A. Mada^ascariensis Bail. Madagascar. Fruit is cilled Cream- 
of-tartar fruit. 



scientific; and Purui.AK. 1") 

33. ACi'NTHA, Medic, 1786. Bowstring Hemp. Haeiiiodoraceae 
Syn. iSansevieria, ( Kew. ) Thunb. 1794 (Sansiviera). Herba- 
ceous plants, the leaves yielding a hemp-like fibre. About ]2 
species, East Indies and Africa. 

a. A. Rox})uri*:Iiiaiia (Schult. ) Lyons (Sansevieria Roxburghiana 
Schult. ) India. Moorva, Marool, Bow-string Hemp. 

U, ADELFA, r. Br. 1756. - Adelia. - Oleaceae. 

From Greek, "inconspicuous". Syn. Forestiera, Poir. 1811. 

Shrubs or small trees. About 15 species, new world; 9 in U. S. 

3.>. ADENAiNTHERA, L. Red Sandalwoodf , etc. Papiliouaceae. 

From Greek, "gland-anthered. " Syn. Stachychiysum, 
Trees or shrubs. About 5 species, tropical regions. Old World. 



a. 



A. payoniiia L. East Indies. False Red Sandalwood. Scarlet 
seeds used as weisrhts, like those of Abrus. 



3(>. ADENOCAULON, Hook. Adenocaulon, Compositae. 

From Greek, "gland-stem". Perennial herbs with small 
heads of tubular flowers. Three specios, one each of Asia, S. 
America and N. America (U. S. ) 

37. ADEN0STE(H.4, Benth. Adenostegia. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Greek, "gland sheath." Syn. Cordylanthus, in part. 
annual herbs. About 16 species, Pacific coast, U. S. 

38. ADEN6ST0MA, Hook and Arn. Adenostoma. Rosaceae. 

From Greek, "gland mouth." Unarmed evergreen shrubs 
with small flowers in panicled racemes. Two species, Pacific 
border U. S. 

39. ADHATODA, Xees. Malabar-nut. Acaiithaceae. 

From vernacular, Malabar. Syn. Davernoya, E. Meyer, 
Justicia in part. Shrubs. About 6 species, tropical regions. 

a. A. Adhiitoda (L. ) Lyons (Justicia Adhatoda L., A. vasica 

Xees. ) India. Malabar nut. Fruit, also leaves and roof, anti- 
spasmodic, febrifuge, ecbolic. 

40. ADIANTUM, L. - Maidenhair. - Polypodiaceae. 

The (ireek name, "incapable of being wet." Delicate ferns. 
80 or 90 species, mostly of tropical America; 5 in U. S. 

ii. A. Capillus-Yoneris L. Warm parts of U. S. and of both hemi- 
spheres. Venus'-hair, Maidenhair, European Maidenhair 
Black Maidenhair (tree), Lady's-hair, Dudder-grass, (xer. 
Frauen-haar, Venushaar; Fr. Capillairede Montpelier (Codex); 
Sp. Culantrillo. Plant slightly astringent, expectorant. 

b. A. peddtlim L. Canada and Northern U. S., also Alaska and 

western Asia. Maidenhair, American Maidenhair, Hair Fern, 
Rock Fern; Ger. Nordamerikanisches Frauenhaar; Fr. Capil- 
laire du Canada (Codex). Properties of (a). Other species 
indigenous to those regions are employed similarly in Mexico 
and S. America. 



16 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

41. ADICEA, Raf. 1815. Clearweed, Cool weed, etc. Urticaceae. 

Name unexplained. Syn. Pilea, Lindl. 1821. Annual or 
perennial stingless herbs. About 150 species, chiefly tropical; 
2 in U. S. 

a. A. pumila(L. ) Raf. (Pilea pumila A. Gray). Canada and 
Eastern U. S. Clearweed, Coolweed, Richweed, Stingless 
Nettle. 

42. ADLTJMIA, Raf. Climbing Fumitory. Papaveraceae. 

Named for John Adlum, gardener, of Washington. A deli- 
cate climber, one species only. 

a. A. fimg-osa (Ait. ) Greene (Fumaria fungosa Ait., A. oirrhosa 
Raf. ) Canada and N. Carolina, west to Kansas. Climbing 
Fumitory, Mountain-fringe, Wood-fringe, AUeghany-fringe, 
Alleghany-vine, Canary-vine, Cypress-vine, Fairy-creeper. 

43. ADOLPHfA, ^Meissn. - Adolphia. - Rhamnaceae. 

Syn. Ceanothus, Colletia, Colubrina, in part. Shrubs allied 
to Colubrina. Two known species. Southwestern U. S. 

44. AD6NIS, L. Pheasant' s-eye. Raiuinciilaceae. 

The Greek name; plant fabled to have sprung from the blood 
of Adonis. Ornamental annual or perennial herbs. About 6 
species, temperate Asia and Europe; 1 nat. U. S. Syn.; Ger. 
Adonisroschen; Fr. Adonide. 

a. A. aestvalis L. Europe and Asia, Summer Pheasant' s-eye. 

b. A. aninia L. 1753 (A. autumnalis L. 1763.) Southern Europe. 

Cult, in gardens and adv. U. S. Corn Pheasant' s-eye, Red 
Morocco, Red Mathas, Adonis-flower, Bird's-eye, Purple or 
Red Camomile, Love-lies-bleeding*, Passeflower; Fr. Rose k 
rubie. 

c. A. veriialis L. Europe and Asia, Vernal Pheasant' s-eye. False 

Hellebore, Bird's-eye, Ox-eye. The Herb, as of preceding- 
species, is a cardiac tonic resembling digitalis in action. 

45. AD0F(3G0N, Neck. 1790. Dwarf Dandelion, Goat's-beard. 

Cichoreaceae. 

From Greek, "handsome beard." Syn. Krigia, Schreb. 
1791, also Cynthia, Ilyposeris, in part. Dandelion-like an- 
nuals or perennials. Five species, all of U. S. 

46. A1)6XA, L. Musk-root, Moschatel. Adoxaceae. 

From Greek, "without glory." Herb with tuberous root, 
one species. 

a. A. moscliatellina L. Arctic Europe Asia and N. America (U. 
S. ) Musk-root, Moschatel. Other names are Hollow-root, 
Musk, Musk Crowfoot, Musk Wood-Crowfoot, Bulbous Fumi- 
tory, Gloryless. 

47. AEGLE, Correa. Bengal Quince. Iliitaceae. 

Name from Greek mythology, one of the Hesperides. 

Thorny aromatic trees. About 4 species, tropical Asia and 
Africa. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 17 

a. A. Milrmelos (L. ) Correa (Crataeva Marmelos L,, C. religiosa 
Ainsl., Feronia pellucida Roth. ) India. Indian Bael (Bhel, 
Bel), Bengal Quince, Golden Apple; (xer. Bengalische Qiiitte; 
Fr. Coing du Bengale. The dried half-ripe fruit, Belae fructus, 
Br., astringent. 

48. AEG0p6dIUM, L. Gout-weed. Umbelliferae. 

The Greek name, "goat's foot." One or two species, natives 
of Europe and Asia. 

a. A. Poda^raria L. Europe, adv. in northeastern U. S. Gout- 
weed, Goutwort, Goat-weed, Herb Gerard, Wild or English 
Masterwort, Ax- weed. Ash-weed, White-ash herb, Ground Ash, 
Aiseweed, Dwarf or Bishop's Elder, Dog Elder, Bishop' s-weed. 
Garden-plague, Wild Alderf, Jack-jump-about. Plant reputed 
antiscorbutic and diuretic. 

49. AESCHYN(3mENE, L. Joint- Vetch. Papilioiiaceae . 

From Greek, ' 'ashamed,' ' from sensitiveness of leaves. Syn. 
Hedysarum, in part. Herbs or shrubs with yellow flowers. 
About 55 species, warm regions; 2 in U. S. 

50. AESCULUS, L. - Horse-Chestnut. - Hippocastanaceae. 

Latin name of Italian Oak. Syn. Hippocastanum. Trees or 
shrubs with digitate leaves. About 15 species, America and 
Asia; 7 in U. S. 

a. A. glabra Willd. Michigan to Alabama, west to Indian Terri- 

tory. Ohio Buckeye, Fetid Buckeye, American Horse-Chest- 
nut. Wood used for artificial limbs, etc. 

b. A. Hippocdstanum L. (H. vulgare Gaertn. ). Asia, nat. and 

cult, in Europe and U. S. Horse-Chestnut, Bongay, Konker- 
tree; Ger. Eosskastanie; Fr. Chataignier d' Inde; Sp. Castano 
de Indias. Bark, Cortex hippocastani, Cort. castaneae equinse; 
Tonic, antiperiodic, antiseptic. Seedf^ (called by children con- 
querors, konkers or oblionkers) sternutatory, reputed narco- 
tic. 

e. A. ocMndra Marsh. (A. lutea Wang., A. flava Ait. ). Penns^^d- 
vania to Georgia, west to Texas and Iowa. Yellow or I^arge 
Buckeye, Sweet or Big Buckeye. 

d. A. Pdvia L. Southeastern U. S. Red or Little Buckeye, Red- 
flowered Buckeye, Fish-poison. 

61. AETHUSA, L. - Fool's Parsley. - Umbelliferae. 

Greek name, "burning," of the taste. Annual herb resemb- 
ling Conium, a single species. 

a. A. Cyndpium L. Europe and^ Asia, adv. in U. S. Fool's 
Parsley, Ass-parsley, False or* Dog's Parsley, Fool's Cicely, 
Dill* Dog-poison, Small or Lesser Hemlock; Ger. Hunds- 
petersilie, Gartenschierling; Fr. ;6timse. Petite cigue, Ache 
des chiens. Plant not poisonous, as reputed. 



18 PLANT NAME? AND SYNONYMS 

52. AFZELIl, J. G. Gniel. 1796. Afzelia. Seroplmlariaceip. 

Named for Adam Afzelius, Swedish botanist, d. 1812. Svn. 
Seymeria, Pursh 1814, Gerardia, in part. Stout, yellow-flower- 
ed herbs. About 10 species, X. America and Madagascar; 6 
in U. S. 

a. A. niacropliylla (Xutt. ) Kze. East central U. S. Mullen 
Foxglove. 

53. AGARICUS, L. Mushroom, Toadstool. Hymenomyceteji. 

Syn. Toad's- cap, Toad"s-hat, Toad's-meat, Frog-stool. The 
name Toadstool applies properly to fungi of this genus, but is ^ 
popularly extended to poisonous fungi generally. The genus 
includes many species of edible Mushrooms. 

a. A. eampestris L. Cosmopolitan. Mushroom, (Masheroom) 
Edible Mushroom, Kedgup Mushroom, Button Mushroom. 
To this and other species, are given the names Fairies' -table, 
Pisky-stool, White-caps. Fungus esculent. 

54. AGASTACHE, Clayt. 1762. "^ Giant Hyssop. LaWatae. 

From Greek, "many-spiked". Syn. Vleckia, Eaf. 1808, 
Lophanthus, Benth. 1829 [not Adans'. 1763.] Tall perennial 
herbs. Four species, all of U. S. 

a. A. aiiethiodora (Nutt. ) Brit. (Lophanthus anisatus Benth.. 
Hyssopus anethiodorus Xiitt. ) Illinois to Nebraska and north- 
ward. Fragrant Giant Hyssop. Anise Hyssop. 

55. AItATHIS, Salisb. 1807. - Wax Pine. - Pinaoeae. 

Syn. Daramara, Lam. 1786, but] this name is otherwise ap- 
plied. Large trees with leathery leaves. About 10 species, 
East Indies to New Zealand. 

a. A. anstralis (Lamb. ) Steud. (Dammara australis Lamb. ). New 

Zealand. Kauri Pine. Source of Kauri i-esin.y'Sew Zealand or 
Kauri Copal, Kauri gum). A magnificent tree furnishing ex- 
ceedingly valuable timber. 

b. A. lorfinthifolia Salisb. (A. Dammara Rich., Dammara alba 

Eumph. , D. orientalis Lamb.). East Indies. Amboyna Pine, 
Dammar tree, Agath Dammar. Hesinous exudate, Dammara 
resin ( Damar resin, Damar gum), which is obtained also from 
<c. ) A. orata (C. Moore) Lyons, (D. ovata C. Moore) of New 
Caledonia and (d.) A. robusta (C. Moore) Lyons, (D. robusta 
C.Moore) of Queensland. 

56. AO.iTE, L. Agave, False Aloe. Amaryllidaeeae. 

From Greek, "noble." Herbs with fleshy radical leaves and 
tall scapes. About 140 species, all American; 18 in L. S. 

a. A. Americana L. Tropical America. American Aloe, Cen- 

tury-plant. Fresh juice saccharine, laxative, antiscorbutic. 

b. A. ixtli Karw. Yucatan, 'cult, in tropical countries. Sisal 

-hemp plant; Chelem, or Sacci of the Mexicans. Fibre of this 
and of other large species, a substitute for hemp, called Sisal 
-hemp, henequen or henequin. 



.SCIENTIFIC AND I'OPULAR. 19 

c. A. Mexicaiia Lam. Mexico. Maguey plant. This and perhaps 

other species, yield the Mexican pulque, which is simply the 
fermented juice, and mezcal, distilled from the same. 

d. A. Yirginica L. Southern U. S., FaLse Aloe, Rattlesnake's 

Master, Virginian Agave. Hoot bitter, carminative. 

57. AG^RATUM, L. - Ageratum. - Compositae. 

Greek name of an aromatic plant, "not growing old.' " Syn. 
CoelesLina, in part. Herbs with numerous small flower-heads. 
About 40 species, America, chiefly tropical; 3 in U. S. 

a. A. conyzoides L. (A. Mexicanum Hort. ). Tropical America 
and cult, for ornament. Generally known as Ageratum, 

58. AGOSERIS, Raf. 1817. False Dandelion, etc. Cichoriaoeae. 

From Greek, "head Succory." Syn. Troximon, Nutt. 1813 
[not Gsertn. 1791]. Herbs mostly with radical leaves and 
dandelion-like flowers. About 25 species, N. and S. America, 
23 in U. S. 

59. AGRDI6nIA, L. - Agrimony. - Rosaeeae. 

The Latin name, perhaps transposed from Argemone. 
Perennial herbs sv^ith pinnate leaves and racemes of small yel- 
low flowers. About 15 species, north temperate zone and 
Andes; 7 in U. S. 

a. A. Eupatoria L. Europe. Agrimony (Egremoine, Egra- 

mounde, Hemony) European Agrimony, Cockle-bur*, Clive[{, 
<iarclive||, Goosechitejl, Feverfewf, Harvest-lice, Liverwort* . 
Stickwort, White or Wild Tansy*; Ger. I>eberklette, Oder- 
mennig, Heil-aller-Welt; Fr. Aigrimoine (Codex), Eupatoire 
des Grecs. The fiouering herb, H. agrimoniae, H. lappulte 
hepatica\ Astringent, antiscorbutic, taenicide. 

b. A. hirsuta (Muhl. ) Bicknell (A. Eupatoria var. hirsutaMuhl. ). 

Canada and Northeastern L^. S., also California. Tall Hairy 
Agrimony^., Beggarticks, Stick-seed, Stick-weed, Cockle-bur*. 
These names with synonyms of ( a. ) are applied also to other 
indigenous species, which have in general the properties of (a) 

m, AGROPYRON, J. Gaertn. Wheat Grass. Graniineae. 

From Greek, "field wheat." Svn. Triticum, in part. About 
32 species; 22 in U. S. 

a. A. repeus (L, ) Beauv. (Triticum repensL. ). Europe, North- 
ern Asia, nat. in U. S. Couch-grass; Cooch-, Cutch- or Scutch 
-grass; Quitch-, Quick-, Twitch-, or Squ itch -grass, Couch 
Wheat, Sheep" s-cheese. Quickens, Wickens, Wick, Witch-grass; 
Ger. Queckenwurzel, Graswurzel; Fr. Chiendent officinal, 
Petit Chiendent ( Codex );Sp. Grama. The rhizome, Triticum, 
U. S. P., Rhizoma (Radix) graminis. Emollient, diuretic, 
lithontriptic, antiphlogistic. 

«1. AGR0STEM3IA, L. Corn Cockle. Caryopliyllaeeae. 

From Greek, "field garland." Coarse annual herbs with 
showy flowers. Two species, Europe and Asia. 



20 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. A. Gitlldgo L, (Lychnis Githago Lam. ). Europe, nat, in U. 8. 
Corn Cockle, Corn Campion, Corn Pink, Corn Eose, Mullen 
Pink, Old-maid's Pink, Crown-of-thc-iield. 

62. AILANTHUS, Desf. Tree-of-li«aven. Simarubaceae. 

From vernacular, Malacca, meaning "tree-of-heaven." 
Trees with pinnate leaves. Four species, China to Australia. 

a. A. excelsa Roxb. India. Bavk, bitter, tonic, febrifuge. 

b. A. glandulosaDesf. China, cult, in U.S. as a shade tree. Ailan- 

thus, Tree-of-heaven, Chinese Sumach, False Varnish-tree, 
Devil's- walkingstick, Heavenward tree, Tree-of-t he-gods; Ger. 
Gotterbaum; Fr. Vernis de Japon. Bark (of tree and of root) 
bitter, stomachic, tonic, antidy sent eric, taenicide. 

c. A. Malabarica DC. East Indies. Gum resin used as incense and 

as a remedy for dysentery. 

63. AJUGA, L. - Bugle, Ground-Pine*. - Labiatae. 

Syn. Teucrium, in part. Annual or perennial herbs. About 
40 species, Old World; nat. in U. S. 

a. A. Chamaepitys (L. ) Schreb. (Teucrium Chamtepitys L. ). 

Europe. Ground-pine*, Field Cypress, Cypress:}:, Forget-me 
-not*, Ground Ivy; Ger. Giinsel, Feldcupresse; Fr. Ivette, 
Chamsepitys (Codex); Sp. Pinillo olorroso. The flowerimj tops 
aromatic, aperient, tonic. 

b. A. Iva ( L. ) Schreb. ( Teucrium Iva L. ) Europe. French 

Ground-pine, Herb-ivy, Herb-eve, Gout Ivy, Ground Ivy; Ger. 
Bisamgiinsel; Fr. Ivette musquee (Codex). Floiceriny tops 
aromatic, tonic, febrifuge. 

c. A. reptans L. Europe, nat. in eastern U. S. Bugle, Common 

or Brown Bugle, Carpenter-herb, Middle-comfrey, Middle 
-consound (i. e. consoUda or healing), Sicklewort, Dead-men "s 
-bellows, Helfringwort, Wild Mint; Ger. Goldner Giinsel; Fr. 
Bugle (Codex). Plant mildly astringent, vulnerary. 

d. A. pyramiddlis L. Europe. Mountain Bugle, Upright Bug- 

loss. Properties of (c. ) 

64. ALBIZZIA, Courdon. - Albizzia. - Mimosaceae. 

Name from Albizzi, a noble family of Tuscany. Syn. Be- 
senna. Acacia, in part. Trees and shrubs, natives of tropical 
Asia and Africa. 

a. A. anthelmiutica (Baill. ) Courd. (Acacia anfehelraintica Baill., 
Besenna anthelmiutica E,ich. ). Abyssinia. Mesenna, (Mu- 
senna, Mussena), Busenna, Bisinna; Fr. Moussena. Boussena 
( Codex ) . Bark taenicide. 

65. ALCHEMILLA, L. - Lady's-mantle. - Rosaceae. 

Name of uncertain origin, probably "alchemist's" plant. 
Herbs with small greenish flowers. About 35 species, Old 
World and Western America; 3 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 21 

a. A. arvensis (L. ) Scop. (Aphanes arvensis L. ). Europe, nat. 

in U. S. Parsley- pie rt, Field Lady' s-mantle, Bowel-hive, 
Colicwort, Argentill, Breakstone, Parsley-breakstone, Pars- 
ley- vlix, Fire-grass; Fr. Perce-pierre, Petit pied-de-lion des 
champs. Plant formerly used in strangury. 

b. A. vulgaris L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Lady's-raantle, Ladies'- 

mantle. Dew-cup, Bear's-foot, Duck's-foot, Lamb's-foot, Lion's- 
foot (Padelion, Pedelyon), Great Sanicle, Syndaw; Ger. Helft, 
Frauenmantel; Fr. Alchemille. 

66. ALCH6RNEA, Swz. Alcornoque. Eiiphorbiaceae. 

Trees or shrubs. About 30 species, warmer regions of both 
hemispheres. 

a. A. latifolia Swz. South America and West Indies. Alcorno- 
que. Bark bitter, tonic. 

67. ALETES, Coult. & Rose. - - Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "miller". Herb. One species, western U. S. 

68. IlETRIS, L. Stargrass, etc. Liliaceae (Haemodoraceae). 

From Greek, "miller," alluding to mealy pubescence. 
Perennial scapose herbs with racemes of small flowers. About 
8 species, eastern N. America and Asia; 2 in U. S. 

a, A. farinosa L. Ontario and eastern U.S. Unicorn-root, Colic- 
root, True Unicorn-root, Unicorn-plant, Unicorn' s-horn. Mealy 
Starwort, Starwort, Star-grass, False 3tar-grass, Star-root, 
Blazing-star*, Ague-grass, Ague-root, Aloe-root, Crow-corn, 
Pevil's-bit*, Huskwort; Ger. Einhornwurzel, Mehlige Aletris; 
Fr. Aletris farineux. Rhizome bitter, tonic, stomachic. 

69. ALEURITES, Forst. Candlenut, etc. Eiiphorbiaceae. 

From Greek, "mealy," alluding to the scurfy pubescence. 
Trees. About 5 species, tropical regions of Old World and 
Oceanica, See also Croton. 

a. A. Moluccana (L.) Willd. (Jatropha Moluccana L., A. tri- 
loba Forst. , Juglans ( 'amirum Lour. ). East Indies and Islands 
of the Pacific. Candlenut, Indian or Tahiti Walnut, Belgaum 
or Country Walnut, Spanish Walnut, Lumbang-nut, Kukui of 
Hawaiian Islands; Ger. Kerzennussbaum, Firnissbaum. Ker- 
nels yield a drying oil, Kekune oil, Lumbang oil. Artists' oil- 

70. ALHAGI, Forst. Persian Manna-tree. Papilionaceae. 

The Arabic name of the plant. Spiny shrubs, perhaps only 
one species, Mediterranean basin to India, Manna of Sinai. 

a. A. camelorum Fisher. Western Asia. Persian Manna tree. 
The saccharine exudate is Persian Manna. 

71. ALIGERA, Suksdorf. - Aligera. - Yaleriaiiaceae. 

From Latin, "winged". Syn. Valerianella, in part. Herbs, 
eight species in western U. S. 



22 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

72. ALISMA, L. - Water Plantain. - Alismaceae. 

From Greek, "salt loving". Aquatic or marsh herbs. 
About 10 species, 2 in U. S. 

a. A. Plaiitago-aqiiatica L. Europe, Asia and N. America. 
Water Plantain, Mad-dog weed, Deil's-spoons, Great Thrum- 
wort; Ger. FroschloHel, Wasserwegerich; Fr. Plantain d' eau, 
Pain de grenouilles. Leaves acrid, counter-irritant, reputed 
vulnerary and lithontriptic. 

73. ALKANNA, Tausch. - Alkanet. - Boragiiiaceae. 

J«Jame Arabic, the same word as Henna. Syn. Anchusa, in 
part. Perennial herbs. About 40 species, Mediterranean re- 
gion. 

a. A. linctoria (L. ) Tausch. (Anchusa tinctoria L. ). Western 
Asia and southeastern Europe. Alkanet. Orcanette, Dyer's 
Alkanet, Anchusa, Spanish Bugloss; Ger. Alkannawurzel, An- 
ker wurzel; Fr. Orcanette (Codex). Boot, Radix alkannie 
(spuriee), yields a red dye. 

74. ALLIARIA, Adans. - Hedge Garlic. - Criiclferae. 

From Latin, "garlicy". Syn. Erysimum, Sisymbrium, in 
part. White-flowered biennial or perennial herbs. About 5 
species, Europe and Asia; 1 nat. in U. S. 

a. A. Alli^ria (L. ) Brit. (Erysimum Alliaria L., Sisymbrium 
Alharia Scop., Alliaria officinalis Andrz, ). Europe and north- 
ern Asia, nat. in U. S. Hedge Garlic, Garlic Mustard, Garlic 
wort, CardiackeJ, English Treacle, (i. e. Theriac), Poor-man's- 
treacle, Poor-man's-mustard, Leek Cress, Jack-by-the-hedge, 
Penny-hedge, Sauce-alone, Swarms; Ger. Knoblauchkraut; Fr. 
Alliaire Commune. Plant antiscorbutic. 

76. ALLIONLA, Loefl. 1758. Umbrella-wort. Nycta^inaceae. 

Named for C. Allioni, Italian botanist, d. 1804. Syn. Oxy- 
baphus, L'Her. 1797. Herbs. About 20 species, mostly 
American; 9 in U. S. 

A. hirsiita Pursh (O. hirsutus Choisy). Texas to Minnesota 
and northward. Hairy Umbrella- wort^. Musk. 

76. ALLIUM, L. Onion, Leek, Garlic, etc. Liliaceae. 

Latin name of (^arlic. Bulbous h^rbs with intolerable odor 
(alliaceous). About 275 species; 59 in U. S. Medicinal pro- 
perties of all species similar to those of (e). 

a. A. Ascaloniciim L. Commonly cultivated. Shallot, Scallion^ 

Cibol; Ger. Schallotte; Fr. i^chalote. Bulb esculent. 

b. A. Caiiadense L. Eastern U. S. Meadow Garlic, Wild Garlic. 

c. A. Cepa L. L^niversally cultivated. Onion; Ger. Zwiebel, 

Zipolle, Bolle; Fr, Oignon Commun (Codex). Bulb esculent. 

d. A. Porrum L. Commonly cultivated. Leek, French Leek, 

OUick, Scallion*; Ger. Lauch; Fr. Porreau. 



a. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 23 

e. A. satlYiim L. (Porrum sativum (L. ) Keich. ) Commonly culti- 

vated. Garlic (Garlete), Clown's treacle, Poor-man's treacle 
{treaele, an antidote to venemous bites, the same as theriac)', 
Ger. Knoblauch, Gartenlauch; Fr. Ail (Codex). Bulb, 
Allium U. S. P.. Bulbus Allii, Radix allii sativi. Esculent, 
antispasmodic, diuretic, emollient, anthelmintic. 

f. A. Sclioeiioprasiim L. Northern U. S., Europe and Asia, also 

commonly cult. Chives (Cives, Civet, Sithes, Siethes, Syves, 
Sweth), Kush Garlic, Clive (jarlic. Shore Onion; Ger. Schnitt- 
lauch; Fr. Civette. Leaves used in salads, etc. 

g. A. trieocciim Ait. Canada to N. Carolina, west to Minnesota. 

AVild Leek, Three-seeded Leek§. 

h. A. iirsiniim L. Europe. Bear's Garlic, Ramsons (originally 
Ram's-horns) Ramps, (Ramsden, Rams, Roms) Buckrams, 
Devil' s-posy, Hog's-garlic, Wild Leek, Gypsy Onions. 

i. A. Victorialis L. Central Europe and Asia. Allerman's-root; 
Ger. Allermannsharnisch (langer). Bulb, Bulbus victorialis 
(longus), antispasmodic. 

j. A. viiieale L. Europe, nat. in eastern U. S. Wild Garlic, 
Field Garlic, Crow Garlic, Cow Garlic, Crow Onion. 

77. ALLOCARYA, Greene. Allocarya. Boragiijacoae, 

From Greek, ''different nuts." Syn. Krynitzkia, Eritri- 
chium, in part. Insignificant annuals. About 27 species in 
western U. S. 

78. ALL(3tR0PA, Gray. Allotropa. Monotropaceae. 

From Greek, "diversely turned'', (compare Monotropa). 
A leafless parasite. One species, California. 

79. ALNUS, Gaertn. - Alder. - Betulaceae. 

The Latin name, from Celtic. Syn. Betula, in part. Trees 
or shrubs. About 15 species, northern hemisphere and Andes; 
10 in U. S. 

a. A. glutinosa (L. ) Medic. (B. Alnus var. glutinosa L. ) 

Europe and Northern Asia. European Alder (Aller, Eller, 
Aul, Owler, Howler, HoUard, Orl), Dog-tree (North England), 
Black Alder, Irish Mahogany; Ger. Erlenbaum, Schwarzerle, 
Eller; Fr. Aune noir; Sp. Aile. Bark astringent, febrifuge. 

b. A. rngosa (Du Roi) K. Koch. (A. serrulata Willd. ). Eastern 

U. S. Tag-alder, Smooth Alder, Green or Common Alder, 
American Alder, Red or Speckled Alder. Bark alterative, 
emetic, astringent. 

80. ALOE, L. - Aloe. - Liliaceae. 

The Greek name. Scapose herbs. About 60 species, war- 
mer regions, especially of Africa. 



24 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. A. Abyssinica Lam. 'Northeastern Africa. The probable 

source of Jafierabad Aloes. 

b. A. ferox Mill. South Africa. Inspissated juice of the leaves of 

this, also of (g) and (k), Cape Aloes, Alee Capensis. U. S. 
P., 1870, Aloe, P. G., Aloe lucida; Fr. Aloes du Cap (Codex, 
in which, however, this species is marked with an interroga- 
tion point). Other South African species from which Aloes is 
derived are (c) A. Africana Mill. (P. G. and Codex), (d) A. 
arboresceus Mill., (e) A. Commelyni Willd., (f) A. lingriii- 
forniis L. (Codex), (g) A. Ling'na Willd (Gasteria Lingua 
Link.), (h) A. perfoliata L. (Codex) and (i) A. purpuras- 
cens Haworth. Laxative, cathartic. 

j. A. Perryi Baker. Socotra. Source of Socotrine Aloes, Aloe 
Socotrina, IT. S. P., Br.; Ger. Aloe Sucotrina; Fr. Aloes Suco- 
trin. This has long been regarded as the best variety of Aloes 
but the yield of aloin is small. 

k. A. spicata L. South Africa. One of the chief sources of Cape 
Aloes (Codex). See (b). 

1. A. Sliccotrlna Lam. (A. vera Mill., Not L. Probably includes 
A. officinalis Forsk. and A. rubescens DC. ) . Eastern Africa. 
Source of the Moka and the common Socotrine Aloes (F. von 
Mueller). 

m. A. vera ( L. ) Webb. ( A. perfoliata var. vera L. , A. vulgaris 
Lam., A. Barbadensis Mill. Includes A. Indica Koyle and 
A. littoralis Koenig. ) India to northwestern Africa, nat. in 
West Indies. Source of Barbadoes Aloes, Hepatic Aloes and 
Curasao Aloes; Aloe Bartadense. U. S. P., Br.; Ger. Barbados 
Aloe, Curassao Aloe; Fr. Aloes des Barbades, de la Jamaique 
ou des Antilles (Codex), Aloes hepatique. Laxative, cathar- 
tic. 

81. AL6pHILA, B. & H. - Alophila. - Iridaceae. 

Herbs; 2 species in U. S. 

82. ALPINIA, L. - Galangal. - Zinglberaceae. 

Syn. Galanga, in part. Herbs from branching rhizomes, 
flowers ornamental. About 40 species, warmer regions of Asia 
to Australia. See Ksempferia, 

a. A. Oalansfal Willd (Galanga officinalis Salisb. ). Java. 

Greater Galangal. Properties of (b) but feebler. 

b. A. offlcinariim Hance. Southern China. Galangal, Smaller 

Galangal, Galangfale, Galanga, East India Catarrh-root, Chinese 
Ginger; Ger. Galgant; Fr. Galanga officinal, Galanga de la 
Chine (Codex). Rhizome, Rhizoma Galangae P. G., Radix 
galangae minoris; aromatic, carminative, stomachic. 



83. ALSiNE, L. 1753. Chiekweed, Starwort,etc. Caryophylh 
From Greek, * 'grove", indicating the habitat. Syn. S 



laceae. 

Stella- 
ria, L. 1753; Cerastium, in part. Small annual weeds. About 
75 species; 25 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 25 

a. A. aqudtica (L. ) Brit. (Cerastium aquaticutn L., Stellaria 

aquatica Scop. ) Europe, Adv. in U. S. Water Mouse-ear 
Chickweed, Water Chickweed. 

b. A. Holostea (L. ) Brit. Europe and northern Asia, adv. in 

U.S. Greater Stitch wort or Starwort, Adder' s-meat, All- 
bone, Easter-bell, Lady's-lint, Snake-grass, Snake-flower, 
Snap-jack, Snappers, Star-flower, Thunder-flower, White-bird. 

c. A. ni^dia L. (Stellaria media Cyr. ). Europe, northern Asia 

and N. America, and widely nat. Common Chickweed, Chick- 
enweed. Satin-flower, Tongue-grass, W^hite-bird, Winter-weed. 
Formerly reputed refrigerant, demulcent and alterative. 

d. A. pubera (Michx. ) Brit. (Stellaria pubera Michx.) Eastern 

U. S. ; Pennsylvania, southward. Great Chickweed, Star Chick- 
weed. 

84. ALS6fHILA, E. Br. Tree-fern. Polypodiaceae, 

From Greek, * 'grove loving. ' ' Tree ferns. About 50 species, 
tropical and subtropical regions. 

a. A. liirida Hook. Java. The capillary chaff" from this and 
allied species is the paku-kidang or pakoe-kidang used as a styptic 
in surgery. See Balantium and Cibotium. 

85. ALST6nIA, R Br. Alstonia, Dita. Apocyiiaeeae. 

Named for Dr. Alston, botanist of Edinburgh. Syn. Echi- 
tes, in part. Trees or shrubs with a milky juice. About 20 
species, trojiical regions of Old World. 

a. A. constricta F. Muell. Australia. Alstonia bark, Australian 

Fever-bark, Bitter-bark, Native Quinine. Properties of (b). 

b. A. scholiiris (L.) K. Br. (Echites scholaris L. ) East Indies; 

Philippines to Australia. Dita, Devil' s-tree, Pali-mara (Bom- 
bay). Bark, Dita bark; Ger. Ditarinde; Fr. Ecorce de Dita 
(Codex); Bitter, antiperiodic. 

c. A. spectabilis K. Br. Java. Source of Poele-bark, more 

active than the foregoing. 

86. ALTERNANTHERA, Forsk. Amaraiithaceae. 

From Latin, ''with alternate anthers" Dwarf tufted plants, 
some with variegated foliage, (commonly known as Achyran- 
thesf). About 20 species, Australia and tropical America; 2 
in U. S. 

87. ALTHAEA, L. Mallow* Hollyhock, etc. Malvaceae. 

The Greek name, "healing." Syn. Alcea, in part. Mu- 
cilaginous herbs. About 15 species. Old World; 1 nat. in U. S. 

a. A. officinalis L. Europe and Asia, sparingly nat. in U. S. 
Marsh-mallow, White Mallow, Mortification-root, Sweat-weed, 
Wymote; Ger. Althee, Eibisch; Fr, Guimauve (Codex); Sp. 
Altea, Malvavisco. Boot, Althaea, U. S. P.; Radix Althae^e 
P. G., Rad. bismalvse, Rad. malvavisci v. hibisci. Mucilagi- 
nous, demulcent. Leaves a.nd Jiowers are also official in French 
Codex. 



26 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. A. rosea (L. ) Cavanilles (Alcea rosea L. ). Levant, cult, in gar- 
dens. Hollyhock (Holly Oak+, Holy Hoket, lloUikockej, 
Hollekt, Hock, Hockholler), Althea Rose; Ger. Stockrose, 
Stock oialve; Fr. Rose tremiere, Passerose. Flowers, Flores- 
malvae arboreae, mucilaginous, emollient. 

88. ALYSSUM, L. - Alyssum. - Crncifera». 

The Greek name, signifying perhaps "curing blindness." 
Syh. Clypeola. in part. Low annual or perennial herbs. About 
100 species. Old World; 1 nat. in U. S. See also Koniga. 

a, A. alyssoides (L. )Gouan. (Clypeola alypsoides L. 1753, A. 
calycinum L. 1762). Europe, adv. in U. S. Yellow or Small 
Alyssum, Heal-bite, Heal-dog. 

89. ALiXLi, Banks. - Alyxia. - Apocyiiaceae. 

Shrubs or small trees. About 40 species, tropical Asia to 
Australia. 

a. A. oliyaBforiiiis Gaud. Hawaiian Islands. Maile. The fragrant 

Myrtle-like leaves used for festal wreaths (leis). The Maire 
of Tahite is an allied species. 

b. A. stelhita E. & S. East Indies. Bark used like Canella. 

90. AMANITA, Pers. Hymenomycetes, Agaricini. 

Greek name of a fungus. Mushrooms of a poisonous or sus- 
picious character, some, however, ^edible. About oO species, 
especially of Europe and S. America. 

a. A. miisearia (L. ) Pers. (Agaricus muscarius L. ). Europe, 

mostly under pine trees. Fly Agaric, Fly bane. Fly Fungus, 
Bug Agaric, Poisonous Mushroom; Ger. Fliegenschwamm, 
Fliegenpilz; Fr. Agaric mouche, Fausse oronge. Fungus used 
to control night sweats. 

b. A. plialloides Fries. Europe and U. S. Death-cup. The most 

poisonous of all Mushrooms. 

91. AMARANTHUS, L. (Amarantus) Amaranthaceje. 

The Greek name, "unfading". Syn. Euxolus, Amblogyne, 
in part. Coarse annuals, mostly Aveeds, a few ornamental. 
About 50 species, cosmopolitan; 30 in U. S. including nat. 
species. The ornamental species are known as Amaranth, the 
weeds as Pigweed. 

a. A, caiidjitus L. India, cult, in gardens. Prince 's-feather% 

Cat's-tail, Floramor, Flower-gentle, Love-lies-bleeding", Passe- 
velours, Velvet-flower, Thrum wort, many of these names ap- 
plied also to (b) and (d). 

b. A. Craiig-etioiis L. (including A. melancholicus L. ). Eastern 

Asia, cult, in gardens. The variety melancholicus is called 
Love-lies-bleeding, Lovely-bleeding and Nun's Whipping-post, 
Var. tricolor is Joseph' s-coat (of many colors). Plant used by 
Chinese as a pot herb. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAE. 27 

c. A. f^raecizaiis L. 1753 (A. alba L. 1763). Tropical America^ 

nat. in U. S. Tumbleweed, Pigweed. 

d. A. hybridnsL. (Includes A. hypochondriacus L. and A. chlo- 

rostachys Willd. ). Tropical America, cult, in gardens. Slen- 
der Pigweed^, Green or Eed Amaranth (varieties), Pigweed^ 
Amaranth, Careless, Pilewort, Balder-herb. The cultivated 
variety is called also Prince's feather'=^,Floramor, Flower-gentle, 
Ked Coxcomb, Lovely-bleeding, etc. Plant mildly astringent. 

e. A. retroflexiis L. Tropical America, nat. in U. S. Common 

or Kough Pigweed, Ked-root^, Beet-root. 

92. AMARiLLlS, L. Belladonna Lily. Amaryllidaceae. 

Greek proper name, ''sparkling" or "twinkling". Syn. 
Belladonna. A scapose bulbous plant with lily-like flowers. 
One species, south Africa. 

A. A. Belladonna L. (Belladonna purpurascens Sweet). South 
Africa and cult, for ornament. Belladonna Lily. 

93. AMBLY6lEPIS, DC. Amblyolepis.^ Compositfe. 

From Greek, "blunt-scaled". A comarin-scented annual. 
One species, Texas. 

94. AMBLYOPAPPUS, Hook. & Am. Compositai. 

From Greek, with "obtuse pappus". Syn. Aromia, Infantea. 
Low annuals. About 4 species; 1 nat. in California. 

95. AMBROSIA, L. Eagweed. Ambrosiaceae (Compo sitae). 

The Greek name, Ambi'osia, the fabled food of the immortals. 
Coarse rank weeds. About 12 species, mostly American; 8 or ^ 
in U. S. 

a. A. artemisisefolia L. Eastern IT. S. to British Columbia and 

Mexico. Ragweed, Common Ragweed, liogweed, Roman 
Wormwood, Wild Tansy, Stammerwort, Black-weed, Bitter- 
weed, Tassel-weed, Stick-weed, Carrot-weed, Bastard Worm- 
wood. The pollen is accused of causing hay asthma. 

b. A. trifida L. Ontario to Florida and Colorado. Tall Ambro- 

sia, Great Ragweed, Giant Ragweed, Hoi-se-cane, Horse- weed. 
Bitter-weed, Rich-weed, Wild Hemp, Buffalo-weed. Plant, 
like foregoing, astringent, detergent, antiphlogistic, etc. 

90. AMELANCHIER, Medic. June-berry, etc. Poiuacese. 

The Savoy name of the Medlar. Syn. Aronia, Mcspilus^ 

Pyrus, Crataegus, in part. Shrubs or trees with berry-like, 

edible fruit (pomes). About 12 species, north temperate zone; 

10 in U. S. 

a. A. alnifolia Xutt., Michigan to California and British Colum- 

bia. Northwestern June- or Service-berry, Pigeon-berry. 

b. A Botrapinm (L. fil. ) DC. Canada and eastern U. S. Shad- 

bush, Swamp Sugar-pear, Grape Pear. 



28 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. A. Canadensis (L.) Medic. (Mespilus Canadensis L., Crataegus 
racemosa Lam. ). Canada to Florida and Louisiana. June- 
berry, Service-berry, May Cherry, called also Sugar-berry, 
Sugar Pear, Sugar Plum, Indian Cherry, Sand Cherry*, May 
Pear, Juice Pear, Indian Pear, Bilberry*, Shad-bush, Service 
tree, Boxwood, Dogwood*. 

97. AMMANN^IA, L. Ammannia. Lythraceae. 

Named for Johann Ammann, German botanist, d. 1741. 
Annual herbs. About 30 species; 4 in U. S. 

a. A. Koehnei Britton. New Jersey to Florida. Tooth-cup. 

98. AMMI, L. - Bishop's-weed. - Umbelli ferae. 

Greek name of an African Umbelliferous plant. Herbs re- 
sembling Daucus. About 12 species, mostly of Mediterranean 
region. See Ptychotis. 

a. A. Yisnaga Lam. Southern Europe, northern Africa and the 
Orient. Tooth-pick plant, ( visnaga is Spanish for tooth-pick ), 
Bishop's-weed, El Kellah; Fr. Herbe aux cure-dents, Herbe 
aux gencives. Seeds diuretic, anodyne. 

99. AMMODENIA, J. G. Gmel. 1769. Sandwort. Caryophyllaceae. 

From Greek, ''sand loving". Syn. Honkenya, Ehrh. 1788. 
Fleshy maritime herbs. Two species, north temperate zone; 
2 in U. S. 

a. A. peploides (L. ) Kupr. (Arenaria peploides L.). Europe, 
Asia and N. America, south to N. Jersey. Sea-beach Sand- 
wort, Sea Chickweed, Sea Purslane, Sea Pimpernel. 

100. AMMOSELINUM, T. & Gr. Sand Parsley. Unibelliferae. 

From Greek, "sani parsley". Low annuals. Two species, 
both of Mexican border, U. S. 

101. AM6MUM, L. Cardamom*, etc. Zingiberaceae. 

Greek name of some Eastern spice plant. Herbaceous plants 
from creeping rootstocks. Tropical regions of Old VVorld. 
See Elettaria. 

a. A. angustifolium Sonnerat. Madagascar. Probable source of 

Madagascar Cardamom. 

b. A. Cardaniomum L. East Indies and Siam. Fruits constitute 

Round Cardamom or Cluster Cardamom; Fr. Amome en 
grappes (Codex), used in southern Europe. 

c. A. g:lob6sum Lour. China. Fruits are the Chinese Cardamom 

or Eound Chinese Cardamom. 

d. A. Granum-paradisi Afz, Sierra Leone. Seeds of this and of 

several other species have been known as Grains of Paradise, 
Grana paradisi. See (g). 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 2& 

e. A, Korarinia Pareira. Eastern Africa. The plant, not yet 

described, yielding Korarima Cardamom, Korarima, Heil, 
Gur^ji spice, Ilabhal-habasbi, Heel-habashee; Cardaiiiomum 
majus (true). 

f. A. maximum Eoxb. Java. i'>/«7.? are Java Cardamom. 

g. A. Mel('g:ueta Koscoe. Western Africa. *S'e<;c?.s Melegueta Pepper 

(Piper Melagueta), Grains of Paradise (grana paradisi). Para- 
dise seed, Guinea grains; pungent, now used only in veterinarr 
medicine and in sophisticating liquors. 

h. A. subulatiim Eoxb. India. Fruits are the winged Bengal 
Cardamom, Morung Elachi or Euro Elachi. [The similar 
Nepal Cardamom is derived from an undetermined species of 
Amomum.] 

i. A. Xanthioides Wallich. Further India. Fruits are known in 
England as Bastard or Wild Cardamom of Siam; Xanthioid 
Cardamom. 

102. AMOREUXIA, M05. & Sess. Amoreuxia. Bixaceae. 
Syn. Euryanthe, in part. Shrubs Avith showy flowers. 

About 3 species, warmer regions of New World; 1 in U. S. 

103. AMORPHA, L. False Indigo. Papilioiiaceae. 

From Greek, "anomalous", the flowers having but one petal. 
Shrubs with spiked violet, blue or white flowers. About 10 
species, all of U. S. ( and Mexico. ) 

a. A. caiiescens Pui-sh. Prairie region. Lead plant, Shoe-strings, 

Wild Tea. 

b. A. fruticosa L. Florida to Colorado and Manitoba. False or 

Bastard Indigo, Eiver Lucust. Foraierly a source of indigo. 

104. AMPELANUS, Brit. 1894. Sand-vine. Asclepiadaeeae. 

From Greek, *Vine-like". Syn. Enslenia, Nutt. 1818, 
[not Eaf. 1817]. Herbaceous twining vines. Three species. 
New World; 2 in U. S. 

106. AMPEL6pSIS, Michx. 1803. Ampelopsis. Vitaeeje. 

From Greek, •'resembling the grape-vine". Syn. Cissus 

Pers. 1805 (not L. 1753). Woody climbers or shrubs. About 

15 species, mostly of Old World; 2 in U. S. See Parthenocis- 

sus. 

a. A. arboroa (L. ) Eusby (Vitis arborea L., V. bipinnata T. & 
Gr., Cissus stans Pers ). Southeastern U. S. to Cuba. Pep- 
per-vine, Pinnate-leaved Ampelopsis?.. 

106. AMPELOSiCYOS, Thou. 1807. Ciieurbitaceae. 

From Greek, "grape-vine" and "cucumber". Syn. Tel- 
fairia. Hook. 1827, Joliffia, Boj. 1827, also Ampelosycios. 
Shrubby climbers. Two species, tropical Africa. 



30 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. A. scdndeiis Thou. (T. pedata Hook., J. Africana Delile). 
Zanzibar. Seeds edible; yield a bland fixed oil. 

107. AMPHIACHYRIS, DC Araphiachyris. Composit*. 
From Greek, * 'chafi" all around" . Syn. Brachyris, in part. 

Small herbs. Two species, both of U. S. 

108. AMPHIANTHUS, Torr. Amphianthus. Scrophiilariaeeae. 

From Greek, a flower being produced both at base and apex 
of stem. Minute aquatic annual. A single species, Georgia. 

109. AMSINCKIA, Lehm. Arasinckia. Boraj^iiiaceae. 

Named for William Amsinck of Hamburg. Syn. Benthamia, 
Lithospermum, in part. Eough-hispid annuals. About 10 
specie?, New World; 6 in U. S., Pacific border. 

110. AMS6nIA, Walt. - Amsonia. - Apocynaeeae. 

Named for Charles Arason of South Carolina. Perennial 
herbs with blue or bluish flowers. About 8 species, N. America 
and eastern Asia; 6 in U. S. 

111. AMI'GDALUS, L. Almond, Peach, etc. Drupaceae. 
Greek name of "almond" . Syn. Prunus, Persica, in part. 

Trees, mostly with fleshy fruits. About 8 species, Asia and 
N. America; 2 in U. S. 

a. A. communis L. (Prunus Amygdalus Baill.). Western Asia, 
now cult, in all subtropical countries. Almond tree; Ger. 
Mandelbaum; Fr. Amandier. There are two varieties, amara 
and dulcis of De Candolle, the former yielding Bitter Almonds, 
the latter Sweet Almonds, j'vlalaga Almonds,- Jordan Almonds 
(a large variety). Paper-shell Almonds (with thin shell). 
Fruit of the former is i'.mygcLala ii.mara, U. S. P., Br. Amyg- 
dalae amarae P. G., Semen amygdali amarum; Ger. Bittere 
Mandeln; Fr. Amandes ameres (Codex); Sp. Almendras 
araargas. Sedative, containing potentially hydrocyanic acid. 
Fruit of the latter is Amygdala dulcis, U. S. P., Br., Amyg- 
dalae dulces, P. G., Semen amygdali dulce; Ger. Siisse Man- 
deln; Fr. Amandes douces (Codex), Sp. Almendras dulces. 
Esculent, emollient, yield a bland fixed oil. 

h. A. Persica L. ( Prunus Persica Stokes, Persica vulgaris DC), 
Southeastern Asia, now widely cultivated. Introduced from 
Persia, hence the name Persica (malum persicum). Peach; 
Ger. Pfirsch; Fr. Pecher; Sp. Melocoton turazno. Var. liec- 
tiirina Maxim (Persica NecturinaSteud., A. glabra Auct. ) is 
the Nectarine; var. platycdrpa Gray is the Peen-to or Flat Peach 
of the southern U. S. Leaves and kernels contain potentially 
hydrocyanic acid; sedative, vei'mifuge. [In some varieties the 
kernels are sweet.] 

112. IMYRIS, L. Torch- wood, Candle wood. Rntiiceae. 
Greek name, perhaps connected with "myrrh". Trees and 
shrubs. About 12 species, warmer regions of New World; 2 
in U. S. 



SLIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 31 

113. ANACAMPTIS, Eich. Anacamptis. Orcliidaceae. 

From Greek, "bent backwards". Syn. Orchis, in part. 
European terrestrial orchids. About 3 species. 

a. A. pyramidalis Eichard. Europe. Tubers constitute one 
variety of salep. See Orchis. 

114. ANACARDIUM, Eottb. Cashew. Anacardiaceae. 

From Greek, "heart-like". Syn. Cassuvium, in part. 
Shrubs or trees. About 8 species, tropical America. See Seme- 
carpus. 

a. A. oecideiitale E. <■ Cassuvium pomiferura Earn.). Tropical 
America. Cashew-nut tree. West Indian CasheAv; Ger. Westin- 
dische Anacardien, C ashunuss; Fr. Acajou a pommes; Sp. Ana- 
cardo. Bi7id of fruit acrid, vesicant. Kernels when roasted 
edible. 

115. ANACYCLUS, L. - Pellitory. - Compositae. 

Herbs with flower-heads of medium size. About 10 species. 
Mediterranean region. 

a. A. ofiicinarum Hayne. Germany. German Pellitory; Ger. 

Deutsche Bertram wurzel, Zahnwurzel, Speichelwurzel; Fr, 
Pyrethre commun. Boot, Eadix pyrethri germanici, Ead. 
dentariae, Counter-irritant, sternutatory. 

b. A. Pyretlinim (E. ) DC. (Anthemis Pyrethrum E., Matricaria 

Pyrethrum Baill. ). Northwestern Africa. Pellitory, Pelli- 
tory of Spain, Spanish Camomile, Alexander's-foot, Bertram, 
Longwort. Boot fyretbrum. U. S. P., Pyrethri radix, Br., 
Ead. pyrethri romani; Ger. Eomische Bertramwurzel; Fr. Pyre- 
thre officinal (Codex), Pyrethre vrai (roman), Salivaire; Sp. 
Peritre. Sternutatory, sialagogue, counter-irritant. 

IKJ. ANAGALLIS, E. Pimpernel. Prinnilaceae. 

From Greek, "delightful". Annual or perennial weeds. 
About 15 species, all but one of Old World; 1 nat. in U. S. 

a. A. arveusis E. Europe, nat. in IJ. S. and widely elsewhere. 
Eed Pimpernel, Scarlet Pimpernel, Eed Chickweed or Chicken- 
weed, Burnet Eose, Bird's-eye, Bird's-tongue, Eye-bright, 
John-go-to-bed-at-noon, Orange-lily Pernel, Poor-man's- weath- 
er-glass, Shepherd' s-calender. Shepherd' s-clock (or- watch), 
Shepherd' s-delight, Shepherd' s-sundial, Shepherd's- warning, 
Sun-flower*, Tom Pimpernowl, Waywort, Wink-a-peep, Winco- 
pipe (Bacon); Ger. Gauchheil, EotheMiere, Collmarkraut; Fr. 
Mouron rouge. Plant acrid, containing Saponin. [Blue Pim- 
pernel is a variety, A. arvensis coerulea (Eam. ) Eedeb.] 

117. ANAMIRTA, Colebr. Cocculus Tndicu". Menispermaceae. 

Syn. Menispermum, Cocculus, in part. A shrubby climber. 
One species, Old World. 



32 PLANT NAjMES and SYNONYMS 

a. A. Cocculiis (L. ) Wight &, Am. (M. Cocculus L., M. lacimcsum 
Lam. A. paniculata Colebr., Cocculus suberosus DC. ). East 
Indies and Hindustan. Fruit, Cocculus Indicus, Indian Coccu- 
lus or Cockle, Fish-berries, India-berries, Oriental-berries, Le- 
vant-nut; Ger. Kockelskorner, Fischkorner, Tollkorner; Fr. 
Coque du Levant (Codex). Source of PicrotOXinum, U. S. P., 
Br., powerful poison; parasiticide. 

118. ANAM6MIS, Griseb. Anamomis. Myrtaceae. 
Syn. Luma, H. B. K., also Eugenia and Myrtus, in part. 

Trees. About 3 species, warmer regions of New World; 1 ia 
U. S. 

119. ANANAS, Adans. - Pine-apple. - Bromeliaceae. 

From vernacular, S. America. Syn. Ananassa Lindl. Bro- 
melia, in part. SufFrutescent plants with a fleshy compound 
fruit. About, 6 species, tropical America. 

a. A. Ananas (L. ) Lyons (B. Ananas L., A. sativa Schult., Ana- 
nassa sativa Lind. ). South America and cult, in all tropical 
countries. Pine Apple, Pine*; Ger. Ananas, Kronananas; Fr. 
Pomme d' ananas, Pain de sucre. Unripe fruit, astringent, 
diuretic, anthelmintic. Ripe fruit contains a peptonizing fer- 
ment; esculent. 

120. ANANTHERIX, Nutt. Anantherix. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "awnless". Syn. Acerates, in part. Peren- 
nial herb. A single species, Georgia to Florida. 

121. ANAPHALIS, DC. Life-everlasting. Conipositae. 

Greek name of some Composite plant. Syn. Gnaphaliuni, 
Antennaria, in part. Woolly herbs resembling Gnaphalium. 
About 30 species, north temperate zone; 1 in U. S. 

a. A, margraritacea (L. ) Benth. & Hook. (G. margaritaceum L., 
Antennaria margaritacea Hook. ). Northern Asia and N. 
America, south to N. Carolina, Kansas and California. Pearly 
Everlasting, Large-flowered Everlasting, Life-everlasting*,Live- 
long. Ever-white, Cotton-weed, Indian-posy, Lady-never-fade, 
Ladies' Tobacco, Moonshine, None-so-pretty* Old-sow, Pover- 
ty-weed*, Silver-button, Silver-leaf. Plant, aromatic, antisep- 
tic, vulnerar)'. 

122. ANASTATICA. L. Rose of Jericho. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, "resurrection" plant. Annual herb. One 
species, Mediterranean region. 

a. A. Hieroclliintica L. Deserts of Syria, Arabia and northern 
Africa. Rose of Jericho, Resurrection-plant; Fr. Jerose hygro- 
metrique. 

123. ANCHIETEA, St. Hil. Anchietea. Violaceae. 
Named for P. Anchietea, Brazilian botanist. Syn. Noisettia, 

in part. Shrubby climbers. About 4 species, S. America. 

a. A. sahitaris St. Hil. (N. pyrifolia Mart.). Brazil. Boot 
emeto-cathartic, alterative. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 3^3 

124. ANCHtJSA,L. - Alkanet. - Boraginaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Herbs. About 30 species, Old 
World. 

a. A. officiiidlis L. Europe. *Bugloss (from Greek, meaning ox- 
tongue), Ox-tongue, Garden Alkanet or Orcanet; Ger. Ochsen- 
zungenkraut; Fr. Buglosse (Codex, which includes also (b) 
A. Itdlica L., Italian or Small Bugloss. ). Plant demulcent 
diaphoretic. ' 

125. ANCISTROCARPHUS,Gray. Ancistrocarphus. Compositfe. 

From Greek, * 'fishhook chaflf". Syn. Sty Iodine, in part. 
Low canescent annual with small glomerate flower-heads. One 
species, California. 

ANDA. See JOANNESIA. 
ANDIRA. See YOUACAPOUA. 

126. ANDRACHNE, L. Andrachne. Eiiphorbiaceae. 

Syn. Lepidanthus, in part. Herbs or shrubbv plants with 
small axillary flowers. About 10 species; 1 in U." S. 

127. ANDROGRAPHIS, Wall. Andrographis. Acanthaceae. 

Syn. Justicia, in part. Herbs, some suflTrutescent. About 
20 species, tropical Asia. 

a. A. paniciilata Nees. (J. paniculata Burm. ). India. Kariyat, 
Creyat. Herb bitter, tonic. 

128. ANDROMEDA, L. Wild Rosemary. Ericaceae. 
Name from Greek mythology. A small evergreen shrub 

with acid foliage. One species, (U. S. ) 

a. A. Polifolia L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, south 
to N ew Jersey and Michigan , W^ild or Marsh Rosemary, Marsh 
Holy-rose, Moorwort. Plant reputed poisonous. 

129. ANDR()p6G0N, L. Beard-grass. Gramineae. 
From Greek, "man beard", the staminate flowers having 

awns. Syn. Vetiveria, in part. Tall grasses. About 150 
species; 36 in U. S. 

a. A. Calamus Royle. Central India. The Sweet Calamus of the 

ancients. Source of the Ginger-grass oil of Nemaur ( F. von. 
Mueller). 

b. A. cilrdtus DC. India. Lemon-grass, Verbena-grass. From. 

this and some allied species are distilled the oils used in per- 
fumery as grass oil, oil of verbena, oil of spikenard (Mueller). 

c. A. Ndrdiis L. India. Nard-grass, Spikenard*. Source of 

Citronella oil, called also by names under (b). 



V»4 PLANT NAME^ AND SYNONYMS 

<1. A- Selioenanthus L. (A. pachnodcs Trin., A. Martini Roxb. )• 
hidia. Ginger-grass, Lemon-grass*, Camel' s-hay, Indian Gera- 
Jiium. Source of Siri oil, called also Turkish oil of Geranium, 
Rusa oil, Roshe or Rose oil, Idrisyaghi (Turkey), used for 
adulterating oil of rose. An ajlied species, also yielding oil, is 
(e) A. Ivaraiicusa Roxb. 

f- A. S<|uari'6sa L. (A. muricatns Retz. A. odoruta Virey, V. 
arundinacea Griseb. ). India, widely distributed in tropical 
-countries. Kuskus grass, Vetiver; Fr. Chiendent des Indes. 
Moots, properly called vetiver, also kuskus, used for making 
the fragrant mats called tatties. Source of Vetiver oil, used in 
perfumery. 

130. A]VDR6SACE, L. Androsace. Priiinilaceae. 

From Greek, "man's shield". Low herbs with tufted bas;d 
leaves. About 50 species, northern hemisphere; 6 in U. S. 

131. ANDROSTEPHIUM, Torr. indrostephium. Liliaeeae. 
From Greek, "man's crown' ', the filaments forming a crown. 

Syn. Milla, in part. Scapose herbs from a tuberous root. Two 
species, both of U. S. 



A. coeriileiim (Scheele) Greene (M. coerulea Scheele, A. viol 
ceum Torr. ). Kansas to Texas. Babies' -breatl 



132. ANEMIA, Swz. (Aneimia). lowering Fern*. SohizjBaeeae. 
From Greek, "without covering", Aneimia being the more 

correct form. Small ferns with fertile portions of fronds con- 
tracted into semblance of a spicate inflorescence. About 15 
species; 2 in IT. S. 

133. ANEM6NE, L. Anemone. Raniiiieulaeea«\ 

The Greek name, meaning "wind" flower. Perennial herbs 
with palmately divided leaves. About 100 species, temperate 
and sub-arctic regions; 20 in U. S. 

a. A, Canadensis L. 1768 (A. Pennsylvanica L. 1771). British 

America, south to Pennsylvania and Colorado. Canada Ane- 
.mone?, Pennsylvanian Anemone, Round-leaved or Round- 
headed Anemone, White-flowered Anemone or Crowfootf. 

b. A. Caroliniana Walt. Georgia to Texas, north to Nebraska. 

Carolina Anemone?, Purple Anemone, May-flower, Wood-flower. 

e. A. coronaria, L. Levant and cult, in gardens. Garden Anem- 

one. Properties of(g). [The garden Anemones are varieties 
of this species, also of (d) A. hortensls Thor., perhaps not 
specifically distinct, and of (e) A. Japonica Sieb. i!c Zucc] 

f. A. multiflda Poir( A. Pludsoniana Richards). British America, 

south to Michigan and Colorado. Red Wind-flower, Cut-leav- 
ed Anemone^, 



SCIENTIFIC AND POri'LAK. ,'>.') 

g. A. Iiemorosa Michx, Europe. Wood Anemone (Aneniony 
Aulnioneys:}:, Enemy:}:, Xeminy), "Wind-Hower, Bow-bells, 
C'owslipt, \Vood Crowfoot, Cuckoo-flower^, Cuckoo-spit*, Darn- 
grass, l)rops-of-snow, Gallant, Granny' s-nightcap. Wild Jes- 
saminej, Moon-Hower* fSmellboxes, Soldiers; Ger. Weisser 
Waldhaiinenluss; Fr. Anemone des bois. Anemone sylvie 
(Codex). Plant acrid, containing anemonin, used like Pulsa- 
tilla. [In Liberia (h) A. raiiiiiiciiloidcsL. and (i) A. sylves- 
trls L. are also used]. 

J. A. (luinquefolia L. (A. nemorosa var, quinquefolia Gray). 
Canada to Georgia, west to Rocky Mountains. American 
^Vood Anemone, ^V'ind-flower, May-floAver, Snow-drops*, Thim- 
l)le-weedt, also synonyms of (g) with which the species has 
been confounded. 

k. A. Virginiaiifi L. Canada and northeastern U. S. Tall Ane- 
mone, Virginian Anemone^, Thimble weed. 

lU, ANETHUM, L. - Dill. - Lmbelliferae. 

The Greek name of Anise or Dill. Syn. Peucedanum, in 
part. Herbs, perhaps better retained in Peucedanum, About 
o species, Europe and Asia. 

a. A. graveoleiis L. (P. graveolens, B. & H. ). Asia Minor, now 

widely cult. Dill, Garden Dill, Dilly, Anet, the Anise of 
Scripture; Ger. Dill; Fr. Anette (Codex), Fenouil puant; Sp. 
Eneldo. Fruit, Anethi fructus Br., aromatic, carminative. 

18.>. ANGELICA, L. 1753. Angelica. Umbel liferae. 

Named from its supposed magical virtues. Syn. Arch angel- 
ica, Hofthi. 1814. Tall perennial herbs with compound leaves. 
About 30 species, northern hemisphere and New Zealand; 8 in 
U. S. 

i\. A. Aroliaiigelica L. (A. officinalis Moench, Archangelica offici- 
nalis Hoflin. ). Northern Europe and Asia. European Angel- 
ica, (Jeelico.|, Aunt JerichosI). Garden Angelica, Angelica, 
Archangel, Bellyache root, Ait-skeitersj|, Skytes||, Holy Ghost, 
Ground-ash*, Ground-elder*, Heralockf, ' Jack-jump-about; 
Fr. Angelique officinale (Codex). Boot, Radix angelicae; 
(jrer. Angelicawurzel, Heilegegeistwurzel, Engelwurz, aromatic, 
carminative. 

b. A. atropurpiirea L. (A. triquinataMichx., Archangelica atro-' 

purpurea Hoffin. ). Ontario to Delaware and west to Minnesota. 
Angelica, American Angelica, Great or Purple-stemmed An- 
gelica, High or Purple Angelica, Masterwort*, also most of the 
synonyms of (a). Root and seed, aromatic, carminative. 

c. A. sylvestris L. Europe. Wild Angelica (of Europe), Gout- 

weed* Ground-ash. 

<l A. villosa (Walt.) B, S. P. (A, hirsuta Muhl.). Southeastern 
U, S, Smaller Angelica, Southern Angelica, Hairy or Pubes- 
cent Angelica^. Properties of (b). 



36 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

186. ANGRAEC'UM, Thou. Angnecum. Orchidaceae. 

Syn. Aerobion, Spreng. Epiphytes. About 15 species, trop- 
ical regions, especially of Madagascar and Africa. 

a. A. fragrans Thou. Madagascar. Faham or Faam Tea,asle of 
Bourbon Tea; Fr. Fahani (Codex). Leaves fragrant, expector- 
ant, stomachic. 

ANHAL6ISIUM. See LOPHOPHORA. 

137. A>'ISACANTHUS, Nees. Anisacanthus. Acautliaceae. 

From Greek, "unequal Acanthus", Syn. Drejera, Birnbau- 
mia, in part. Shrubby plants. About 6 species, Mexico and 
its borders; 3 in U. S. 

138. ANISOCARPUS, Xutt. Anisocarpus. Compositae. 

From Greek, "unequal fruited". Syn. Madia, in part. 
Herbs. About 5 species, Pacitic Coast, IT. S. 

139. ANIS6C0MA, Tor. & Gr. Anisocoma. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "with unequal hairs", alluding to the pappus. 
Syn. Pterostephanus, Kellogg. Low scapose annual. One 
. species, California to Nevada. 

140. ANON A, L. (Annona) Custard- apple, etc. Auonaeeae. 
From vernacular Malay name, Menoiuu Trees or shrubs 

with fleshy, sometimes edible, fruits. 

a. A. Cherimolia Mill. (A. tripetala Ait. ). Peru, cult, in tropi- 

cal countries. Cherimoyer, Cherimolia. Fruit esculent. 

b. A. muricata L. "West Indies. Sour- sop; Fr. Corassol epineux 

Corassol grand, Cachiman epineux. Fruit acid, not highly 
valued. Seeds astringent. Leaves vulnerary. 

c. A. paliistris L. West Indies and tropical Africa. Alligator- 

apple, Cork -wood tree. Wood spongy, used for corks. Fruit 
reputed poisonous. 

d. A. reticulata L. West Indies. Custard-apple, Bullock's- heart, 

Sugar- apple; Fr. Petit Corassol, Mamilier. Fruit esculent, 
highly esteemed. Juice of tree acrid. 

e. A. squamosa L. East Indies. Sweet-sop, Sugar-apple, Orien- 

tal Custard-apple, Cachiman; Fr. Atocire, Pomme-canelle, Atte. 
Seeds parasiticide. Unripe fruit astringent. 

141. ANODA, Cav. Anoda. Malvaceae. 
Herbs. About 15 species, Avarmer regions of America; 7 in 

southwestern U. S. 

142. ANOGRA, Spach. Evening Primrose. Oiiagraceae. 

Name a transliteration of Onagra. Syn. Oenothera, in part. 
Herbs with showy white or pink flowers. About 10 species, 
N. America; 9 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 37 

lis. ANREDERA, Juss. Anredera. Chenopodiaeeae. 

Herbaceous climber. One species, West Indies to southeastern 
U. S. 

144. ANTENNARIA, Gaertn. Everlasting. Compositae. 

Named from likeness of pappus to "antennae" of an insect. 

^ Syn. Gnaphalium, in part. Perennial woolly herbs. About 36 

species, north temperate zone and South America; 23 in U. S. 

'I he plants are mildly bitter and aromatic, and are esteemed 

vulnerary. 

a. A. dioica (L. ) Gaertn. (Gnaphalium dioicum L. ). Northern 

Europe, Asia and X. America, south to New ]\Iexico and Cali- 
fornia. Mountain Cudweed, Mountain or Moor Everlasting, 
Cat's-ear, Cat's foot, Cai's-paws, Cotton-weed; Ger. Weisse oder 
Kothe Katzenpfotchen (lmmortellen);Fr. Pied de chat (Codex). 
Fioiver-heads, Elores gnaphalii, Flores pedis cati. 

b. A. plautaffinifolia (L. ) Eichards (G. plantaginifolium L., A 

Parlinii Fernald). Canada and eastern U. S. Plantain leaf 
Everlasting or Cud- weed, Mouse-ear Everlasting; Spring, Early 
or Pearly Everlasting, Pussy-toes, Dog-toes, Four-toes, A\'hite 
Plantain, Ladies' Tobacco, Indian or Woman's Tobacco, 
Love's-test, Piniushion, Poverty-weed. 

145. AXTHEMIS, L. Camomile, etc. Compositae, 

The Greek name of Camomile. Syn. Maruta, Chamomilla, 
in part. Herbs with pinnatitied or dissected leaves and rather 
large flower-heads. About 100 species, Old World ; 5 nat. in 
U. S. 

a. A. arvensis L. Europe, nat. in U.S. Corn Camomile (Chamo- 

mile), Field Camomile. 

b. A. Cotiila L. (Maruta Cotula DC. ). Europe and northern Asia, 

nat. in U. S. and widely elswhere. May weed. Dog's Camo- 
mile, Fetid or Stinking Camomile, Fetid May-weed, Bald-eye- 
brow, Balderbrse:}:, Balders, Chigger-weed, Dog or Horse Daisy, 
Pig-sty or Poison Daisy, Dillweed, Dillidillweed, Dog-fennel, 
Dog-tinkel, Dog-banner, Dog-binder, Dog Camovyne, Field- 
wort, Flowan, Hog-fennel, Jay-weed, Madder^", ]\Iaden-weed. 
(i. e. Mayweed), Maise, Marg, Mathes, Morgan, Murg; Ger. 
Stinkkamillen. 

c. A. nobilis L. (C. nobilis Godr. ). Europe, cult, in Great Brit- 

ain, Germany, Fnince and Belgium, cult, and adv. in l^. vS. 
Garden, English, White or Low Camomile (Chamomile, Camo- 
miue, Camovynei, Camil), Scotch Camomile ( form with"single" 
flowers), Roman Camomile (form with 'double" flowers), 
Ground-apple, Whig-plant; Ger. Romische Kamille; Fr. Camo- 
mille romaine (Codex); Sp. Manzanilla romana. Fioivcr-heads, 
Anthemis, U. S. P., Anthemidis flores, Br., Flores Chamomillse 
romanse, stimulant tonic, stomachic, nauseant. See Matricaria. 

14G. ANTHERK'UM, L. Anthericum. Liliaceae. 

Syn. Phalangium, in part. Scapose herbs with fleshy fascicu- 
late roots. About 60 species, mostly of Europe, Africa and 
Australia, a few American; 2 in LT. S. 



38 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

147. ANTHOXANTHUM, L. Vernal-Grass. Gramineae. 
From Greek, * 'yellow flowered". About 5 species, Europe; 

2 nat. in U. S. 

a. A. odoratuin L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Sweet Vernal-grass, 
Sweet-scented Grass, Spring-grass, Pig-grass, Prim-grass. Plant 
fragrant, abounding in coumarin. 

148. A^THRISCUS, Hoffin. Chervil. UmbelHferae. 

Greek name of an umbelliferous plant, perhaps (a). Syn. 
Cerefolium, Chaerophyllum, Scandix, in part. Parsley-like 
herbs. About 10 species, Old World; 3 nat. in U. S. 

a. A. AutliriscilS (L. ) Karst. (Chaeropbyllura Anthriscus L., A. 

vulgaris Bernh. ). Europe. Bur-chervil, Hemlock-chervil, 
Rough Chervil. Plant dir^tinctly poisonous. 

b. A. Cerefolium (L. ) Hoffin. (Scandix Cerefolium L., Chaerophyl- 

lum sativum Lam. ). Europe, sparingly nat. in eastern I'. S. 
Garden Chervil, Chervil (Chevorell), Beaked Parsley; Ger. 
Kernel, Gartenkerbel; Fr. Cerfeuil. Plant, Herba cerefolii v. 
chaerophylli, deobstruent, diuretic. Foi«?(/ /cares iLsed in s dads, 
etc. 

c. A. sylvestris (L. )Hoffm. Europe. Wild Chervil, Wild Cicely, 

Wild Caraway, Ass-parsley, Cow-chervil, Cow- weed, Cow-mum- 
ble, Cow-pai-sley, Coney-parsley, Devil' s-parsley, Kettle-d(ick, 
Orchard- weed, Kabbit's-meat, Kat's-bane, Sweet-ash, White- 
weed. [Probably many of these synonyms belong more pro- 
perly to (a)]. 

149. A>THYLLIS, L. Kidney- Vetch, etc. Papiiionaceae. 

Herbs or shrubs. About 20 species. Old World. 

a. A. Yulneraria, L. Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. 
Kidney-vetch, Woundwort, S(aunchwort, Cat's-claws, Craw- 
nsls, Crow's-foot, Jupiter's-beard, Lady's-fingers, Lamb's-toes. 
Plant styptic, vulnerary. A fodder plant for sheep. 

150. ANTIARIS, Lesch. Sack-tree, etc. Artocarpac*ea<^ 

From vernacular, Java. Syn. Lepurandra, in part. Trees. 
About 6 species, tropical Asia to Australia. 

a. A. saccidora, Dalz. (Lepurandra saccidora Nimmo, perhaps nut 

distinct from the followiug). Western Lidia. Sack-tree. 
Inner bark used for sacks. 

b. A. toxicaria, Lesch. Java. L^pa.s-tree. Gum-resinons exudate, 

up;is antiar, used in Java as an arrow poison. See Strychnos 
Tieute. 

151. ANTIRRHINUM, L. Snapdragon. Scropliiilaria<M'ae. 

From Greek, "snout like". Annual or perennial herbs with 
showy flowers. About 40 species, Europe, Asia and western N. 
America; 18 in L^. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 39 

a. A. raajiis L. Europe, cult, in gardens. Snapdragon, Great 
Snapdragon, Dog's-mouth, Dragon's-mouth. Lion's-mouth, 
Tiger's-mouth, Toad's-mouth, Rabbit' s-mouth, Bunny-mouth, 
Bunny-rabbit, Babbits, Bull-dog, Catchfly, Calf-snout, Lion's- 
snap; Ger. Lowenmaul (grosses); Fr. MuHier, Gueule de loup, 
Gueule de lion. 

152. ANYCHIA, Michx. Forked Chickweed. Caryophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "whitlow" weed. Syn. Buinalis, Queria, in part. 
Insignificant herbs. Two species, both of U. S. 

153. APAKOIDIUM, Tor. &Gr. Apargidiura. Cichoriacejie. 

From Greek, "resembling Apargia". Syn. Leontodon, in 
part. Scapose herb. One species. Pacific cojist of U. S. 

154. APHANISMA, Xutt. Aphanisma. Clieuopodiaceae. 

From Greek, ''disappearing". Syn. Cryptanthus, in part. 
Herb. A single species, California. 

155. APHA>'6STKPHU8,I)C. Aphanostephus. Compositac 
From Greek, ''inconspicuous crown". Syn. Keerlia, Leu- 

copsidium, in part, Canescent herbs. About 5 species, Mexico 
and adjacent region; 4 in U. S. 

156. APIASTRUM, Xutt. Apiastrura. Uiiibelliferae. 

From Greek, "false Celery". Syn. Leptocaulis, Apium, in 
13art. Annual herbs. Two species, both of U. S. 

157. APIOSj jMoench. Ground-nut. Papilionacoae. 

From Greek, ''pear", alluding to shape of tubei-s. Syn. 
Glycine, in part. Twining perennials, some with tuberous nwt- 
stocks. Four species, 3 of Asia; 1 in L^. S. 

a. A. Apios (L. ) MacM. (Glycine Apios L., A. tuberosa Moench). 
Eastern U. S. and Canada. Ground-nut, Indian Potato, Dakota 
Potato, Pig Potato, Potato Pea, Ground Pea, Trailing Pea, 
White-apple, Traveler's-delight. Tubers edible. 

158. APIUM, L. Parsley, Celery. Umbel liferae. 

Latin name of some umbelliferous plant. Syn. Carum, Sison, 
Heliosciadium,^ Petroselinum, in part. Herbs with pinnately 
compound or dissected leaves. About 15 species, 4 indigenous 
or nat. in U. S. 

a. A. graveoleiis L. Europe, now everywhere cult. Celery 

(Salary:}:), Celeriac (turnip-rooted variety), Smallage, Smal- 
lache. Ache*, Marsh Pai-sley, March, Merch, Wild Parsley, 
Mile; Ger. Sellerie, Eppich; Fr. Ache des marais (Codex) 
Ache Celeri; Sp. ApioSilvestro. Fruit, Fructas apii, and root- 
nervine, antispasmodic, reputed aphrodisiac. Blanched leaves 
esculent. 

b. A. Fetroseliniini L. (Carum Petroselinum B. & H. (Kew), 

P. sativum Hoffm. ). Europe, now everywhere cult. Parsley, 
Common or Garden Parsley, Ache (])ronounced Aitch), March; 
Ger. Petersilie, Petersilge; Fr. Persil ((Jodex); Sp. Peregil.' 
Fruit, Fructus (Semen) petroselini, Frnctus apii hortensis; 
source of Apiol. Emmenagogue, carminative, diuretic. The 
root is sometimes also used. 



40 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

169. APLECTRUM, Nutt. Adam-aud-Eve. Orchidaeeae. 

From Greek, "without spur". A scapose herb, the corm 
producing each season a new one by an oilset, hence the popular 
name. One species, U. S. 

a. A. spicatiim (Walt.) B. S. P. (Arethusa spicita AValt., A- 
plectrum hyemale Nutt., Cvmbidium hyemale Willd.). On- 
tario to Georgia and California. Adam-and-Eve, Putty-root. 
Goi-m mucilaginous. 

160. AP6CYNrM, L. - Dogbane. - Apocynaeeae. 

Greek name of a poisonous plant, * 'dog-bane'. Perennial 
smooth herbs with pink or white flowers in cymes. About 8 
species, north temperate zone; 5 in U. S. 

a. A. aiidrosaeinifoliiim L. British America, south to Georgia 

and Arizona. Dog-bane, Bitter- root, Biiter or Spreading Dog- 
bane (Dogsbane), Catchfly*, Flytrap, Colic-root*, Honey-bloom, 
Milk Ipecac, AVild Ipecac, Indian Hemp"-", Milkweed^, Wan- 
dering Milkweed, Kheumati>m-weed, Western Wall-flower, 
Ger. Kolikwurzel. Root emeto-cathartic, diaphoretic, altera- 
tive. 

b. A. cannabiinim L. British America and throughout most of 

IJ. S. Canadian Hemp, American or Black Indian Hemp, 
Indian Hemp*, Amy-root, Bo^v1nans-root* Bitter-root* Indian 
Physic, Ptheumatism-weed, Milk-weed* Wild Cotton: (xer, 
Indianischer Hanf, Canadischer Hanf, Hundt*kohl; Fr. Ch-invre 
du Canada. Root emeto-cathartic, diaphoretic, expectorant. 

c. A. hypericifoliiim Ait. (A. cannabium var. hypericifolium 

Gray^). British America south to Ohio and New Mexico. St. 
John's Dogbane?, Clasping-leaved Dogbane^. Often confound- 
ed with (b) which it closely resembles. 

101. AP0DA5THERA, Arn. Apodanthera. Cuciirhitaceae. 

Perennial herbs. About 14 species, tropical America; 1 in 

U.S. 

162. APODA^THES, Poit. Apodanthes. Cytinaceae. 

Minute parasites. About 10 species, widely distributed; 1 in 

U. S. 

163. APTERIA, Nutt. Apteria. Burnianiiiceae. 

From Greek, ''leafless". Slender, practically leafless plants. 
Thri'e or four species described, probably merely varieties of a 
single one. North America; 1 in U. S. 

164. APOXOOETO^", L. 1781. ( Amogeton, Apogeton ).Naiadaceae. 
Syn. Ouvirandra, Thou. 1809, AVater plants with fleshy 

farinaceous rhizomes. About 20 species, Asia, Africa and Aus- 
tralia. Ouvirandra includes the species with fenestrated leaves. 

a. A. fenestrdle Hook. (O. fenestralis Poir. ). Madagascar, Lat- 
tice-leaf, Lattice plant, Lace-leaf, Water-yam. Leaves a 
mere skeleton. Fleshy tubers esculent. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 41 

165. AQUILLAKIA, Lam. Aloe-wood. Thymeliaceae. 

From vernacular name, erroneously translated ^ 'eagle wood'* 
Syn. Agallochum, Aloexylum. Trees. About 3 species, China 
to East Indies. 

a. A. Ag'allocha Roxb. (Aloexylum Agallochum Lour. ). Cochin 
China, Assam and ajoining regions. Ihe fragrant wood is 
lignaloes, the Aloes of Scripture (Lign-aloes=lignum aloes, 
aloes- wood) also called Calambac, Agal-wood (i. e. Agallochum 
wood). Aloe- wood, Aggur, Tuggur or Agila-wood, whence by 
confusion with Latin aquila, Eagle-wood. 

166. AQUILEGIA, L. Columbine. Rainmciilaceae. 

From Latin, "eagle-like", the spurs resembling talons. 
Perennial her'^s with fantastic-shaped showy flowers. About 
20 species, north temperate zone; 15 in U. S. The species are 
acrid and the following are reputed diuretic, diaphoretic and 
emnienagogue. 

a. A. Canadensis L. Canada and eastern L". S. AVild Columbine, 

Eed Cokimbine, Bells, Chuckles, Honey-suckle*, Jack-in-trou- 
sers, Rock-lily, Meeting- houses. Planted in gardens for orna- 
ment, as are other indigenous species. 

b. A. vulgaris L. Europe. Cult, in gardens and adv. in LL S. 

European Columbine, Garden Columbine, (Colourbine:{:, Culla- 
vine, Curranbine), Bluebells*, Blue-starry, Boots-and-shoes, 
Capon's- feat her, Capon's-tail, Cock's-foot, Culverwort, Dove's- 
foot, (jrranny's-nightcap, Hawk-feet, Hen-and-chickens* Larly's- 
shoes, I^ady's-.siippers* Snapdragon*, Sowdwort, Two faces- 
under-a hat; Ger. Glockenblume, Ackelei; Fr. Colombine. 

167. ARABIS, L. Rock Cress, Wall (^ress. ^ Cruriferae. 
The Greek name, "Arabian plant'. Syn. Turriiis, L., also 

Sisymbrium, Cardamine, in part. Annual or perennial cress- 
like herbs. About 80 species, mostly of northern hemisphere; 
48 in U. S. 

a. A. alpina L. Sub-arctic Europe, Asia and N. America, also 

cult, in gardens. Alpine Rock-cress, Alpine Molewort, 
Bishop' s-wig, Dusty-husband, March-and-May, May, Snow- 
dri't, Snow-on-the-mountain, Sweet- Alice, White- Alison, 
White-rock. 

b. A, Canadensis L. Canada and northeastern U. S., south to 

Texas. Sickle-pod. 

c. A. glabra (L. )Bernh. (T. glabra L., A. perfoliata Lara. ). 

Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. Tower Mustard, 
Tower Cress. 

d. A. lyrata L. (C. spathulata Michx. ). Canada and northeast- 

ern U. S., also in Japan. Lyre-leaved Rock-cress. Plant, as 
in some other species, pungent, anti-scorbutic. 

168. ARACHIS, L. - Peanut. - Papilionaceae. 

Greek name of some leguminous plant. Low herbs with 
subterranean legumes. About 7 species, tropical America. 



42 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. A. liypog-aea L. Tropical America, widely cult. Peanut,. 
Gon'ber or Gouber (Negroes of southern States), Ground Pea, 
Ground-nut, Earth-nut, Yer-nutt, Hau^ih-nut, Manila-nut; 
Ger. Erdnuss; Fr. Pistache de terre. Seedf esculent; yield a. 
valuable fixed oil called in India Katchung oil. 

169. ARAGALLUS, Neck. Aragallus. Papilioiiacear. 

Syn. Ox,\ tropin, Astragalus, in part. Herbs or j>ub-shrubs 
related to Oxytropis. About 20 species, all of w«- stern U, S. 

170. ARALIA, L. - Aralia. - Araliaceai^. 

Name of unknown origin. Syn. Fatsia, in part. Peren- 
nial aromatic herbs, shrubs or trees. About 27 species, 
N. America and Asia; 6 in U. S. 

a. A. Californica Wats. Pacific Coast of U. S. California Spike- 

nard. Like (e), but larger. 

b. A. llispida Vent. Northeastern U. S. to Labrador and Minne 

sota. Dwarf Elder, Wild Elder, Bristly Sarsaparilla, Brittle- 
stem, Kough or Brittle-stem Sarsaparilla, Pigeon berry. Bark 
diuretic, alterative. 

c. A. iiiulleauli** L. Nortlieastern LT. S. to Manitoba and Mis- 

souri. American Sarsaparilla, Wild or False Sarsaparilla, Vir- 
ginian Sarsaparilla, Small Spikenard, Rabbit' s-voot, Shot-bush, 
Wild Licorice; Ger. Nackte Aralie; Fr. Aralie a tige nue, 
Petit nard. Rhizome of this and of (e), formerly called Nardus 
Americanus, alterative, stimulant, diuretic. 

d. A. papyrifera LTook. ( more correctly Fatsia papyrifera ( Hook. ) 

Dec. & Planch. ). Formosa. The white pith, cut in sheets, is 
the Chinese rice paper. 

e. A. rareniosa L. Northeastern U. S. to New Brunswick and 

Minnesota. Spikenard, American Spikenard, Spignet, Spice- 
berry, Indian-root, Petty -morrel, Life-of-Man, Old-man's-i'oot; 
Ger. Amerikanische Nard; Fr. Nard Americain. See (cV 

f. A. spinosa L. Gulf States to New York. Hercules' -club, 

Toothache-tree, Wild Orange, Spikenard-tree, Pick-tree, Shot- 
bush, Pigeon-tree, Sea Ash, Angelica tree. Southern Prickly 
Elder, Southern Prickly Ashf; (jer. DornigeAralie; Fr. Aralie 
epineuse. Bark acrid, alterative, antiarthritic. 

171. ARAUCARIA, - Araucaria. - Fiiiaceae. 

Lo'ty evergreen trees. About 8 species, waini regions, S. 
America to Australia. 

a. A, rxoelsa R. Br. Norfolk Island. Norfolk Island Pint'. 

Timbei- used for ship building. 

b. A. inibriodta Pavon. Chili and Patagonia. Araucaria, Mon- 

key-puzzle. The most hardy of the Araucarias. Tmifeer valua- 
ble. " Seeds constitute the chief food of the aborigines in some 
regions. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 43 

172. ARBUTUS, L. - Arbutus. - Ericaceae. 

The classical name. Shrubs or trees. About 30 species, 
chiefly of western Asia andN. America; 3 in U. S. 

a. A. Menziosii Pursh. Pacific coast, U. S. California Madrono 

or Madroiia. See 176 (d). 

b. A. Uiiedo L. Mediterranean region. European Strawberry 

tree, Arbute tree, Arbeset, Apple-of-Cain, Cane- Apple; Ger. 
Erdbeerbaum; Fr. Arbousier (Codex), Olonier, Frasier en 
arbre. I\o(jt and leaves astringent. From the berries a spirit 
is distilled. 

c. A. Xalapeiisis H. B. K. (Arctostaphylos Oxacana DC). 

Mexico and southwestern U. S. Mexican Madrono or Mad- 
rona. Leaves have the action of Uva Ursi. 

173. ARCTERANTHIS, Greene. Arcteranthis. Ranuiiciilaeeje. 

From Greek, "northern spring-flower"'. One species in U. S. 

174. ARCTIUM, L. - Burdock. - Coinpositie. 

The Greek name, "bearish", i. e. rough. Syn. Lappa, in 
part. Coarse bienniHl herbs, forming troublesome weeds. 
About 6 species, Eurojje and Asia; 3 nat. in U. S. 

a. A. Lappa L. (L. major Gaertn. ). Europe and Asia, nat. in 

U. S. and widely elsewhere. Burdock, Great Burdock, Baz- 
zies, Bachelor's-buttons* Beggar' s-buttons, Billy-Buttons, 
Bourholm, Clive, Clotbui-^ (Clote-bur, Clit-bur), Cockle-bar* 
(Cockly-bur, Crocklety-bur, Cuckoldy-bur), Cuckold-dock, 
Cucklemoors, Cuckoo-button, Harebur, Hurr-bur, Hardock, 
Hoar-dock, Stick-button, Thistle*, Turkey-bur; Ger. Kletten- 
wurzel; Fr. Bardane, (Codex) Glouteron; Sp. Bardana. See 
(b). 

b. A. minus Schk. (Lappa minor DC, A. Eappa var. minus A- 

Gray). Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. and widely elsewhere- 
Lesser Burdock, Common Burdock (of U. S. ). Generally con- 
founded with (a) and called by the same names. Both are in- 
cluded in A. officinalis Allioni and Lappa vulgaris >.'eilr. 
Root of both species. Lappa U. S. P., Eadix bardanre, and J'ruit, 
/ Fructus lappje. Semen bardanae; alterative, deobstruent. 

175. ARCTOMECO>\ Torr. Arctomecon. Papaverareae. 

From Greek, "northern Poppy". Herbs. Three species in 
western U. S. 

17«. ARCTOSTAPHYLOS, Adans. Bear-berry. Ericaceae. 
From Greek, "bear's grape". Evergreen shrubs or small 
trees. About 25 species, mostly of western N. America- 21 in 
U. S. 

a. A. g'laiica Lindl. California. Great-berried Manzanita. Leaves 
employed like those of (f), as are also those of the Mexican 
species: (b). A. niiicrocifera DC, (c) A. Polifolia Kunth 
and (d) A. toiiientosa Dough, the last being known as Mad- 
rono or Madroiia. See Arbutus (a) and (c). 



44 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

e. A. piingeus H. B. K. California. Common Manzanita, this 

name being applied to the several shrubby Cab fornian species. 

f. A. Uva tjrsi (L. ) Spreng. (Arbutus Uva Ursi L., A. officinalis 

Wimmer). Northf'rn Europe. Asia and N, America, south to 
New Jersey, Colorado and California. Bearberry, Red Bear- 
berry, Bear's Grape^, Uva Ursi, Universe-vine^, Bears Bilberry, 
Bear's Whortleberry, Brawlins, Burren Myrtle, Upland or Moun- 
tain Cranberry, Creashak, Crowberry, Kinnikinnic, Killikinic, 
Meal-berry, Mountain Box, Rock-berry, Sagachomi, Rapper 
dandies (the fruit); Ger. Barentraube; Fr. Uva Ursi, Bus- 
serole, Raisin d'ours (Codex); Sp. Gayuba. Leaves, Uva Ursi, 
U. S. P., Uvse ursi folia, Br., Fol. arctostaphyli ; astringent 
diuretic. 

177. AKECA, L. - Betel-nut. - Sabalaceae. 

From vernacular name, East Indies. Palms with solid nut- 
like fruit. About 25 species, tropical Asia and East Indies. 

ji. A. Catechu L. East Indies. Betel-nut Palm, Art ca-nut Palm, 
Pinang. Seeds, Areca, Br., Semen arecfe; Ger. Arekanuss, 
Betelnuss; Fr. Noix d'arec. Toenicide, masticatory. 

178. ARENGA, Labil. Sugar Palm. Sabalacoae. 

From vernacular name. Syn. Saguerus, in parr. Palms. 
About 5 species, tropical Asia to Australia. 

a.. A. saccharifera Labil. (vSaguerus Rumphii Roxb., S. saccha- 
rifer Bliime, S. Gamuto Hout. ). East Ind<es. Areng Palm, 
Sugar Palm; Condiar, Lontar or Lantar Palm. Tree yields 
Sago, also Palm wine (toddy) and Palm sugar (jaggery). 

179. AREIHUSA, L. Arethusa. Orcliidaceae. 

Dedicated to the nymph Arethusa. Ornamental bulbous 
plants. Two species, one in Japan, one in U. S. 
f 
a. A. biilhosa L. Canada to N. Carolina, west to Minnesota. 
Arethusa, Dragon's- mouth. Wild Pink. 

180. A11GEM6nE, U. Prickly Poppy. Papaveniceae. 

Greek name of a Poppy, from that of an eye-disease it was 
supposed to cure. Prickly herbs with yellow latex and showy 
flowers. About 8 species, all of southern U. S. and Mexico. 

a. A. alba Lestib. (A. albiflora Ilornem. ). South-central U. S. 

W^hite Prickly-poppy, White or Prairie Poppy-thistle. Flant 
acrid, eraeto-cathartic, narcotic; oil from seeds purgative. 

b. A. Mexicdiia L. Tropical America, adv. in southern U. S. 

Mexican Prickly-poppy, Mexican Poppy, Jamaica Yellow 
Thistle, Yellow Poppy-thistle or Flowering-thistle, Thorn 
Poppy, Bird-in-the-bush, Devil's-tig. Properties of (a). 

181. ARISAEMA, Mart. Indian Turnip. Araccae. 
From Greek, "arum-like". Syn. Arum, in part. Peren- 
nial herbs with acrid, starchy corms. About 50 species, mostly 
of Asia; 3 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 45 

Si, A. Dracontinm (L. )Schott. (Arum Draeontinm L. ). Canada 
and eastern U. S. Green-dragon, Dragon-root. Properties of 

(b). 

b. A. triphyllnm (L. ) Torr. (Arum triphyllum L., Arisaema 
atrorubens Blume). Canada and eastern U. S. Indian Tur- 
nip, Jack-in-the-pulpit, Wake-robin, Three-leaved Arum, Wild 
Pepper, Dragon Turnip, Brown-dragon, Devil's-ear; Marsh-, 
Swamp-, Wild-, M* adow- or Pepper-turnip, Starch wort, Bog- 
onion, Priest' s-pintl , Lords-and-Ladies, (Some other syn- 
onyms of Arum maculatum are also sometimes applied to this 
plant. );Ger. Indianische Aronswurz, Zehrwurz, Dreiblattri- 
ger Aron; Fr. Gouet k trois feuilles; Sp. Aro. Corm, Arum, 
Kadix (Tubera) ari indici; acrid, carminative, expectorant. 

182. ARIST0L6cH1A, L. Birihwort; Heartwort. Aristolochia- 

ceae. 

The Greek name, * 'favoring child-birth' '. Syn. Endodeca, 
in part. Perennial herbs or vines with strangely-shaped 
flowers. About 180 species; 11 in U, S. See Corydalis. 

a. A. longa L. Southern Europe. Long Birth wort ; Ger. Langer 

Osterluzei, Lange Hohlwurzel. Rhizome alterative, believed to 
facilitate parturition. 

b. A. inacropliylla Lam. (A. Sipho L'Her). Pennsylvania to 
Georgia and Kansas. Dutchman' s-pipe, Pipe-vine, Big Sar- 
saparilla. Wild Ginger" 



..^ 



c. A. Pistolochia L. Southern Europe. French or Spanish 

Birthwort; Ger. Franzosischer Osterluzei, Netzblatthohlwurzel. 
Rhizome, Kad. pistolochiae, Bad. aristolochiae polyrrhizse. 
Properties and uses of (a). 

d. A. reticulata Nutt. Louisiana and Texas. Snake-root, South- 

ern Serpentaria. Rhizome, Serpentaria U. S. P. , in part, Ser- 
pentarise rhizoma Br., in part. See (f). 

e. A. rotiinda L. Southern Europe. Bound Birthwort, Somer- 

wort; Ger. Eunder Osterluzei, Rund-Hohlwurzel, Gebarmut- 
terswurzel. Properties of (a). 

f. A. Serpentaria L. (Endodeca Serpentaria Klotsch). NeAvYork 

to Michigan and southwards. Serpentaria, Virginia Snake- 
root, Snakeweed, (Snagrel, Sangrel, Sangree root), Serpentary, 
Pelican-flower; (4er. Virginische Schlangenwurzel; Fr. Serpen- 
taire de Virginie (Codex), Viperine de Virginie; Sp. Serpen- 
taria de Virginia. Rhizome and roots, Serpentaria U. S. P., 
Serpen tarise rhizoma, Br., Bad. serpentariae (virginianse), 
Bad. colubrina v. viperina. Stimulant tonic, diaphoretic, 
alterative. 

183. ARMCA, L. - Arnica. - Coiiipositae. 

The classical name, perhaps a corruption of "Ptarmica". 
Syn. Doronicum, in part. Herbs, mostly with yellow flowers. 
About 25 species, northern hemisphere; 22 in U. S. 



46 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYM.^ 

a. A. moiittina L. (D. Arnica R. B>-. ). Nortliern Europe, Asia 
and N. America. Arnica, Leopard's-bane, Wolf's-bane, Moun- 
tain Tobacco; Ger. Wohlverleih, Amika, Fallk aut, Gems 
blurae, Blmblume; Fr. Arnica (Codex), Arnique. F(owe7\'i, 
Arnicae flore?, U. S. P., rhizome and rootlet.% .-.micae radix, 
U.S. P., Arnicse rhizoma, Br. Lenrex, Folia Arnicae, Herba 
doronici gennanici. Irritant, nauseant, narcotic, vulnerary. 

Indigenous species, liaving probably similar properties are (b) 
A. alpiiia Oliu, (c) A. acaulis (Walt. ) B. S. P. (A. nudicaulis 
Ell. ) and (d) A. Chamissoiiis Less. (A. mollis Hook. ). 

184. ARN6sERIS, Gaertn. Lamb-Succory. Ciclioriaeeae. 

From Greek, "lamb succory". Syn. Hyposeris, in [)art. 
Herb. One species. 

a. A. minima (L. ) Dumort. (Hyposeris minima L., A. pnsilla, 
Gaertn.). Western Europe, adv. in L'. S. Lamb-succory, 
Dwarf Swine' s or Hog' s Succory, Dwarf Nipplewort. 

185. AR6nIA, Pers. Choke-berry, Choke Pear. Pomacejie. 
Name from ''Aria", the Beam-tree. Syn. Mespilus, Pvrus, 

in part. Shrubs with berrv-like pomes. Two species, both in 
U. S. 

a. A. arbutifolia (L. ) Ell. (P. arbutifolia L. ). Canada and 
eastern U. S. Red Choke-berry or Choke-pear, Dog-berry tree. 
Fntit excessively astringent. 

18(). ARRACACIA, Bancr. 1826 (Arracacha). Umbellifera(\ 

Syn. Veltea DC. 1830. Herbs, with fleshy aromatic root**. 
About 12 species, all American; 7 in southwestern U. S. 

187. ARTEMISIA, L. Wormwood, Sage-brush. Compositae. 

Named for Artemisia, wife of Mausolus. Syn. Absinthium, 
in part. Aromatic bitter herbs or small shrubs. About 200 
s]»ecies, northern hemisphere and S. America; 50 in U. S. 

a. A. Abrotaniim L. Southern Europe and western Asia; cult. 

and adv. in U. S. Southernwood, Abrotanum ( Apple-rienniet, 
Averoynej), Boy's-love, Kis<-me-quick-and-go, Lad-savour, 
Maiden's- ruin, Maid's-love, Old-man, Smelling-wood, Sloven- 
wood, Sweet-Benjamin; Ger. Eberraute, Eherreiskraut, Gert- 
wnrz, Stabwurzel; Fr. Aurone Male, Citronelle (Codex); Sp. 
Abrotano. PUint, Herba abrotani, aromatic, bitter; odor 
lemon-like. 

b. A. Absinthium L. (Absinthium vulgare Lam. ). North Africa, 

Europe and northern Asia, cult, and adv. in U. S. Worm- 
wood, (Warmot, Wormit, Wereniod) Absinthium, Mad^rwort, 
Mingwort, Old-woman; Ger. V\ermuth, Alsei, Wurmtod; Fr. 
A])sinthe (grande), Aluyne (Codex); Sp. Ajenjos. Top.s avd 
leares, Absinthium, U. S. P., Summitates absinthii; stinm- 
lant tonic, anthelmintic, narcotic. 

■c. A. Abyssinica Oliv. Abyssinia. Tshuking, Zerechtit. I*l(tiif 
aromatic bitter. 



SflENTlFIC AND POPULAR. 47 

«1. A. Cilia lierg. Orient. See (ni). 

e. A. J)raeuii('ulus L. Southern Europe and Asia, also widely 
cult. Tarragon (i. e. Dragon), Biting-dragon; (ier. Dragun- 
beifuss. Kaisersalat; Fr. Sp. Estragon. Plant anise-scented, 
used as a condiment. 

1. A. lilifoliaTorr. Nebraska to Texas and Utali. Silvery Worm- 
wood, Wormwood Sage, locally known as Southernwood. 

g. A. frig-ida Wild. Minnesota to Iddho, south to Texas, Moun- 
tain Sage, Pasture Sage-brush, Wild Sage, Wormwood S;ige, 
Sierra Sal viaf. PA wY aromatic, bitter, diaphoretic, febrifuge. 

\\. A. g'hicialis L. Switzerland. Silky Wormwood. This species, 
also (i) A. iiiiistelliiia Vill. and (j) A. spicaia Wulf., both 
of the Swiss Alps, is used in the preparation of absinthe. 
Floirerhiff plant, Herba absinthii alpini, Herba genippi albi; 
(Jer. Weisser (xenipp; Fr. (ienipi vrai (Codex); stimulant, 
bitter, tonic. 

k. A. gnaphalodes Xutt (A. Ludoviciana var. gnaphalodes T, & 
Gr. ). Texas to western Ontario and westward. Western Mug- 
wort, Prairie or Cudweed Mugwort, Western vSage. Fruit of 
this also of (1) A. dracniUMiloides Pursh, used as food by 
Indians. 

m. A. Moxa DC. China. Moxa plant. From the leaves are pre- 
pared Chinese moxa, used formerly as a cautery. 

n. A. paiiclflora (Ledeb. ) Weber (A. maritima var. pauciflora 
Ledeb., A. Lercheana. Kar. & Kir. A. maritima var. Stech- 
manniana Besser ) . Western Asia. This plant rather than ( d ) , 
as formerly supposed, yields the Levant worm-seed. The iinex- 
panded floivevs; Levant, Aleppo or Alexandria Wormseed; San 
tonic-, U. S. P., Flores (v. Authodia) cinae. Semen cinae. 
Semen contra s. sanctum s. santonici; Ger. Wurmsamen, Zitt- 
wei-saraen, Cinabliithen; Fr. Semen contra, Semencine, Bar- 
botuie (Codex); Sp. Yantonica. Anthelmintic. Source of 
Santonin. 

o. A . Poutica L. Southern Europe to Central Asia. Roman ' 
Wormwood; Ger. Eomischer oder Pontischer Wermuth: Fr. 
Absinthe Pontique ou petite (Codex). Properties of (b). 

]». A. tridentata Nutt. Nebraska 1o Colorado and westward. 
Sage-brush, Common Sage-brush, Sage-^vood, Mountain Sage. 
This and other species, as (q) A. arbusciila Nutt. and (r) 
A. triftda Nutt., Dwarf Sage-brush, have properties of (g). 

s. A. viil^dris L. Europe, northern Africa and Asia, nat. in 
U. S. Mugwort, (Muggert, Mogford), Common Mugwort, 
Apple-pie, Bulwand, Fat-hen* Felon-herb, Green Ginger, 
Mugweed, Motherwort, Smotherwood, Sailor's Tobacco, Worm- 
wood*; Ger. Beifuss, Jungfernkraut, Weiberkraut; Fr. Armoise 
(Codex), Couronne de Saint-jean; Sp. Artemisa. J/erA, Herba 
artemisiu'. enunenagogue, antispasmodic. Root tonic, anti- 
spasmodic. 



48 TLAXT NAMES AND .-YXOXYMS ' 

188. AIITOCARPUS, Forst. Breadfruit, etc. Artocarpaceae. 

From Greek, "bread fruit". 8yn. Iridaps, Polyphema, 
Soccus, Eademachia, in part. Trees. About 60 specie-^, warm- 
er regions of Old World. 

a. A. incisa L. (A. communis Forst., Iridaps Kima Commers, 

Soccus granosus Rumph., Rademachia incisa Thunb, ). East 
Indies to Polynesia, cult, in all tropical countries. Breadfruit 
tree. Bread-tree; Fr. Rima, Arbre k pain. Fruit esculent. 

b. A. integrifolia L. (Soccus major Rumph., Polypliema cauli- 

florum Lour. ). East Indies. Jack-tree, Jaca- or Jak-tree. 
Fruit, Jack- fruit, esculent. 

189. ARUM, S. - - Arum. - - Araceae. 
The ancient Greek name. Acrid herbs. About 45 species, 

Europe and Asia. 

a. A. macnlatum L. Europe. Spotted Arum (Aron, Aaron), 
Adder' s-root; Bobbins, Buckram, Cocky-baby, Cuckoo-babies, 
Cuckoo-pint, Dragon-root, Great (also Small) Dragon, Friar' s- 
cowl, Gaglee, Bloody-man' s-finger, Kings-and-queens, Lords- 
and-ladies, Lamb-lakins, Lily-grass, Mandrake*, Nightingales, 
Parson-and-clerk, Poison-berry, Quakers, Sago-plant, School- 
masters, Snake' s-meat, Starch-root, Wake-robin, W^ild Lily: 
Ger. Pfaflfenpint, Gefleckter Aronstab, Aronwurz, Zehrwurz; 
Fr. Arum, Gouet, Pied-de-veau (Codex), Rhizome (Conn), 
Rhizoma (Tubera) ari, Rad. dracontii minoris; Acrid, carmina- 
tive, expectorant. Source of Portland Arrow-root. 

190. ARUNCUS, Adans. Goat' s-beard. Rosaceae. 
The classical name. Syn. Spiraea, in part. Tall perennial 

herbs with floAvers in panicled spikes. Two species, 1 in Japan, 
1 circumpolar and in U. S. 

191. ARUNDINARIA, Michx. Small Cane. Granilnpae. 

Name Latin, "reed like". Bamboo-like grasses. About 24 
species; 3 in U. S. See Bambusa (j) and (k). 

a. A. macrosperma Michx. Southeastern U. S. Cancbrake. 
Culms used for fishing-rods, etc. 

192. ARt'NDO, L. - - Reed. - - Gramineao. 

Latin name of "reed" (properly Harundo). Tall reedy 
grasses. About 35 species; 1 in U. S. 

a. A. Donax li. Mediterranean region. Reed, Spanfsli Cane; Fr. 
Canne de Provence, Grand roseau (Codex). Rhizome diuretic, 
erumenagogue. 

193. ASAGRAEA, Lindl. 1839 (Asa Graya). Liliaceae. 
Named for the distinguished American botanist, Asa Gray. 

Syn. Schoenocaulon Gray, 1848, Skoinolon Raf. ; Sabadilla, 
Helonias, Veratrum, in part. Scapose bulbous herbs. About 
5 species, Florida to Venezuela; 2 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 49 

a. A. officinalis (Ch. & Sch.) Lindl. (Veratrum officinale Ch. & 
Sch., Schoenoeanlon officinale Gray, Helonias officinalis Don, 
Sabadilla officinarum Brandt). Mexico to Venezuela. Ceva- 
dilla, Sabadilla, Indian Barley-caustic. Seedi^, Sabadilla Br. ; 
Ger. Sabadillsamen, Laiisekorner, Laiisesamen; Fr. Cevadille 
(Codex); Sp. Cebadilla; source of veratrine; insecticide. 

194. AS ARUM, L. Asarabacca, etc. Aristolocliiaceae. 

The classical name. Stemless perennials with aromatic 
rhizomes. About 18 species, north temperate zone; 13 in U. S. 

a. A, Canadense L. Canada to N. Carolina and Kansas. Canada 
Snakeroot, "Wild Ginger, Indian Ginger, False Coltsfoot, Ver- 
mont or Heart Snakeroot, Black or Coltsfoot Snakeroot, Colic- 
ro<3t, Cat's-foot, Broad-leaved Asarabacca; Ger. Canadische 
Schlangenwurz, Indischer Ingwer; Fr. Asaret; Sp. Azaro. 
Bhizome, Asarum, U. S. P., Kad. asari canadensis; aromati«, 
carminative, diaphoretic; in large doses, irritant. Other 
American species having similar properties are (b) A. arifo- 
lium Michx., Virginia to Alabama, Halberd-leaved Asarum, 
(c) A. caiulatuni Lindl., California, (d) A. micraiitliiim 
(Schuttl»v. ) Small, Virginia and N. Carolina, Large-flowered 
Asarum and (e ) A. yirg-mienm L., Virginia to Georgia, Vir- 
ginia Asarum, Southern Wild Ginger, all three of these being 
called also Heart-leaf. 

f. A. Europdeum L. Europe. Asarabacca, European Snakeroot, 

Foalfoot, Hazelwort, Public-house plant, Wild Nard; Ger. 
Hasehvurz, Wilder Xard; Fr. Asarum, Cabaret (Codex). 
Mhizome, Bad. asari. Bad. nardi rusticse (v. silvestris); Emeto- 
cathartic, sternutatory. * 

g. A. Sieboldii Miq. Japan. To-sai-shin. Rhizome aromatic, 

pungent. 

195. ASCLEPIAS, L. Silkweed, Milkweed. Asclepiadaceae. 

Greek name of a plant dedicated to -^Esculapius. Perennial 
herbs, mostly with white milk-sap. About 85 species, mostly of 
Isew World; 49 in U. S. The species are called also Swallow- 
wort. 

a. A. Curassaviea L. Tropical America. Bastard Ipecacuanha 

or Ipecac, Blood-flower, Blood-we<^d, Bed-head. In Central 
America called Cancerillo or Ponchishuiz, Herb and roof, irri- 
tant, emetic, alterative. 

b. A. incarnata L. Canada to Tennessee and Kansas. White 

Indian Hemp, Swamp Milkweed, Flesh-colored Swallowwort 
or Asclepias, Rose-colored Silkweed, Rose or Swamp Silkweed, 
Water Nerve-root; Ger. Fleischfarbige Schwa Ibenwurzel; Fr. 
Asclepiade incarnate. Itoot cardiac tonic, diuretic, anthelmin- 
tic. 

c. A. Syriaca L. (A. Cornuti Dec. ). Canada to N. Carolina and 

Kansas. Silkweed, Common Silkweed or Milkweed, Silky 
Swallowwort, Virginian Silk, Wild Cotton; Ger Seidenpflanze; 
Fr. Asclepiade k la sole, Herbe h la ouate. Boot diuretic, dia- 
phoretic, sedative. Milk sap vulnerary. 



50 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. A. tuberosa L. Ontario to Florida, west to Arizona and 
Minnesota. Pleurisy-root, Butterfly- weed, Canada- root, Indian 
Posy, Orange-root, Orange vSwallowwort, Tuber-root, White- 
root, Wind-root, Yellow or Orange Milkweed; Ger. KnoUige 
Schwalbenwurzel; Fr. Asclepiade tubereuse. Root, Asclepias, 
U. S. P. ; diaphoretic, expectorant, carminative, in large doses 
emeto-cathartic. 

1»6. ASCLEPIODORA. Gray. Milkweed. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, ''gift of Aesculapias". Syn. Anantherix, 
Asclepias, in part. Milky herbs resembling Asclepias. Five 
or six species, N. America; 2 in U. S. 

1»7. ASCYRUM, L. St. Peter's- wort. Hypericaceae. 

From Greek, "not rough" Small smooth shrubby, plants 
resembling Hypericum. About 6 species, N. America; 5 in 
U. S., mostly southern. 

a. A. hypericoides L. 1753 (A. Crux-Andreae L. 1768). Eastern 
U. S. St. Andrew' s-cross. Root resolvent. 

198. ASIMINA, Adans. - Papaw. - Auonaceae. 

From aboriginal name, Assimin. Syn. Anona (Annona), 

J^^in part. Small trees or shrubs, some with edible fruits. 
About 8 species, all of U. S. and Mexico. 

a. A. triloba (L. ) Dunal (Anona triloba L. ). Kew York to 
Michigan and southward. Papaw, Pawpaw, North American 
Papaw, Custard-apple, False Banana, Fetid-shrub; Fr. Asimi- 
nier. Fruit edible. Seeds emetic. 

199. ASPARA(tUS, L. Asparagus. Convallariaceae. 

The ancient Greek name of Persian origin. Perennial herbs 
with foliage consisting of minute branchlets. About 100 species, 
Old World. 

a. A. officinalis L. Europe, everywhere cult, as a food-plant. 

Asparagus, (Sparagus, Sperage) Sparrow-grassJ, Gra<ss, Pad- 
dock-cheese; Ger. Spar gel; Fr. Asperge (Codex); Sp. Espar- 
raguera. Shoots, Aspara^i turiones, used as food. Rhizome, 
Hadix asparagi, Ead. atticis, like the shoots, actively diuretic, 
cardiac stimulant. 

b. A. scdber Brign. (A. amarusDC, A. marinus Keich. ) . South- 

ern Europe. Bitter Asparagus. Properties of (a). "John- 
son's Syrup" was made from this plant. 

200. ASPERUOO, L. German Madwort. Boragiiiaceae. 

From Latin, "rough". A small rough-hispid herb. One 
species. 

a. A. procumbeiis L. Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. German 
Madwort, Catch-weed, Great Goose-grass, Small Wild Bngloss. 
Plant diaphoretic, vulnerary. 

201. ASPERULA, L. Woodruff, etc. Rnbiaceae. 
From Latin, "roughish". Perennial herbs with whorled 

leaves. About 80 species, Old World. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR, 51 

a. A. eyiidnchica L. Europe to Asia Minor. Quinsy wort, Squin- 

ancv, Plerb-of-vine, Shepherd's Bedstraw. Plant formerly 
used externally in quinsy. 

b. A. odorata L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Sweet Woodruff ( Wood- 

rip, Woodrowel, Woodrowe), Sweet Hairhoof, Sweet-grass, 
Hay-plant, Mugwet, Mugget, Rock- weed, Star-gra'-s; Ger. 
Waldmeister, Herzfreude, Sternleberkraut; Fr. Asp^rule. 
Herb, Herba asperulse, H. matrisilvae, H, hepaticse stellatse, H. 
cordialis; contains coumarin; diuretic, deobstruent, hepatic 
stimulant. 

202. ASPICARPA, Rich. Aspicarpa. Malpighiaceae. 

From Greek, "shield fruit". Low shrubs. About 5 species, 
Mexico and its borders; 2 in U. S. 

203. ASPIDOSPERMA, Mart. & Zucc. Quebracho. Apocynacea?. 

From Greek, ' 'shield seed' '. Trees. About 55 species, S. 
America. 

a. A. Quebraclio-blanco Schlecht. Argentine Republic. Que- 
bracho (i. e. axe-breaking), Quebracho bianco. Bark^ Aspi- 
dosperma, U. S. P.. Cortex aspidospermatis quebracho. Tonic, 
antispasmodic, especially in asthma. 

204. ASPLENIUM, L. Spleen wort. Polypodiaceae. 

A cosmopolitan genus of ferns of about 350 species; 21 in 
U. S. The following have been used in place of Adiantum, 
q. V. 

a. A. Adiantiim-nigrum L. Europe, Asia and Oceanica. Black 

Maiden-hair, Black-oak Fern, Petty Fern. 

b. A. Filix-foemina L. Europe, Asia and N. America, (Common 

in U. S.). Female Fern, Lady Fern, Backache Brake. 

c. A. Ruta-muraria L. Europe and widely distributed ( Eastern 

U. S. ). White Maidenhair, Wall-rue Spleen wort. Stone- rue, 
Rue Fern, Tentwort, Wall-pie. 

d. A. Trichomaiies L. Widely distributed (L^ S.). Maidenhair 

Spleenwort, English Maidenhair, Waterwort. 

205. ASTEPHANUS, R. Br. Astephanus. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "crownless", alluding to the stamens. Under- 
shrubs or climbers. About 30 species, warmer regions of Africa 
and America; 1 in U. S. 

206. ASTER, L. - Aster. - Compositae. 

The Greek name, "star" -flower. Perennial, rarely annual, 
herbs, the characteristic wild flower of late fall. About 250 
species, most abundant in N. xVmerica; 125 in U. S. The 
Indian name is It-brings-the-frost. Local names in America 
are Frost-flower, Good-bye-summer, Daisy (Ohio). The follow- 
ing among the common species of the eastern U. S^. have special 
names, but these are not restricted in popular usage to the re- 
spective species. 



52 PLANT XAMES AXD SYNONYMS 

a. A. cordifoliiis L. Blue Wood-aster, Bee-weed, Tongue. 

b. A. dumosus L. Kice-button Aster. 

c. A. ericoides L. White Heath-aster, White Eosemary, Dog- 

fennel*, Mare's-tail, Michaelmas Daisy*, Scrub-brush. 

d. A. birsuticaulis Lind. Old-field Sweet, Old Virginia Stick 

-weed, White-devil, Wire-weed. 

e. A. Lowrieanus Porter. Bee-weed, Blue-devil. 

f. A. multifloriis Ait. White or Dense-flowered Wreath-aster, 

Fall-flower. 

g. A. Novae-Aiigliae L., New England Aster, Michaelmas Daisy*. 

h. A. piiniceiis L. Eed-stalk or Purple-stem Aster, Early Pur- 
ple Aster; Cocash, Meadow Scabish, Swan-weed, Squaw-weed*. 
Root stimulant, diaphoretic, antispasmodic. 

i. A. Tradescanti L. Michaelmas Daisy, Blue Camomile, Blue 
Daisy. 

207. ASTILBE, Hamilton. ^ Astilbe. Saxifragaceae. 

From Greek, "without brightness" . Perennial herbs with 
large decompound leaves. About 7 species, N. America and 
eastern Asia; 1 in U. S. 

a. A. biternata (Vent.) Brit. (Tiarella biternata Vent. A. decan- 
dra D. Don). Southeastern U. S. False Goat's-beard. 

J 

208. ASTRAGALUS, L. Milk-vetch, etc. Papilionaeeffi. 

Greek name of a leguminous plant. Herbs or more or less 
shrubby Vetch-like plants. About 1000 species, most abundant 
in northern Asia; 300 in U. S. 

a. A. Baeticus L. Southern Europe. Swedish Coffee; Ger. 

Stragalkaffee. /S'eecZ.?, a substitute for coflfee. 

b. A. crassicarpus Nutt. (A. caryocarpus Ker, A. carnosus Pursh). 

Manitoba to Texas and Colorado. Ground Plum, Buffalo Ap- 
ple, Buffalo Bean, Buffalo Pea. Fleshy legumes edih]e. See (o). 

c. A. crotahiriae (Benth. ) A. Gray. California. California Loco 

-weed, Loco-plant, Crazy-weed. Plant poisonous to stock. 

See(p). 

d. A. exscapus L. Europe. Moot mucilaginous, diuretic. 

e. A. glycypjiyllos L, Europe and northern Asia. Wild Licorice 

(Liquorice), Licorice Vetch. Leaves and seeds have a sweet 
taste, diuretic. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 53 

f. A. ^ummifer Labil. Syria. Tragacanlh shrub, Goat' s-thorn. 
Gummy exudate, Tragacanth, not to be pronounced trajacanth; 
Syrian Tragacanth, Goat' s-thorn gum , Hog-gum, Tragacanttia, 
U. S. P,, Br., Gummi tragacantha; Ger. Traganth, Fr. Gomme 
adragante (Codex); Sp. Goma tragacanta. Demulcent. Gum 
tragacanth is produced also by (g) A. adscendens Bois. & 
Hsk., Persia; (h) A. bracliycalyx Fischer, Central Asia; (i) 
A. Cretlciis Lam., Greece; (j ) A. cylleiieiis Bois. & Held. ; (k) 
A. microcephalus Willd., Asia Minor; (1) A. pycnocladus 
Bois. & Hsk., Persia; (m) A. stromatodes Bunge, Syria; (n) 
A. verus Olivier, Persia. 

o. A. Mexieaims A. DC. (A. trichocalyx Nutt., [not Trautv. ). 
Jllinois to Nebraska and Texas. Ground Plum, Prairie Apple. 
Fleshy legumes edible. See (b). 

p. A. mollissimus Torr. Nebraska to Texas. Texas Loco-weed, 
Loco plant. Woolly Loco-weed, Crazy-weed, Rattle-weed. 
This as well as (c) and some other species produce in horses 
and other animals peculiar intoxicating effects. See also 
Spiesia Lamberti. 

209. ASTRANTIA, L. - Astrantia. - Umbelliferae. 

Herbs. About 10 species, Europe and western Asia. 

a. A. major L. Europe. Black Sanicle, Imperial Masterwort, 
Black or Bastard Hellebore; Fr. Eadiaire, Sanicle femelle. 
Moot, Bad. imperatoriae nigrae; aromatic, alterative, astringent. 

210. ASTROCARYUM, G. W. Meyer. Astrocaryum. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'star fig' ' . Thorny palms. About 35 species, 
tropical America. 

a, A. vulgare Mart. S. America. Fruit, source of Tucum oil. 

211. ATAEXIA, Endl. Ataenia. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "without fillet". Syn. Carum, in part. Herbs, 
Three species in U. S. 

a. A. Gairdneri H. & A. (C. Gairdneri Benth. ). Wyoming to 
Washington and California. Tuberous roots, called yamp, used 
by the Indians for food, as are those of the Californian (b) A. 
Kellogii (A. Gray) Greene (C. Kelloggii Gray). 

212. ATHAMANTA, L. Candia Carrot. Umbelliferae. 

Syn. Libanotis, in part. Herbs. About 18 species, Europe 
and Asia. 

a. A. Creteiisis L. (Libanotis hirsuta Roehl. ). Mediterranean 
region. Cretan Carrot, Candia Carrot; Fr. Daucus de Crete 
(Codex). /SeecZ aromatic, carminative, diuretic. 

213. ATHEROSPERMA, Labil. Sassafras*. Monimiaceae. 

Aromatic trees. Four species, Australia to S. America. 

a. A. moscliatnm Labil. Australia and Tasmania. Tasmanian 
Sassafras tree. Bark tonic, astringent, aromatic with nutmeg- 
like odor. See Doryphora. 



54 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

214. ITHYSANUS, Greene. _ Athysanus. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, "without fringe". Slender annual. One 
species, California. 

215. ATRACTYLIS, L. Atractylis. Compositae. 

Ancient Greek plant name. Herbs. About 20 species, Med- 
iterranean region to China. 

a. A. gummifera L. Southern Europe. Fr. Chameleon blanc. 
Exudate sold in Greece an pseudo-mastich or acantho-mastich. 

216. ATRAGENE, L. Virgin' s-bower*. Raniiuculaceae. 

Greek name for some vine. Syn. Clematis, in part. Peren- 
nial climbers with showy flowers. About 4 species, northern 
U. S. 

SL A. Americana Sims (C. verticillaris DC). British America 
south to Virginia and Minnesota. Purple Virgin's-bower, 
Mountain or Whorl-leaved Clematis. 

217. ATRICH6sERIS, A. Gray. - - Ciehoriaocae. 

From Greek, ''bald Succory". One species in western U. S. 

218. ATRIPLEX, L. Orach, Salt-bush. Chenopodiaceac. 

The ancient Greek name, "not nourishing". Syn. Calligo- 
num, in part. Plants resembling Chenopodium. many grow- 
ing in saline soil and so valuable as fodder plants. About 130 
species, cosmopolitan; 56 in U. S. 

a. A. cauesceiis (Pursh) James (C. canescens Pursh ) . S. Dakota 

to Mexico and California. Bushy Atriplex, Cenizo. 

b. A. halimoides Lind., (c) A. Muelleri Benth. and (d) A. 

nummularia Lind. are among the most valuable "Salt-bushes" 
of Australia. 

e. A. hastata L. Europe and northeastern N. America. Hal- 

berd-leaved Orach^, Lamb's-quarters, Fat-hen, Hard-iron. 
Plant sometimes used as a pot herb. 

f. A. hortensis L. Asia and cult., especially in Europe. Garden 

Orach (Orache, Orage, Arach, Areche), Mountain Spinach, 
Bonny-dame, Butter-leaves; Fr. Arroche. Plant used a« 
Spinach; seeds emetic. 

219. ATROPA, L. - Belladonna, etc. - Solanaccae. 

Name from that of one of the Fates of Greek mythology. 
Poisonous herbs. About 4 species, Europe, Asia and S. 
America. 

a, A. Belladonna L. Southern Europe to central Asia. Deadly 
Nightshade, Belladonna (i. e. beautiful lady, perhaps from ef- 
fect on the pupil of the eye). Banewort, Death' s-herb, Doft-berrj, 
Dway-berry, Dwale, Great Morel, Jacob's-ladder*, Manicou, 
Mad, Mekilwort, Poison Black Cherry, Sleeping Nightshade; 
Ger. ToUkirsche, Wolfskirche, Tollkraut; Fr. Belladone 
( Codex ),Morellefurieuse. Leaves, Belladonnse folia, U. S. P., 
Br; Folia belladonnas, P. G. ^oo^,Belladonn8e radix, U. S. P., 
Br. Deliriant narcotic, mydriatic, anodyne. Contains atro- 
pine. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 55 

220. ATTALEA, H. B. K. Cohune Palm, etc. Sabalaceae 
Named for Attains, king of Pergamum. Tall palms. About 

30 species, tropical America. 

a. A. Colinne Mart. Honduras. Cohune, Cahoun or Corazo Palm. 

Fruit yields a fixed oil. 

b. A. fiiiiifera Mart. Brazil. Bast Palm, Broom Palm, Pissaba. 

-Seec/, Coquilla-nut, used in turnery, iea/ sto/^-.s furnish fibre 
for cordage, known as Monkey-grass or Para-grass. 

221. AYENA L. - - Oat. - - Gramineae. 

The ancient Latin name. About 50 species, mostly Old 
World; 6 in U. S. 

a. A. satiya L. Widely cultivated as a cereal. Common Oats, 
(Awts, Woats, Wocks, Wots, Yaits, Yetts) Aits (Scotland) 
Hafer-corn, Haver, Haws; Ger. Hafer; Fr. Avoine (Codex). 
Seed esculent. Medicinal properties probably mythical. 

222. AYERRHdA, L. Tree-Sorrel. Oxalidaceae. 

Named for Averrhoes, Arabian naturalist, d. 1198. Small 
trees with Ash-like foliage and edible fruit. Two known spec- 
ies, China. 

a. A. BiliDibi L. China, cult, in East Indies. Bilimbi tree (Bi- 

limbing, Bilimby, Blimbing), Cucumber- tree. Fruit acid, used 
for pickles, confections, etc. 

b. A. Car«4mbola L. China, cult, in East Indies. Carambola 

tree, Caramba. Fruit used for tarts, etc. 

228. AVIC^NMA, L. Mangrove.* Verbenaeeat^ 

Named for the Arabian Avicenna. Littoral trees with habit 
of Rhizophora. Two species; 1 in U. S. 

a. A. nitida Jacq. Florida, West Indies to east Africa. Black 

Mangrove, Olive Mangrove, Blackwood, ('ourida. Bark as- 
tringent, used in tanning. 

b. A. officinalis L, New Zeland to Australia. White Mangrove, 

Manawa of the Maoris. 

224. AYENIA, Loefl. (Dayenia) - - Sterculiaceae . 

Herbs or shrubs. About 16 species, warmer regions of New 
World; 2 in T. S. 

225. AZALEA, L. Azalea, Honeysuckle*. Ericaceae. 
From Greek, "arid". Syn. Rhododendron, in part. Shrubs 

with large showy flowers. About 40 species, Asia and N. 
America; 6 in V. S. 

a, A. niidiflora L. (Rhododendron nudiflorum Torr. ). Eastern 
V. S. to Texas. Wild Honeysuckle, Purple or Early Honey- 
suckle, Purple or Pink Azalea, Election Pink, Swamp Pink, 
Pinkster-flower. A parasitic fungus on it is known as Swamp 
Apple, May Apple, Honeysuckle Apple, Swamp CheeseR. 



56 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. A. viscosa L. (Rhododendron viscosum Torr. ). Eastern U. S. 
to Texas. Swamp Pink, Meadow Pink, Swamp Honeysuckle, 
White or Clammy Honeysuckle, Clammy Azalea, Spring- bloom. 
Var. glauca Michx. is Cinnamon Honeysuckle. [Other in- 
digenous species are (c) A. arboresceus Pursh, Tree or Smooth 
Azalea, Smooth Honeysuckle; (d) A. caneseens Michx., Moun- 
tain or Hoary Azalea; (e) A. liitea L., Flame Azalea, Yellow 
Honeysuckle.] 

220. BACCHARIS, L. Baccharis, Groundsel. Compositae. 

Greek name of an aromatic plant. Dioecious shrubs with 
small flower heads. About 275 species, all American; 20 in 
. . U.S. 

a. B. halimifolia L. Eastern and southern U. S. near sea-board, 

also West Indies. Groundsel tree, Groundsel bush. Pencil-tree, 
Cotton-seed tree. Plowman's Spikenard. Plant aromatic, de- 
mulcent. 

b. B. pilularis DC. California. Kidney-root. Plant, diuretic. 

227. BAERIA, Fisch. & Mey. Baeria. Compositae. 
Named for Karl Ernst von Baer, Russian naturalist. *Syn. 

Dichfeta, Burrielia, in part. Mostly annual, with yellow flowei-s. 
About 23 species, all of California. 

228. BAHIA, Lag. - Bahia. - Compositae. 

Named for J. F. Bahi, Spanish botanist. Syn. Trichophyl- 
lum, in part. Herbs or sub-shrubs with yellow flowers. About 
16 species, all American; 12 in U. S. 

229. BAILEYA5 Harv. & Gray. ■ Baileya. Compositae. 

Named for Jacob Whitman Bailey, American microscopist. 
Floccose- woolly herbs. 5 Three species, southwestern U. S. 

230. BALLOTA, L. Black Horehound, etc. Labiatae. 
The ancient Greek name, "rejected", i. e. by cattle. Peren- 
nial hairy herbs, some shrubby. About 25 species, Old World; 
1 nat. in U. S. 

a. B. nigra, L. (B. foetid a Lam. ). Europe, adv. in U. S. Black 
Horehound, Hairhound, Black Archangel, Dunny Nettle; Fetid, 
Stinking or Bastard Horehound, Henbit, Stinking-Roger; Ger. 
Schwarzer A.ndorn, Gemeine Ballote; Fr. Marube noir, Marube 
fetide. Flowering herb, H. ballotse, H. manibii nigri v. foetidi, 
antispasmodic, anthelmintic. 

281. BALSAMORHiZ.4, Hook. Balsam root. Compositae. 

From Greek, "balsam root". Syn. Kalliactis, Espeletia, 
Buphthalraum, Helianthus, in part. Perennials with fleshy 
balsamic roots. Ten species, all of western U. S. 

a. B. sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. (Buphthalmum sagittatum Pursh, 
E. sagittata Nutt. Includes also B. helianthoides Nutt.). 
Colorado and northwestward. Boots of this and some other 
species, notably (b) B. incana Nutt. used as food by the 
aborigines. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 57 

232. BAMBtfSA, Schb. (Bambos, Bambus). Bamboo. Gramineae. 
From vernacular, East Indies. Gigantic grasses. About 80 

species, natives of warm countries. 

a. B. vulgaris Schrad. India, now nat. in all tropical countries. 
Common Bamboo. Uses innumerable. 

The following are among the numerous species known as 
Bamboo; (b) B. ariuidinacea Willd., Thorny Bamboo of 
India; (c)B. aspera Schult. (120 ft.), East Indies; (d) B. 
Brandisii Munro (120 ft.), Tenasserim and Pegu; (e) B, 
Balcooa Roxb. (70ft.), Bengal to Assam; (f) B. polymorpha 
Munro (80 ft. ), Burma; (g) B. spinosa Roxb. (100) ft), 
Bengal; (h) B. Tiilda Roxb. (70 ft), Bengal to Burma. 

Bamboos belonging to other genera are (i) Aiitlirosty lidiiim 
excelsum Griseb. (80 ft.), West Indies; (j) Aruiidinaria acii- 
iiiinata Munro (20 ft ), Mexico; (k) Aruiidinaria tesselata 
Munro, (20ft.), S. Africa (see also 191); (1) Ceplialostachyimi 
pergracile Munro (40 ft. ), Burma; (m) Cliusquea simplici- 
fiora Munro (80 ft. ), Panama; (n) Dendrocalamus Hainiltoui 
Nees (60 ft.), Himalayas; (o) (xigantocliloa lieterostachya 
Munro (30 ft ), Malacca; (p) Guadua refracta Munro (80 ft. ), 
Brazil; (q) Merostachys Clausseni Munro, (.^Oft), Brazil; (r) 
Mstus Bourboiiicus Gmel. (50 ft ), Bourbon, (s) Oxyten- 
antliera Abyssinica Munro (50 ft), Abyssinia to Angola; (t) 
Phyllostacliys nigra Munro, (25 ft.), China and Japan; (u) 
Flanotia nobilis Munro, New Granada, (v) Pseudostacliyum 
polymorphum Munro (very tall), Himalayas, (w) Schlzo- 
stachyum Bhimei Nees, Java. 

233. BAPHIA, Afzel. Camwood. Papilionaceae. 

Trees. About 10 species, all African. 

a. B. Iiitida Lodd. Western Africa. Camwood, Barwood. Wood 
yields a red dye. 

234. BAPTISIA, Vent Wild Indigo. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, a ''dye" plant. Syn. Sophora, Podalyria, 
Crotalaria, in part. Perennial herbs with showy yellow, white 
or blue flowers. About 16 species, all of eastern and southern 
U. S. and Mexico. 

a. B. australis (L.) R. Br. (S. australis L.). Southeastern U. S. 
Blue, Wild or False Indigo, Blue Rattle-bush. 

b- B. tinctoria (L. ) R. Br. (S. tinctoria L., P. tinctoria Michx. ) 
Ontario to Minnesota and Louisiana. Yellow or American 
Indigo, Indigo-weed, Yellow or Indigo Broom, Clover Broom, 
Broom Clover, Hoi-se-fly weed, vShoo-fly, Rattle-bush; Ger. 
Baptisie, Wilder Indigo, Pferdfliegenstrauch; Fr. Indigo sau- 
vage. Moot alterative, emeto-cathartic, antiseptic. 

235. BARBAREA, R. Br. Winter Cress. Crueiferae. 

Dedicated to St. Barbara. Syn. Erysimum, in part. Bien- 
nial or perennial herbs with yellow flowers. About 10 species, 
3 nat. in U. S. 



58 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. B. Barbdrca (L. ) MacM. (E. Barbarea L., B. vulgaris K. Br. ) 

Europe and northern Asia, nat. in U. S. Winter-cress, Land- 
cress, Herb Barbara, Cassabully, Bitter or Bocket Cress, French 
or Normandy Cress, St. Barbara's Cress, Yellow Kocket, Win- 
ter or Wound Rocket, Yellow Scurvy-grass, Hedge Mustard, 
St. Barbara's herb; Ger. Winterkresse, Winterbrunnenkresse; 
Fr. Herbe de Ste. Barbe. Plant antiscorbutic, sometimes used 
for salad. 

b. B. praecox (J. E. Sm.) E. Br. (E. precox. J. E. Sm.). 

Europe, adv. in U. S. Early Winter-cress, Belle Isle Cress, 
Land Cress. Properties of (a). 

236. BAR6SMA, Willd. 1809 (Baryosma). Buchu. Riitaceae. 
From Greek, of "heavy odor". Syn. Bucco, Wendl., 1808, 

Parapetalifera, Wendl. 1808, Diosma, in part. Strong-scented 
evergreen shrubs. About 15 species, southern Africa. 

a. B. betulina (Thunb.) Bart. & Wend. (D. betulina Thunb., D. 

crenata DC, Bucco Jbetulina R. & Sch. ). Southern Africa. 
Buchu, Short Buchu; Ger. Bukko; Fr. Buchu, Bucco (Codex). 
jLmres (of this and the following), Buchu, U. S. P., Buchu 
folia, Br.,Fol. barosmae v. diosmse v. buchu v. bucco. Stimu- 
lant diuretic, stomachic. 

b. B. cremilaia (L. )Hook. (D. crenulata L., B. crenata Kze. 

D. odorata DC., D. latifoliaLodd. ). Southern Africa. Same 
names and properties as (a). 

c. B, serratifolia (Curt.) W^illd. (D. serratifolia Curt.). Long- 

leaf Buchu, Long Buchu. Properties of (a), but containing 
less volatile oil. 

237. BARTLETTIA, A. Gray. Bartlettia. Conipositae. 

Named for J. R. Bartlett, Commi&sioner Mexican Boundary 
Survey. Slender winter annual with yellow tiowers. One 
species, Mexican border of LT. S. 

238. BART6nIA, Muhl. Bartonia. Gentianaceae. 

Named for Prof. B. S. Barton, of Philadelphia, d. 1815. 
Syn. Centaurella, Saginaf, in part. Slender, almost leafless 
annuals or biennials. Two or three species, eastern U. S. 

a. B. yirgrinica (L. ) B. S. P. (Sagina Virginica L. , B. tenella 
Willd. ). Eastern U. S. Yellow Bartonia, Screwstem. 

239. BARTSIA, L. Bartsia. Scrophnlariaceae. 

Named for John Bartsch, Prussian botanist, d. 1738. Peren- 
nial herbs, some parasitic. About 6 species, northern hemi- 
sphere; 1 in U. S. 

240. BASSIA, Koenig. Mahwa, etc. Sapotaceae. 

Named for Ferdinand Bassi, Italian botanist, d. 1774. Syn. 
Butyrospermum, Illipe, in part. Trees. About 25 species, 
India and East Indies. 

a. B. biityrdeea Roxb. India. Indian Butter-tree, Phulwara. 
Seeds yield a tallow-like fat, Fulwa butter. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. ')«> 

b. B. latifolia Koxb. (lllipe latifolia Muell. ). Bengal. Mahwa 

tree (Mahwah), Mohwatree. Fleshy Jiouers saccharine, used as 
food. Seeds yield Mahwa butter. 

c. B. longifolia L. East Indies. Illupi, E;ilooj)a, Meetru. 

Flowers esculent. Seeds yield elloopa oil. Bark astringent, 
antipruritic. 

d. B. Pdrkii Ct. Don. (Butyrospermum Parkii Kotschy (Kew), 

the preferable name). Tropical Africa. Shea tree, African 
Butter tree. JSeeds yield a solid fat called 8hea butter, (ialain 
butter or Bambuk butter. 

241. BATIS, L. Jamaica Saltwort or Samphire. Batidaceae. 

Maritime shrub, probably a single species, N. America to 
Philippine Islands (U. »S. ). 

242. BATRACHIUM, S. F. (iray. Water Crowfoot. Raniincula- 

ceaf. 

From Greek, **frog plant", alluding to the habitat. Syn. 
Ranunculus, in part. Aquatic herbs with white flowers. 
About 20 species; 4 in I'. S. 

a. B. trichophyllum (Chaix) Bossch. (R. trichophyllus Chaix, 
R. aquatilis var. trichophyllus Gray ). Northern Europe, Asia 
and N. America, south to North Carolina and California. 
White Water-crowfoot, Green P>l-grass, Pickerol-weed*, Wa- 
ter Milfoil*. 

243. BAIIHINIA, L. St. Thomas' tree, etc. (!aesalpinaceae. 

Named for the brothers Jean and Gaspard Bauhin. Swiss 
botanists, d. 1613 and 1624, the suggestion coming from the 
two-lobed leaves. Woody climbers, shrubs or trees. About 
180 species, tropical regions. 

a. B. tomentosa L. India and tropical Africa. St. Thomas' 

tree (flowers spotted with the martyr's blood). Buds and 
leaves used in dysentery. 

b. B. variegata L. China and East Indies. Mountain Ebony. 

Bark astringent. 

244. BEBBIA, Greene. ^ - Bebbia. - Coiiipositae. 

Named for M. S. Webb, American botanist, nineteenth 
Century. Syn. Carphephorus, in part. Suflruticose herb 
with fragrant golden-yellow blossoms. One species, south- 
western U. S. 

246. BEG6sIA, L. Begonia, Elephant' s-ear. Begoniaceae. 

Named for Gov. Begon of San Domingo, 17th Century. 
Ornamental herbs with oblique leaves, flowers commonly wax- 
like and rose-colored. Many species cult, in gardens. 

24C. BE J ARIA, Mutis (Befaria). Bejaria. Ericaceae. 

Named for Prof. Bejar, botanist of Cadiz. Shrubs. About 
20 species, New World, mostly of S. America; 1 in U. S. 



<iO PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

547. BELLINIA^ Roem. & Schult. Bellinia.. Solanaceae. 
One species m U. S. (Heller). 

iS48. BELLIS, L, - - Daisy. - - Compositae. 

The Latin name, ''pretty". Low herbs. About 25 species, 
northern hemisphere and S. America; 1 in U. S. 

41. B. pereiinis L. Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Garden 
Daisy (Dazeg), English or European Daisy, Dicky Daisy, Dog- 
Daisy (north England), Childing Daity, Bairnwort, Banwort, 
Bennert, Bone-flower, Bonewort, Bruise-wort, Consound, Cat- 
posy ||, Cockilooriell, Gowan (Scotland), Ewe Gowan, May 
Gowan, Gowlan, Hen-and-chickens, Maple-flower, Margaret; 
Ger. Masliebenblume; Fr. Marguerite. Leaves formerly re- 
puted vulnerary. 

249. BELOPHERONE, Nees. Belopherone. Acauthaceae. 

From Greek, "pointed dart". Syn. Jacobinia, Sericogra- 
phis, in part. Shrubby plants with red flowers. About 40 
species, tropical America; 1 in California. 

250. BENZOIN, Fabric. 1763. Spice-bush. Laiiraceae. 

Name from gum benzoin. Syn. Euosmus, Nutt. 1818; Laurus, 
Lindera in part. Aromatic shrubs or trees. About 7 species, 
N. America and Asia; 2 in U. S. 

-a, B. Benzoin (L. ) Coulter (Laurus Benzoin L., Lindera Benzoin 
Blume, B, odoriferum Nees.). Ontario to N. Carolina and 
Kansas. Spice-bush, Benjamin-bush, Wild Allspice, Fever- 
bush, Spice- wood, Snap wood; Ger. Benzoelorbeer; Fr. Laurier- 
benzoin; Bark and iwUis, stimulant, diaphoretic, febrifuge, 
anthelmintic. Fruit carminative, condiment. 

h. B. nielissaefolium (Walt.) Nees. (Laurus melisssefolia Walt, 
Lindera mellisssefolia Blume). Missouri to Florida. Hairy 
Spice-bush, Spice- wood, Jove' s- fruit. 

251. BERBERIS, L. Barberry. Berberidaceae. 

Latin name, from Arabic. Shrubs with yellow wood and 
often spiny leaves. About 75 species, north temperate zone 
and S. America; 14 in U. S. 

it. B. aristata Roxb. India. Indian Barberry, Ruswut, Rusat. 
Root hark used as a tonic, as is that of (b) B. Asiatica Roxb. 

and of (c) B. Ly'ciuin Royle. 

•d. B. Aqiiifolium Pursh. (Berberis repens Lindl., Mahonia repens 
Don. ). Rocky Mountains. U. S. and British Columbia. Ore- 
gon Grape, Rocky Mountain Grape, Holly-leaved Barberry, 
California Barberry, Trailing Mahonia. [According to some 
botanists B. repens is a distinct and smaller species, (d) 
B. nervosa Pursh. is probably not distinguished from these 
by collectors of the roots.] Root (sometimes called Grape- 
root) bitter tonic, alterative. 



SCIENTIFIC A]!^D POPULAR. 61 

e. B. Yulgaris L. Europe and Western Asia, nat. in U. S. 
Barberry; Common European or Garden Barberry, Barbaraune, 
Guild-tree, Jaundice-berry, Pepperidge-bush (England), Piper- 
idge (corrupted from Berberis) Peprage, Sow-berry, Wood-sow, 
Wood-sour, Wood-sore; Ger. Berberitze, Saurach;Fr. Berberis, 
Epine-vinette (Codex), Vinettier; Sp. Berberos. Bark of root 
tonic, aperient; contains berberine, as in other species. Leaves- 
antiscorbutic. Fruit, called Rilts, refrigerant, esculent. 

262. BERCHEMIA, Neck. Supple-jack. Rhamnat*eie. 

Name unexplained, Climbing or erect shrubs. About 15- 
species, all but one of Asia and tropical Africa; 1 in U. S. 

263. BERGIA, L. - Bergia. - Elatinaceae. 

Named for P. J. Bergius, Swedish naturalist, d, 1790. Un- 
important herbs, some sufirutescent. About 15 species, mostly 
Old World; 1 in U..S. 

264. BERGINIA, Harvey. Berginia. Aoanthaceae. 

Named for M. Bergin of Dublin. A low shrubby plant. 
One species, southwestern U. S. 

266. BERLANDIERA, DC. Berlandiera. Coinpositae. 

Named for J. Berlaudier, Swiss botanist. Perennial woolly- 
herbs with rather large flower-heads (yellow). About 5 species^ 
Mexican border; 4 in U. S. 

266. BERNARDIA, Houst. Bernardia. Eiiphorbiaceae. 

Shrubs or herbs. About 30 species, warmer regions of New 
World; 1 in U. S. 

257. BERTHOLLETIA, Humb. & Bonp. Lecythi<laceae. 

Named for Claude Louis BerthoUet, French chemist, d. 1822.. 
Syn. Bertholetia. Tall trees. One or two species, S. America.. 

a. B. excelsa Humb. & Bonp. Northern S. America. Juvia. 
tree, Castanhiero de Para. Seeds, Brazil-nuts, Para-nuts, 
Cream-nuts, Nigger-toes, Castana-nuts; Fr. Chataignedu Bresil; 
esculent, abounding in oil. 

268. BERULA, Hoffm. Water-Parsnip. Umbellifene. 
From Latin name of water-cress. Syn. Slum, in part. One 

species. 

a. B. erecta (Huds.) Coville (S. erectumHuds., S. angusti folium 
L. ). Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, south to Illinois- 
and California. Cut-leaved or Lesser Water-parsnip, Narrow- 
leaved or Creeping Water-parsnip. 

269. BETA, L. - - Beet. - - Clunopodiacea. 

The Latin name. Herbs with fleshy roots. About 15 spe- 
cies, Europe, temperate Asia and Africa. 

a. B. vulgsiris L. Southern Europe, now generally cultivated.. 
Beet, Beet-radish, Beetrave, Beetraw, Beetrie (Scothmd), var. 
macrorrhiza is Mangel-wurzel. (There are many named. 



•62 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

varieties, those used for manufacture of sugar being distinguish- 
ed as Sugar beets); Ger. Kunkelriibe, Zuckerriibe, Fr. Bettarave. 
Fleshy roots esculent, rich in sugar. Leaves used as a pot herb. 
[The wild B. maritima L., now regarded as the same species, is 
called "Wild Spinach.] 

260. BET6nICA, L. - Betony. - Labiatae. 
The Latin name of Wood Betony. Syn. Stachys, in part. 

Herbs resembling Stachys. About 12 species, Europe and Asia. 

a. B. officinalis L. ( Stachys Bet onicaBenth.). Southern Europe, 
adv. U. S. Wood Betony, Bishop's-wort, Herb Christopher* 
Wild Hop, Lousew^ort; Ger. Zehrkraut, Betonie; Fr. Betoine 
(Codex), The blossoming platit, Herba betonica?, H. veronica 
purpurese, formerly reputed febrifuge, etc. 

261. BETULA, L. - - Birch. - - Betulaceae. 

The ancient Latin name. Trees, some with white papery 
cortex. About 35 species, north temperate and arctic zones; 9 
in U. S. 

a. B. alba L. Northern Asia and Europe. White Birch, European 

White Birch, Lady Birch?, Birke, Make-peace, Ribbon-tree; 
Ger. Birke; Fr. Bouleau. Source of Birch Tar or daggett, used 
in making Russian leather. Empyreumatic oil, Oleum rusci, 
Oleum betulinum v. moscovitum, antiseptic and vulnerary. 

b. B. lenta I^. Ontario to Florida. Sweet Birch, Cherry Birch, 

Black Birch, Spice Birch, River or Mahogany Birch, Moun-, 
tain Mahogany. Branches and foliage yield an oil, sold as oil of 
wintergreen . 

c. B. papyrifera Marsh, (B. papyracea Ait.), British America 

and northern U. S. Canoe Birch, Paper Birch, American 
White Birch, Silver Birch, Bolean Birch, Spool-wood, Bark 
used for many purposes. 

Other indigenous species are (d) B. liitea Michx, f.. Yellow 
Birch; Gray, vSilver or Swamp Birch; (e) B, nigra L., River 
Birch; Red, Black or Water Birch; (f) B. occidenalis Hook., 
Western Red Birch; Black, Cherry, Gray, Sweet or Water 
Birch of the far west; (g) B. popnllfolia Marsh (B. alba 
var. populifolia Spach), the true American White Birch; 
Gray, Pin, Poverty or Old-field Birch, (a smaller tree than 
(c); (h) B. piimila L., Low Birch, also called Tag vVlderf. 

262. BICUCtJLLA, Adans. 1763. Ear-drops. Funiariaceae. 

From Latin, "double hooded". Syn. Diclytra, Borck. 1797, 
(Dielytra), Dicentra, Bernh. 1833 ; Fumaria, Coiydalis, in part. 
Herbs with dissected leaves and racemes of showy flowers. 
About 14 species, N. America and western Asia; 8 in U. S. 

ji, B. Canadensis (Goldie) Millsp, (C, Canadensis Goldie, Diclytra 
Canadensis DC, Dicentra Canadensis Walp,, C. forraosaAuct. 
not DC), Ontario to Kentucky and Missouri, Turkey 
Corn, Squirrel Corn, Turkey Pea, Staggerweed, Colic-weed, 
Wild Hyacinth, Diclytra, Fumitory. Tubers, Corydalis, tonic* 
diuretic, alterative. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 63 

b. B. cucullaria (L.) Millsp. (Diclytra ciicullaria DC. Dielytra 

cucullaria T. & G., Dicentra cucullaria Torr. ). Northern 
U. S. Dutchman' s-breeclies, Little-boy' s-breeches, Kitten' 9- 
breeches, Breeches-flower Indian-boys-and-girls, Monkshood*, 
White Ear-drop, Soldier's Cap, Colic-weed*, Boys-and-girls. 

c. B. eximia (Ker. ) Millsp. (Fumaria eximia Ker, Dicentra 

eximia Torr. ). New York to Georgia. Wild Bleeding-heart, 
8taggerweed, Turkey-corn. 

d. B. formosa (DC) Howell. (C. formosaDC. ). Pacific coast 

of U. S. California Bleeding-heart. 

263. BIDENS, D. Beggar-ticks, etc. Compositae. 

From Latin, ''two toothed", of the achenes. Syn. Diodonta, 
Ck)reopsis, Helianthusf, in part. Coarse herbs, the achenes 
armed with barbed awns. About 60 species, widely distribut- 
ed; 20 in U. S. 

a. B. aristosa (Michx. ) Brit. (C. aristosa Michx. B. aristata 
Muhl. ) and other showy species of eastern LT. S., as (b) B. 
coronata (L. ) Fisch., (c) B. trichosperma (Michx.) Brit., 
originally referred to Coreopsis, are called Tickseed Sunflower. 

d. B. Beckii Torr. Canada to New Jei-sey and Missouri. Water 
Marigold. 

e B. bipinn^ta L. Eastern U. S. to Nebraska and Mexico, nat. 
in Europe. Spanish-needles. Boot and seed emmenagogue, 
expectorant, used in hay asthma. 

f. B. cernua L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. Smal- 

ler or Nodding Bar-marigold, Baclin, Double-tooth, Pitchforks, 
Water Agrimony. 

g. B. fronilosa L. Canada and eastern to central U. S. Common 

Beggar-ticks, Stick-tight, Beggar-lice, Cow-lice, Harvest-lice, 
Cuckles, Cuckold, Devil' s-pitcliforks, Ray less Marigold, Com- 
mon Bur-marigold. Most of these names are applied to other 
similar species. 

h. B. laevis (L. )B. S. P. (IL laevis L., B. chrysanthemoides 
Michx. ). Widely distributed in N. America. Brook Sun- 
flower, Large or Smooth Bur-marigold. 

i. B. tripartita L. Europe. Swamp Beggar-ticks, Agrimony 
Water-hemp, Water Agrimony; Ger. Gelber Wasserhanf, 
Wasserdiirrwurz, Fr. Chanvre aquatique. Properties of (e). 

264. BIF6ra, Hoffm. Bifora. Umbelliferae. 

Syn. Atrema, in part. Herbs. About 5 species, nortli 
temperate zone; 1 in U. S. 

265. BIGN6NIA L. - Bignonia - Biguoniaeeae. 

Named for Abbe Bignon, librarian to Louis XV. Woody 
climbers with showy flowers. About 150 species, all American; 
1 in U. S. 



64 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. B. alliacea Lam. Guiana and West Indies. Garlic shrub. Fr, 

Liane a Tail. 

b. B. crucig'era L, (B. capreolata L. ). Virginia and Illinois to 

Florida. Tendrilled Trumpet-flower§ , Cross-vine, Quarter-vine. 
Root alterative, detergent. 

c. B. nodosa Manso, of Brazil is one of many plants known as 

Caroba. See Jacaranda. 

266. BIXA, L. - - Arnotta. - - Bixaceae. 

Shrubs with showy flowers and prickly capsules. One or two 
species, South America. 

a. B. Orellana L. Tropical America, and commonly cult, in 
tropical countries. Arnotta tree. Fruit yields the coloring 
matter called Arnotta ( Annatto, Annota, Anotto), Orellana, 
Orleana; Ger. Orlean; Fr. Rocou, Terra de la Nouvelle -Or- 
leana; Sp. Achiotillo. 

267. BLECHNUM, Presl. Blechnum. Polypodiaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Ferns. About 40 species, Xew 
World to Australia; 1 in U. S. 

268. BLENNOSPERMA, Less. Blennosperma. Compositae. 

From Greek, "mucus seed". »Syn. Aphalus, Coniothele. 
Low annuals. Two species, one of Chili, one of California. 

269. BLEPHARIPAPPUS, Hook. Blepharipappus. Compositae. 

From Greek, "eye-lash" and "pappus"'. Syn. Layia, Pti- 
lonella, in part. Annual herbs with mostly showy tiowers 
(white or yellow). About 17 species, Pacific border of U. S. 

270. BLEPHILIA, Pvaf. Ohio Horsemint. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "eye-lash", alluding to ciliate calyx-teeth. 

Syn. Monarda, in part. Perennial herbs of mint-like odor. 
Two species, eastern U. S. 

271. BLETIA, R. & P. Bletia. Orchidaceae. 

Terrestrial orchids, often highly ornamental. About 80 
species, warmer regions of New AVorld; 1 in \j. S. 

272. BLIGJHIA, Koenig. Blighia. Sapindaceae. 

Named for Capt. Bligh of H. M. S. Bounty. Syn. Akea, 
Akeesia; Cupania, in part. Trees. Two species, referred by 
many botanists to Cupania; tropical Africa. 

a. B. sapida Koenig (C. sapida Voigt, Akea solitaria Stokes, 
Akeesia Africana Tussac). Western Africa, cult, in tropical 
countries. Akee tree. Fruit acidulous, edible. 

273. BLITUM, L. Strawberry Blite. Chenopodiaoeae. 

The Greek name of a salad plant. Syn. Chenopodium, in 
part. A pigweed-like plant with fleshy red fruit. One 
species. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 65 

a. B. capitatum L. (C. capitatum Asch.). Northern Europe, 
Asia and N. America, south to Colorado. Strawberry Spinach, 
Indian Strawberry, Indian-paint. Plant used as a pot herb. 

274. BLOOMERIA, Kellogg. Bloomeria. ^ Liliaceae. 

Scapose herbs from a small corm. Four species in south- 
western U. S. 

275. BLUMEA, DC. - Blumea. - Compositae. 

Named for Karl Ludwig Blume, botanist of Holland, d. 1862. 
Balsamic or aromatic plants, more than 100 species, mostly of 
tropical Asia. 

a. B. balsamifera DC. China and Burma. Vernacular name 
Ngai. Plant yields Ngai Camphor. 

27(>. BOEHMERIA, Jacq. Eamie, etc. Urticaceae. 

Named for G. E. Boehmer, German botanist, d. 1803. 
Herbs, shrubs or trees. About 50 species, mostly tropical; 1 
in U. S. 

a. B. nivea Gaud. Eastern Asia. Ramie, Rheea. Stems yield a 
strong white fibre from which the Chinese grass-cloth is made. 

277. BOERHAAVIA, L. (Boerhavia). - Nyctaginaceae. 

Named for Hermann Boerhaave, Dutch naturalist, d. 1729. 
Herbs. About 40 species, warmer regions of Old and New 
World; 17 in U. S. 

278. BOISDUVALIA, Spach. Boisduvalia. Onagraceae. 

Syn, Oenothera, in part. Herbs. About 10 species, New 
World; 6 in U. S. 

279. BOLANDRA, A. Gray. Bolandra. Saxifragaceae. 

Herbs. Two known species, Pacific coast, U. S. 

280. b6LDU, Adans. 1763 (Boldea, Boldus). Monimiaceae. 

From vernacular name. Chili. Syn. Peumus, Mol. 1782, 
Buizzia, B. & P. 1794, Boldoa, Endl. not Cav. Fi agrant ever- 
green shrub. One species. 

a. B. Boldus (Mol.) Lyons (Peumus Boldus Mol., R. fragrans R. 
& Pav., P. fragrans, Pers., Boldea fragrans, C. Gay). Chili. 
Boido, Boldoa, Boldu; Fr. Boldo (Codex). Leaves tonic, anti- 
spasmodic, used for relief of catarrhal conditions. 

281. BOLELIA, Raf. 1832. Bolelia. Lobeliaceae. 

A transliteration of Lobelia. Syn. Downingia, Torr. 1856. 
Herbs. About 15 species. New World; 12 in southwestern 
U. S. 

282. B0LT6NIA, L. Her. Boltonia. Compositae. 

Named for James Bolton, English botanist, 18th Century. 
Perennial herbs, with white, pink or purple flowers. Four or 
five species, all of U. S. 

, BOM ARE A, Mirb. Bomarea. Amaryllis? aceae. 

Named for Valmont de Bomare, French naturalist, 18th 

Century. Twinipg plants. About 70 species, S. America and 
Mexico. 



66 PLANT NAMES AND SYK0X13IS 

a. B. edulis, He:- Tropical America. Tubers esculent. 

284. BORIGO, L. - Borage. - Bora;?inaceae. 

The Latin name, "rough hairy". Hairy herbs v.ith 8howy 
blue flowers. About 17 s}3ecies, Mediterranean region. 

a. B. officinalis L. Levant, cult, in gardens and adv. in U. S. 
Borage, Burr age, Bee-bread, Cool-tankard, Lang-de-beef, Star- 
flower; Ger. Borasch, Boretsch; Fr. Bourrache (Codex); Sp. 
Borraja. Herb emollient, diuretic, febrifuge. 

285. BORASSUS, L. Palmyra Palm. Sabalaceae. 
From Greek name of palm fruit. Tall large Paltns, two 

principal species, one of Asia one of Africa. 

a. B. flabellifer L. (B. flabelliformisMurr. ). Southeastern Asia. 
Palmyra Palm, Fan Palm, Toddy Palm. Sap yields palm wine 
(toddy) and palm sugar (jaggery, whence Latin saccharmn). 
Young seedlings esculent. 

286. B0RB6nIA, L. Borbonia. Fapilionaceae. 

Shrubs or suflrutescent herbs. About 30 species, mostly of 
southern Africa. 

a. B cordata L. S. Africa. Leav&i used for tea. 

287. BORRICHIA, Adans. Sea Ox-eye. Compositao. 
Named for Olaf Borrick, Danish botanist. Syn. Buphthal- 

mum, in part. Fleshy littoral shrubs. About 5 species, tropi- 
cal America; 2 in U. S. 

a. B. frutescens (L. )DC. (Buphthalmum frutescens L. ). South 
eastern U. S. and West Indies. Sea Ox-eye, Jamaica Sam- 
phire. See Batis. 

288. BOSCHNIAKIA, C. A. Meyer. Boschniakia. Orobaiieliaceae. 

Scaly herbs. Five known species, eastern Asia, Japan and 
N. America; 3 in U. S. 

a. B. strobilacea Gray. California. Squirrel' s-grandfather. 

289. BOSWELLIA, Eoxb. Boswellia. Burseraceae. 

Named for John Boswell of Edinburgh. Trees. About 10 
species, southern Asia and eastern Africa. 

a. B. Carterii Birdw., and probably other species of Arabia and 

Somali-land, yield the gum resin, Olibanum or Frankincense, 
Gummi-resina Olibanum, Thus; Ger. Weihrauch; Fr. Encens, 
Oliban (Codex); Sp. Incienso. Balsamic, antiseptic, vulnerary. 

b. B. Frerejina Birdw. Somali-land. Gum-renn, African or 

Oriental Elemi, Luban Mayeti (Mati); used as a masticatory. 

c. B. papyrifera Hochst. Abyssinia. Gum resin resembles that 

of (a). 

d. B. serrdta Eoxb. (B. thurifera Coleb. ). India. Salai tree. 

Gum-resin, Indian Olibanum, Gum Thus, Male incense, prob- 
ably the frankincense of the ancients; used in India for incense. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 67 

290. BOTRYCHIUM, 8wa. Grape-fern. Ophioarlossacese. 

From Greek word for a ' 'clust er of grapes' ' . Syn , Osmundaf, 
in part. Small fleshy ferns. About 12 species; 9 in U. S. 

a. B. Limaria (L. )S\vz. (O. Liinaria L. ). Northern Europe, 

Asia and X, America. Moonwort, Moon Fern, Lunary, Plen- 
tage, Unshoe-the-horse, the first three of these names being 
sometimes extended to other species. 

b. B. yirg:iniauuiii (L. ) Swz. (O. Virginiana L., B. gracile 

Pursh. ). Korthern Europe, Asia and X. America. Virginia 
Grape-fern§, EattlesnakeFern, Indicator (Virginia), Hemlock- 
leaved Moonwort^ , 

•291. BOUCHEA, Cham. Bouchea. Verbenaceae. 

Named for Charles and Peter Bouch^, gardeners of Berlin. 
Herbs, some shrubby. About 20 species, mostly African, a few 
in America and Asia; 3 in southwestern U. S. 

292. BOUCHETIA, DC. ^ Bouchetia. Solanaceae. 

Named for D. Bouchet, French botanist. Low perennial 
herb, a single species, Texas to Brazil. 

293. B0UKD6NIA, Greene. Bourdonia. Compositae. 

Syn. Keerlia. Two species in western U. S. 

294. BOURRERIA, P. Br. (Beurreria). Boraginaceae. 

Named for a Nuremberg apothecary, Bourrer. Syn. Crema- 
tomia, Miers, Ehretia, Pittonia, in part. Trees and shrubs. 
About 25 species, tropical America; 2 in U, S. 

295. BOUA'ARDIA, Salisb. Bouvardia. Rubiaceae. 
Namefor Dr. Bouvard of the Jardin du Koi, Paris. Orna- 
mental shrubs. About 50 species, tropical America; 2 in U. S. 

296. BOWDICHIA, H. B. K. Bowdichia. Papilioiiaceae. 

Named for J. E. Bowdich, traveler in west Africa. Syn. 
Sebipira, Mart. Trees. Two species, S. America. 

a. B. virgilioides H. B. K., Brazil. Alcornoco, Alcornoque. 
Bark tonic, febrifuge. See 334 (a). 

297. BOWLESIA, R. & P. Bowlesia. Umbelliferae. 

Herbs. About 20 species, mostly of S, America; 1 in U. S. 

298. BRAB^JUM, L. Kafir Chestnut. Proteaceae. 

Syn. Brabyla. Shrubs. One species, south Africa. 

a. B. stellatifolium L. South Africa. Kafir Chestnut, Wild 
Chestnut, Wild Almond. ASeecZs esculent, a substitute for coffee. 

299. BRACHYACTIS, Ledeb. Rayless Aster. Compositae. 

From Greek, "short rayed". Syn. Tripolium, Aster, in 
part. Smooth, somewhat fleshy herbs. About 7 species, N. 
America and northern Asia; 1 in U. S. 

300. BRACHYCHAETA, T. & Gr. False Golden-rod. Composite. 
From Greek, "short bristled", of the pappus. Syn. Solidago, 

in part. One species, eastern U. S. 



68 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS ^ 

301. BRADBtJRYA, Eaf. 1817. Butterfly-Pea. Papilionaceae. 

Named for John Bradbury, explorer in America early in 
19th Century. Syn. Centrosema, Benth. 1838, Clitoria, in part. 
Vines with showy flowers. About 30 species, all American; 2 
in U. S. 

802. BRASENIA, Schreb. Water-shield. Nympliaeaceae. 

Name unexplained. Syn. Hydropeltis, Menyanihes, in part. 
Aquatic plant with small peltate leaves. One species. 

a. B. purpurea (Michx. ) Casp. (H. purpurea Michx., B. Schre- 
beri J. F. Gmel. (Kew), B. peltata Pursh. ). Nova Scotia to 
Mexico and California, also in Asia and Australia. Water- 
shield, Water-target, Water-jelly, Deer-foot, Frog-leaf, Little 
Lily-pad, Little Water-lily, Water-leaf. Leaves astringent. 
Roots farinaceous. 

303. BRASSICA, L. Cabbage, etc. Cruciferae. 

The Latin name of Cabbage. Syn. Sinapis, in part. Annual, 
biennial or perennial herbs. About 80 species, Old World. 

a. B. arvensis (L. ) B. S. P. (B. Sinapistrum Boiss. (Kew), S. 

arvensis L. ). Europe, adv. in U. S. Charlock (Carlock, Car- 
lick, Kerlock, Curlock ), Wild Mustard, Corn Mustard, Corn or 
Field Kale, Bastard Kocket, Chadlock (Kedlock, Kellock, 
Kilk), Kraut-weed, Crowd- weedt, Bunch, Warlock, Yellow- 
flower. Seeds like those of ( d ) but smaller. 

b. B. campestris L. Europe. Wild or Common Navew, Wild 

Navette, Nape, Bargeman's Cabbage, Colza, Summer Rape. 
Of this species it is believed that B. Napus L., which yields 
the various kinds of Turnip ( Cole-rape ) are only varieties. Tu- 
herous roots, in cultivation, esculent, antiscorbutic. Seeds, Rape 
seed, Cole-seed, Bird-seed; yield Rape or Colza oil; Ger. Riibol, 
Rapsol, Kohlsaatsol; Fr. Huile de navette, Huile de Colza. 

c. B. jiincea (L. ) Coss. (S. juncea L. ). Southern Russia, adv. in 

U. S. Sarepta Mustard, Russian Mustard, Indian Mustard. 
Properties of (d). 

d. B. nigra (L. ) Koch (S. nigra L., B. sinapioides Roth. ). Europe 

and Asia, nat. in U. S. Black Mustard, Red Mustard, Cad- 
lock, Kerlock, Senore, Scurvy. Seed, Sinapis nigra, U. S. P., 
Sinapis nigrse Semina, Br., Sem. Sinapis P. G., Semen 
sinapeos; Ger. Senf, Schwarzer Senfsamen; Fr. Moutarde noire 
( Codex );Sp. Mostazanegra; Irritant, emetic, revulsive, counter- 
irritant, also used as a condiment. 

e. B. olerdcea L. Europe, no w^ universally cultivated. Cabbage, 

Colewort, Collard^, (southern U. S. ) Collet^; in the wild 
state, Sea-Cabbage or Sea Kale, also Coolstock, Ragged Jack. 
Under cultivation has developed the varieties known as Cauli- 
flower, Broccoli, Borecole (Bowkail), Brussels Sprouts, Kohl 
rabi; Ger. Kohl; Fr. Chou. Leaves (heads, buds, etc. ), esculent. 

304. BRAUNERIA, Neck. 1790. Purple Cone-flower. Compositae. 
Named for Jacob Brauner, German botanist, 18th Century. 

Syn. Echinacea, Moench. 1794, Rudbeckia, in part. Robust 
herbs with thick black roots. Two species, both of U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 69 

a. B. pallida (Nutt. ) Britton. (Rudbeckia pallida Nutt., Echin- 

acea angustifolia DC. ). Alabama to Texas and northwestward. 
Pale-purple Cone-flower, Comb (Dakota), Echinacea, Sampson- 
root. Root alterative; remedy for snake-bite, hydrophobia, 
etc. 

b. B. purpurea (L. ) Brit. (Echinacea purpurea Moench., Rud- 

beckia purpurea L. ) Virginia to Illinois and Louisiana. 
Black Sampson, Hedgehog Cone-flower, Purple Cone-flower, 
Red Sun-flower, Comb-flower. Properties of No. 1. 

805. BRAYA, Sternb. & Hoppe. Braya. Cruciferae. 

Perennial scapose herbs. About 15 species, Arctic and A fcpine 
regions; 2 in U. S. 

806. BRAZ6RIA, Eng. & O^ray. Brazoria. Labiatae. 
Named from the river Brazos in Texas. Syn. Physostegia, 

in part. Low annuals. Two known species, both of Texas. 

807. BREV06RTIA, Wood. Brevoortia. Liliaceae. 
Scapose herb with showy umbellate flowers. A single species, 

California. 

*, B. renusta Greene (B. coccirtea, Wats., B. Ida-Maia Wood. 
California. Vegetable Fire-cracker, Crimson Satin-flower. 

808. BREWERIA, R. Br. Breweria. Convolvulaceae. 

Named for Samuel Brewer, a correspondent of Dillen. Syn. 
Stylisma, Bonamia, Convolvulus, in part. Procumbent herbs. 
About 30 species, warm regions; 7 in U. S. 

309. BRINTONIA, Greene. Brintonia. Coiupositae. 

Syn. Solidago, in part. Herb, allied to Golden-rod. One 
species in western U. S. 

310. BRITTONAMRA, Brittonamra. Papillonaceae. 

Syn. Cracca, in part. Herbs. Two species in western U, 8. 

311. BRODIAEA, Sm. California Hyacinth. Liliaceae. 
Scapose herbs from a coated bulb. About 20 species, New 

World; 8 in southwestern U. S. 

312. BROMELIA, L. Bromelia. Bromeliaoeae. 

Named for Adolph Bromel, Swedish botanist, d. 1705. Fiber 
plants. About 30 species, S. America. 

a. B. Pinguin L. West Indies. Pinguin, Pen-gwyn. Fruit aci- 
dulous, refrigerant, anthelmintic. A hedge plant. 

313. BR6mUS, L. Brome-Grass, Chess. Oramineae. 
Greek name of a kind of Oats. About 40 species; 23 in U. S. 

a. B. secalinus L. Europe and Asia, n at. in U. S. Chess, Cheat, 
Cheat-grass, Smooth Rye-brome. 

314. BRONGMARTIA, H. B. K. Brongniartia. Papilionaceae. 

Named for Adolph Brongniart, French botanist. Shrubs. 
About 20 species, mostly of Mexico; 1 in U. S. 



70 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

315. BR6^IMIIM, Swz. 1788. Cow-tree, etc. Artocarpaeeac. 

From Greek, "esculent". Syn. Piratinera Aubl. 1775 ( "with 
false characters", B. & H. ), Galactodendron H. B. K., in part. 
Trees with milky sap. About 8 species, tropical America. 

aw B. Alicastrum Swz. West Indies. Seeds, called in Jamaica, 
bread-nuts, esculent. Milk juice acrid. 

b. B. (jralactodendron D. Don (G. utile Kunth.). Tropic^ 
America. Cow tree, Milk tree, Palo de vaca, Arbol de l^che. 
J/iY^juic* resembles cow's milk. See Clusia. 

816. BROUSSONETIA, L'Her. Paper Mulberry. Moraceaf. 
Named for M. Broussonet, French naturalist, d. 1807. Syn. 

Morus, in part. Trees with fibrous bark. About 7 species, 
eastern Asia and Oceanica. 

a. B. papyrifera (L. ) Vent. (M. papyrifera L.). A^ia and 
Oceanica, nat. in U. S. Paper Mulberry, Tahiti Mulberry, 
Cut-paper. Inner bark made into paper in Japan and into bark 
cloth (kapa, tapa) in the islands of the Pacific. 

817. BRUNFELSIA, L. Brunfelsia. 8oIanace:»e. 

Named for Otto Brunfels, botanist of Metz, 16th Century. 
Shrubs or small trees. About 35 species, tropical America. 

a. B. Hopedna Benth. (Franciscea uni flora Pohl.). Braeil. 
Manaca ( one of several plants so called), called also Manactin, 
Camganiba, Geratacaca, Mercurio- vegetal ( vegetable mercury ) . 
Moot antiarthritic, alterative. 

818. BRUxVNICHIA, Banks. Brunnichia. Poly^onaeeae. 

Named for M. T. Brunnich, Norwegian naturalist. Syn. 
Rajania, in part. Shrubby climber. Two species, one of 
Africa, 1 in U. S. 

319. BRYANTHUS, S. G. Gmel. Bryanthus. Ericaceae. 
From Greek, "luxuriant-bloom". Syn. Menziesia. Low 
shrubs. About 6 species, Arctic and north temperate zones; 
4 in U. S. 

820. BRYONIA, L. Bryony, White- vine, etc. Cucurbitaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Corallocarpus, inj)art. 
Climbino perennial herbs. About 15 species, warmer region* 
of Old World. 

a. B. alba L. Eastern Europe and western Asia. White Bryony 

(also called Black Bryony, from color of berries, but not to be 
confounded with Tamus communis q. v.). Tetter-berry, White- 
vine, Wood-vine, Wild-vine. 

b. B. dioica L. Europe. Red Bryony, Common Bryony, Cow- 

bind, Cow's-lick, Devil's Turnip, False Mandrake, Hedge 
Grape, Murrain-berry, Snake-berry, White- vine, Wild Hop; 
Ger. Zaunriibe, Gichtriibe, Stickwurz. Hundskurbis;Fr. Bryone 
blanche (Codex), Couleuvr^e; Sp. Brionia. Hoot of this and 
of (a), Bryonia, U. S. P., Radix bryoniie, Rad. vitis albae, 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 71 

Kad. uvse anguinse. Hydragogue cathartic, irritant, rubefa- 
cient. [In Africa the allied (c) Kedrostis ii^na Cogn. (B. 
Africanum Thunb. ) is used in the same manner]. 

d. B. epigaea Rottl. (Corallocarpus epigiea Hook, f., the prefer- 
able name). Java. Boot alterative, cathartic, anthelmintic. 

321. BRYOPHYLLUM, Salisb. Air-plant. Ciassulaceae. 

From Greek, "budding leaf. Syn. Cra'^suvium, iu part. 

a. B. calyj'iimm Salisb. Madagascar, Mauritius, etc. Air-plant, 
Life-plant. Leaves vulnerary. 

322. BtJCERAS, P. Br. 1756, not Hall, 1785. Combrfttaceae. 

From Greek, "ox horn". Syn. Bucida, L. 1759, Termina- 
lia, L. 1767 (Kew), Myrobalanus, Gaertn. 1791, Catappa, Pen- 
taptera, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 90 species, tropical 
regions, especially of Old World. 

a. B. aiigustifoliiiS (Jacq. ) Lyons (T. angustifolia Jacq., T. 

Benzoin L. fils, Catappa B-nzoin Gaertn.). Mauritius. In- 
cense tree. Exudate constitutes false benzoin, used as incense. 

b. B. Bellirica (Gaertn.) Lyons (T. Bellerica Roxb. (Kew), M. 

Bellirica Gaertn. ). East Indies. Dried fruits, Round Myro- 
balans, Belleric Myrobalans, Myrobalani rotundae s. bellericfe; 
Ger. Runde Myrobalanen. Properties of (d). 

G. B. Catappa (L. ) Lyons (T. Catappa L. (Kew), B. Bucida 
Crantz, Bucida Buceras Sieber, not L. ). India and tropical 
regions generally. Umbrella tree, Malabar Almond, Country 
Almond (W. Indies), Kamani (Hawaii). Seec/s almond-like; 
yield a bland fixed oil. 

d. B. Chebiila (Retz) Lyons (T. Chebula Retz, M. Chebula 
Gaertn., Bucida comintana Blanco). India. Harra. Dried 
fruits are chebulic myrobalans, the yellow from the mature, the 
black from the blasted fruit; Ink-nuts, Harr-nuts, Myrobalani 
iudicae s. nigrae; Ger. Indische oder schwarze Myrobalanen, 
astringent with cathartic properties like rhubarb: also used for 
tanning and for making ink. Chebida is a conserve made 
from the fruits. 

323. BT^CHNERA, L. Blue-hearts. Scroplmlariaceao. 

Named for J. G. Buchner. Hispid or scabrous herbs. 
About 30 species, tropical or sub-tropical; 4 in U. S. 

324. BUCKLEYA, Torr. Buckleya. Santalaceae. 

Syn. Darbva, A. Gray. Shrubs. Two species, 1 in Japan, 
1 in U. S. ' . 

a. B. lanuginosa (Michx. ) Pers. (Sideroxylon lannginosum 

Michx.). Southeastern U. S. Woolly Buckthorn, Black 
Haw*, Gum-elastic. 

b. B. lycioides (L. ) Pers. (Sideroxylon lycioides L. ). South- 

eastern U. S. Southern Buckthorn, Carolina Buckthorn, 
Bumelia, Chittim-wood, Coma, Iron-wood, Mock Orange. 



72 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. B. retiisa Swz. West Indies. Bastard Balata or Bully Tree. 

325. BUDDLEIA, Houst. Buddleia. Loganiaceae. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs. About 100 species, India, South 
Africa and America; 6 in U. S. 

326. BUMELIA, Swz. Buckthorn*. Sapotaceae. 

Greek name of a species of Ash, '*ox Ash". Syn. Sideroxy- 
lon, in part. Shrubs and trees, often thorny. About 30 
species, all American; 6 in U. S. 

BUNIUM. See CONOPODIUM. 

327. BUPLEURUM, L. Hares-ear, etc. Umbelliferae. 

The Greek name, '"ox-ribbed". Herbs with entire clasping 
or perfoliate leaves. About 65 species; 1 in U. S. 

a^ B. rotundifoliiim L. Europe and western Asia, nat. in U. S. 
Hare's-ear, Thorough-wax or Thorough wort, (i. e. perfoliate), 
Buplever^, Modesty; Ger. Durchwachskraut, Hasenohr; Fr. 
Oreille de lievre. Herh and seed formerly regarded medicinal. 

328. BURMANNIA, L. Burmannia. Burinauniaceae. 

Named for Johann Burmann, Dutch botanist. 18th Century. 
Syn. Tripterella, in part. Herbs with perianth three-winged. 
About 25 species, warm and tropical regions; 2 in U. S. 

329. BURSA, Weber, 1780. Shepherd" s-purse. Cruciferse. 

From middle Latin, a "purse". Syn. Capsella, Medic. 1792, 
Thlaspi, in part, inconspicuous annuals. About 4 species, 
northern hemisphere; 1 nat. in U. S. 

a. B. Bursa-pastorls (L. )Brit. (Thlaspi Bursa-pastoris L., C. 
Bursa-pastoris Medic). Eun pe, nat. in U. S. and widely 
elsewhere. Shepherd' s-purse. Blind- weed, Case- weed, Cat^se- 
weed, Clappedepouch||, Cocowort, Fat-hen*, 'Lady "s-purse, 
Mother* s-heart, Pepper-and-shot, Pepper-plant, Pick-pocket, 
Pick-purse, Poor-man' s-pharmacetty, Shovel-weed, Tooth wort*, 
Toywort, Ward-seed. Wind-flower* Witches' -pouches; Ger. 
Hirtentaschlein, Hirtentaschel, Sackelkraut, Gansekresse; Fr. 
Bourse a pasteur, Molette. Herh, Herba capsellse, H. bursae- 
pastoris; astringent, emmenagogue, diuretic. 

330. BURSERA, L: - Bursera. - Butseraceac. 

NaMied lor Joachim Burser, German botanist, 17th Century. 
Syn. Elaphrium, Icica, in part. Trees or shrubs, natives of 
tropical America; 2 in U. S. See also Canarium, Elaphrium 
and Protium. 

a. B. giimmifera L. Tropical America. Jamaicaor West Indian 
Birch, Gumbo-limbo tree; Fr. (iommart. Source of Cachibou 
or Chibou resin, resembling Caranna. [According to King's 
Dispensatory (1899) oil of Mexican Lignaloes is derived from 
(b) B. Delpachiaiia]. 

331. BtJTEA, Koenig. 1795. Bastard Teak. Papilionaceae. 

Named for John, Earl of Bute, d. 1792. Syn. Plaso, Adans, 
1763. Trees or shrubby climbers with showy flowers. About 
5 species, southeastern Asia. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR, 73 

a. B. frondosa Koxb. India to Burma. Dhak tree, Pulas or 
Palas tree, Bastard Teak. Inspissated sap, Bengal or Palas 
Kino, Butea gum; astringent, resembling true kino. Seeds 
source of Moodooga oil (anthelmintic). The tree yields also 
lac. See Croton aromatica. 

332. BUTNERIA, Duham 1755. Calycanthaeeae. 

Syn. Calycanthus L. 1759, Buettneria, Byttneria. Ornamen- 
tal shrubs. Three species, all of U. S. 

a. B. fertilis (Walt.) Kearney (C. fertilis Walt., C. lifivigatus 

Willd. , C. glaucus Willd. ). Pennsylvania to Georgia. 

Smooth Strawberry-shrub^, Bubby-bush, Sweet-scented shrub. 
Spice-bush*. Roof, leaves and bark, antiperiodic. Fruit re- 
puted poisonous to sheep. 

b. B. florida (L.) Kearney (C floridusL. ). Virginia to Missis- 

sippi. Carolina Allspice, Sweet-scented shrub, Hairy Straw- 
berry-shrub^, Strawberry-bush, Spice-bush*, Sweet-Betsies, 
Florida Allspicet. Bark aromatic. 

■c. B. occidentdlis (H. &. A.) Greene (C. occidentalis, H. & A.). 
Pacific border of U. S. California Spice-bush. 

BUTYROSPERMUM. See BASSIA. 

333. BUXUS, L. - - Box. - . Buxaceae. 

The ancient (rreek name. Evergreen trec^ or shrubs. About 
20 species, Europe, Asia, Africa and West Indies. 

^ B. sempervireiis L. Europe and Asia, also cult, in gardens. 
Box tree, Bush-tree, Dudgeon. Leaves cathartic. Wo >d dia- 
phoretic, alterative; also much used for engraving. 

334. BYRSONIMA, Kich. Locust-berry. Malpigrhiaceae. 

Shrubs or trees. About 80 species, tropical America; 1 in 
U. S. 

a. B. spieata Rich. (B. coriacea DC). West Indies and S. 
America. Locust-berry. Bark, called in Braxil Muruxi bark, 
used in tanning. The bark of several other species is used for 
the same purpose under the name of Alcornoque bark. 

335. CAB6mBA, Aubl. W^ater-shield. Nyiiiphaeaceae. 

Vernacular name, Guiana. Aquatic plants wiih doating 
peltate leaves. About 5 species, tropical America; 1 in U. S. 

336. CACALI6pSIS, Gray. Cacaliopsis. Compositae. 

From Greek, "resembling Cacalia". Floccose-wooUy peren- 
nial. One species. Pacific border of U. S. 

537. CACTUS, L. 1753. - Cactus. . Cactaceae. 

Greek name of some thorny plant. Syn. Mammillaria, Haw. 
1812. Fleshy leafless plants, armed with spines. About 300 
species, warm and tropical America; 23 in U. S. None known 
to have active properties. See Cereus and Opuntia. 



74 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

838. CAESALPINIA, L. Sappan, etc. Caesalpinaceae. 

Named for Andreas Caesalpinus, Italian botanist, d. 1603. 
Syn. Guilandina, Libidibia, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 
50 species, tropical; 3 in U. S. See Guilandina. 

a. C. coriaria Willd. (Libidibia coriariaSchlecht.). West Indies 

and S. America. Pods known as Divi-divi, Libi-divi, Libi- 
dibi or Muatta-pana; Fructus coriarise; astringent, used for 
tanning. 

b. C. echinata Lam. (Guilandina echinataSpreng.^ Brazil. One 

of several species yielding the Brazil wood (truf^j, Pernarabuco- 
wood, Nicaragua- wood, Hypernic-wood, Lima-wood, and Peach- 
wood of commerce, used in dyeing. 

c. C. Sappan L. East Indies. Source of Sappan-wood, Sampfeo- 

wood, Bukkum or Wukkum of India, used in dyeing. 

339. CAJUPtXI, Adans. 1763. Cajuput. Myrtaceae. 
From vernacular. Syn. Melaleuca, L. 1767, Myrtoleucoden- 

dron, Rumph. Aromatic shrubs or trees with showy flowers. 
About 100 species, chiefly of Australia. 

a. C. ericifolia (Sm. ) Lyons (Melaleuca ericifolia Sm. ). Aus- 

tralia. Australian Cajuput (Cajeput) tree. Leaves yield an 
oil very similar to Cajuput oil. 

b. C. riridiflora (Gaertn. ) Lyons ( Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertn., 

M. Leucadendron L., (Kew. ), Includes M. Cajuputi Boxb. ). 
East Indian Islands to India and Australia. Cajuput tree. 
Leaves yield a volatile oil, Oleum Cajuputi, L'. S. P. which is 
stimulant, analgesic, stomachic, etc. 

340. CAKILE, Gaertn. Sea Rocket. Cniciferae. 

The old Arabic name. Syn. Bunias, in part. Fleshy-t^tem- 
med herbs with 2-jointed siliques. About 3 species, sea and 
lake shores, Europe and N. America; 2 in U. S. 

341. CAL.4MUS, L. Eattan Palm. Sabalaceae. 

The Greek name of a Beed. Syn. Rotang. Slender-stem- 
med plants. About 80 species, tropical regions, Old World. 

a. C. riidentiim Lour., (b) C. rerus Lour., (c) C. yimindlis 

Reinw. and some other species furnish the canes or rattans of 
commerce. From (d) C. Scipiouuni Lour, are obtained the 
Malacca walking-canes. 

342. CALANDRINIA, H. B. K. Calandrinia. Portiilaeaeeae. 

Annual or perennial herbs, some with showy flowers. About 
120 species, mostly of Chili and Australia; 5 in U. S. 

343. CALCEOLARIA, Loefl. 1758. Calceolaria. Yiolaceae. 
From Latin, "slipper like". Syn. lonidium, Vent. 1803; 

Viola, in part. Herbs, mostly of tropical America; 2 in U. S. 

a, C. Ipecacudnha ( Vent. ) Lyons [I. Ipecacuanha Vent. (Kew)]. 
Brazil. White Ipecac, Poaya. Root emetic. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 75 

b. C. Yerticillata (Ort. ) Kze. (V. verticillata Ort., I. polygalse- 
folium Vent. (Kew), I. lineare Torr. ). Kansas to Colorado 
and Mexico. Nodding or Whorl-leaved Violet. Properties 
and uses of (a). 

344. CALENDULA, L. - Marigold. - Compositie. 

From Latin, ''monthly" blooming. Herbs with showy jellofr 
flowers. About 25 species, Mediterranean region. 

a. €. officinalis L. (Caltha officinalis Moench. ). Southern Europe 
and the Levant, cult, in gardens. Garden Marigold, Pot Mari- 
gold (Mally-gowl), Mary-bud, Gold-bloom, Golding, Gowlan, 
Holigold, Jackanapes-on-horseback, Rods-gold, Ruddes, Sun- 
flower*; Ger. Ringelblume, Todtenblume, Warzenkraut; Fr. 
Souci, Fleur de tous les raois. Florets, Calendula. U. S. P., 
Flores calendulae; Vulnerary, anti-emetic. The blossoming- 
plant, Herba calendulse, H. calthae sativse, H. verrucarise; 
vulnerary, formerly believed to remove warts. 

846. CALLA, L. - Calla, Water Arum. . .4raceae, 
An ancient plant name. . Acrid bog herb. One species. 

a. C. paliistris L. Northern Europe, A.-^ia and N. America. 
Water Arum, Wild Calla, Faverole, Female-dragon, Water- 
dragon, Swamp-robin. 

546. CALLIANDRA, Benth. 1840. Calliandra. Mimosacrap. 

From Greek, "beautiful stamen". Syn. Anneslia, Salisb. 
1807, not Anneslea, Wall. 1829. Ornamental shrubs, a few 
herbs or trees. About 80 species. New W^orld; 5 in U. S. 
[The antiperiodic Panbotano bark of Mexico is derived frona 
C. Houston! (King's Disp. )]. 

347. CALLICARPA, L. . Callicarpa. Yerbenaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'beautiful fruit' ' . Shrubs. About 25 8[)eciesi, 
warmer regions, chiefly of Asia; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. Americana L. Virginia to Florida and Texas. Frenck 
Mulberry, Bermuda Mulberry, Sour-bush. 

848. CALLIRRHOE, Nutt. 1821. Poppy Mallow. Malvaceae. 
Name from Greek mythology. Syn. Nuttallia, Barton, 1822; 
Malva, Sida, in part. Herbs with showy flowers. About 7 
species, central and southern U. S. and northern Mexico. 

349. CALLITRIS, Vent. Sandarac. - Pinaceae. 

Syn. Thuja, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 18 species^ 
Africa to Australia. 

a. C. quadriTdlyis Vent. (T. articulata Vahl. ). Northwestern 
Africa. Alerce, Sandarac tree, Arar-tree. Resinous exudate, 
Sandarac. Gum Sandarac, Juniper resin, Gum Juniper; Sanda- 
raca; Ger. Sandarak; Fr. Sandaraque (Codex); Terebinthinate, 
styptic, also used for varnishes, etc. Wood ornamental, called 
Citron-wood, Panther-wood, Tiger-wood, Ar-ir-wood. 

360. CALLI^NA, Salisb. Heather, etc. Ericaceae. 

Syn. Erica, in part. A low evergreen shrub. One species. 



76 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. Tulgdris (L. )Salisb. (E. vulgaris L. ), Europe, nat. in 
New England. Heather, Dog-heather, He-heather, Dog-, 
Ling-, Ked- or Small Heath, Scotch Heather (U. S.), Broom*, 
Besom, Busam, Bent, Bream, Grig, Black or Crow Ling, Moor. 
Plant reputed sudorific, diuretic, etc. 

351. CAL0CH6rTUS, Pursh. Mariposa Lily. Liliaeeae. 

From Greek, "beautiful lily". Herbs with coated corms and 

showy flowers; among the most beautiful of American wild 

flowers. About 40 species, southwestern U. S. and MexicQ. 

a. C. ^IbiiS Doug. California. Lily-bell. 

b. C. pulchellus Doug. California. Golden Lily-bell. 

c C. reniistus Benth. California. Mariposa Lily, Butterfly Lily, 
Wild or Butterfly Tulip, Pretty-grass, names not confined to 
this species. 

362. CAL6pHANE8, Don, 1833. Calophanes. Acanthaceae. 

From Greek, of "beautiful appearance". Syn. Dyschoriste, 
Nees, 1832. Perennial herbs or shrubs with blue or purple 
flowers. About 30 species, warmer regions; 5 in U. S. 

353. CALOPHYLLUM, L. Tacamahac. (hisiaceae. 

From Greek, "beautiful leaf. Large trees with parallel 
veined leaves. About 60 species, tropical, mostly of Old World. 

a. C. Inophylhim L. East Indies and Oceanica. Tacamahac 

tree, Poon tree, Kamani" (Polynesia). Besinous exudate, East 
Indian or Oriental Tacamahac, Resina Tacamahaca; Ger. Taka- 
mahak, Takmak; terebiiithinate. Seeds yield a fixed oil, Bitter 
oil, Domba oil, Poon-seed oil, Weandee, used in rheumatism. 

b. C. Tacamahaca Willd. Madagascar to East Indies. Also 

yields Tacamahac. 

354. CAL6tR()PIS, R. Br. Mudar. Asclepiadaceae. 

Syn. Asclepias in part. Shrubs or trees. Three species, 
Asia and Africa. 

a. C. gigantea (L. ) Dryand. (A. gigantea L. ). India. Bow- 

string Hemp*. Called in northern India Mudar, Madar 
or Ak, in southern India Yercum. Bark of root, Mudar bark, 
Radix mudaris, Rad. calotropis; alterative, diaphoretic, emetic. 

b. C. procera (Ait.) Dryand. (A. procera Ait., C. Hamiltoni 

Wight). India, westward to Africa. French Jasmine. 
Yields also Mudar bark. 

355. CALTHA, L. Marsh Marigold. Ranunciilaceae. 

The Latin name of Marigold. Marsh plants with buttercup 
-like flowers. About 10 species, high latitudes of both hemi- 
spheres; 5 in U. S. 

a. C. paliistris L. Ontario to S. Carolina, west to Iowa. Marsh 
Marigold, Meadow Buttercup*, Cowslip (U. S. ), Bull-flower, 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 77 

Great Butter-flower, Capers, Coltsfoot*, Cow-lily, Cowslop, 
Spring Cowslip, Crowfootf, Crazy-Bet, Drunkards, Gools, 
Meadow Gowan, Open or Water Gowan, Meadow-bouts, May- 
blob, Mire-blob, Horse-blob, Water-blob, King-cups*, Palsy- 
wort, Soldier's-buttons, Swamp-robin, Water-dragon, Water- 
goggles. Plant used as a pot herb. 

356. CALYCADENIA, DC. Calycadenia. Conipositae. 

From Greek, *'cup gland". Syn. Hemizonia, in part. 
Annual herbs with linear leaves. About 17 species, south- 
eastern U. S. 

357. CALYCOCARPUM, Nutt. Cup-seed. Meuispermaceae. 

From Greek, "cup fruit". Syn. Menispermum, in part. 
Herbaceous climber. One species, southwestern U. S. 

368. CALYC6SERIS, Gray. Calycoseris. Ciehoriaceae. 

From Greek, "cup Succory". Winter-annuals with showy 
flowers. Two species, southwestern U. S. and Mexico. 

359. CALYPSO, Salisb. - Calypso. - Orchidaceae. 

Dedicated to Calypso, of Greek mythology. Syn. Cypripe- 
dium, in part. Bog orchid. One species, (U. S. ) 

a. C. biilbosa (L. ) Oakes (Cyp. bulbosuniL., Cal. borealis Salisb. ) . 
Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. Caljpso. 

360. CALYPTRIDIUM, Xutt. Calyptridium. Portulacaceae. 

From Greek, "veil" or "quiver". Succulent annuals. 
Four species, southwestern U. S. 

361. CAMELINA, Crantz. False Flax. Crucif«'rae. 

From Greek, "low flax". Syn. Myagrum, in part. Annual 
herbs. About 5 species, Europe and Asia; 2 nat. in U. S. 

a. C. saliva (L. ) Crantz (M. sativum L. ). Europe, nat. in U. S. 
Gold-of-pleasure, W^ild or False Flax, Dutch Flax, Camline, 
Cheat, Madwort, Myagrum; Ger. Leindotter. Seeds, Dodder- 
seed, Siberian Oil-seed, yield German Sesame oil. 

362. CAMPANULA, L. Bell-flower. Campaimlaccae. 

From Latin, "little bell". Herbs, some ornamental. About 
250 species, northern hemisphere; 18 in U. S. 

a. C. Rapiinculus L. Europe. Eampion. Tuberous roots es- 

culent. 

b. C. rotundifolia L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, 

south to Illinois, Arizona and California. Harebell ( England, 
also Hair-bell, Air-bell), Bluebell (Scotland), Round-leaved 
Bellwort^ (a misnomer), Blaewort, Blaver, Blue-blauers, 
Blue bottle* Gowk's-thumbs, Heath-bell, Witches' -bell, Lady's- 
or Witches'- thimble; Ger. Glockenblume, Fr. Campanule. 

Noteworthy European species are (c). C. g'lomerata L., 
Dane' s-blood, Canterbury-bells*; (d) C. latifolia L., Great 
Bell-flower, Coventry-bells, White Foxglovef; (e) C. medium 
L., Canterbury-bells, Marian, Mercury' s-violet; (f) C. 
Tracheliiim L., Throat wort, Haskwort, Blue Foxglovef, 
Canterbury- or Coventry-bells. 



$ PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 



363. CAMPT0S6rUS, Link. Walking-fern, Polypodiaceae. 

From Greek, "bent sori". Small ferns. Two species, one 
of Asia, one in N. America (U. S.). 

3()4. CANANGA, Eumph. not Aubl. Ylang-ylang. Auoiiaceae. 
From vernacular name. Syn. Unona, Uvaria, in i)art. 
Trees or shrubs. Three species, East Indies. 

a. C. odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. (Uvaria odorata Lam., Unona odo- 
rata Dunal). East Indies. Ylang-ylang. Flowers source of 
oil of ylang-ylang or cananga. 

365. CANARIUM, L - Elemi. - Biirseraceae. 

Balsamic trees. About 90 species, tropical Asia and Africa. 

a. C. commune L. East Indies. Probably from this species is 

dieriyeAihe, resinous exudate, Elemi (Br. 1885), Manila Elemi, 
Resina (Gummi) Elemi; Fr. ifilemi (Codex); Sp. Goma de 
limon. Terebinth inate, vulnerary. Fruit, Java Almond, 
cathartic. 

b. C strictum Koib. Southern India. Source of Black Dammar 

resin. 

366. CANAVALI, Adans. (Canavalia, DC). Papilionaceae. 

Shrubby climbers. About 18 species, tropical regions; 2 in 
U. S. 

367. CaNBYA, Parry. - Canbya. - Papaveraceae. 

Named for the American botanist Canby. Herbs. Two 
known species, California. 

368. CANELLA, P. Br. 1756. Canella.^ Canellaceae. 

From French, Canelle, "cinnamon". Syn. Winterania L. 
1759. Aromatic shrubs. Two known species, tropical America. 

■a. C. Winterana (L. ) Gaertn, (W. Canella L., C. alba Murray). 
Florida and West Indies. Canella, White or Wild Cinnamon, 
Bahama W^hite-wood. Bark, False Winter's bark. Cortex 
canellaa, Cort. winteranus spurius, Costus dulcis; Ger. Weisser 
Kaneel, Weisser Zimmt; Fr. Canelle blanche (Codex). Sp. 
Canella blanca. Stimulant tonic, used as a condiment. 

369. CaNNA, L. Indian-shot, etc. Caniiaceae (Marantacea&). 

From Latin, "reed" or "cane". Robust ornamental herbs 
from tleshy rhizomes. About 80 species, tropical regions es- 
pecially of New W^orld. 

a. C. ^dulis Ker. Peru and Brazil, cult, in West Indies. Achi- 
ras. Fecula from rhizomes, Canna starch or arrowroot, Amy- 
lum cannse, U. S. P. 1870, Toulema (tous-les-mois); Ger. 
Cannastarke; Fr. Fecule de tolemane. A similar starch is ob- 
tained from other species, as (b) C. coccinea Mill. (C. rubra 
Willd.). 

«. C. Indica L. Widely distributed in the tropics. Indian-shot, 
China-shot, Common Canna or Tous-les-mois. Many other 
species are now cultivated as ornamental plants. 



SCIENTIFIC AM) POPULAR. t\) 

370. Cannabis, L. - Ilemp. - Moraceae. 
The classical naine. Robust herb. ( )ne species, centralAsia. 

a. C. sativa L. (including C. Indica Lam.). Asia, now widely 
cult, and nat. Hemp, Connnon Hemp, Hemp-weed, Gallow- 
grass, Neck-weed, Nick-weed, St. Audrews-lace, Tristram's- 
knot, Eed-root*, Welsh Parsley. (Staminate plants popularly 
called Female Hemp (Femble, Fimble), Barren Hemp; pistil- 
late plants, Male, Carl or Churl Hemp, thus reversing the sex- 
es) ; Ger. Hanf; Fr. Chanvre (Codex), Chenevis. An important 
fibre plant. Seeds yield oil. Flowerimj tops of the American- 
grown plant were formerly (U. S. P. 1880) official as Cannabis 
Americana, American Cannabis, American Hemp. Flowering 
tops of the pistillate plant groAvn in the East Indies; Cannabis 
Indica U. S. P., Br., Herba cannabis indic;e, Indian Cannabis, 
Indian Hemp, Gunjah, Ganjah, Guaza; a form used as an in- 
toxicant in the East is Bhang, Siddhi, Hashish or Halish (Fr. 
Haschisch, Codex) ; an impure resin is Charas or Churrus 
(Charms, Cherrus). Antispasmodic, narcotic. iS'eerfs; Semen 
V. Fructus cannabis; Ger. Hanf^;amen, Hanfkorner; demulcent. 

371. CAN6tIA, Torr. - Canotia. - SimarubaeeaB. 

Leafless spiny shrub, formerly referred to Eosaceae, Eutacete, 
etc. One species, Mexico and southwestern U. S. 

372. CAPNOIDES, Adans. 1763. Corydalis. Papayeraceae. 

From Greek, ''smoke-like". Syn. Neckeria, Scop. 1777; 
Corydalis, Vent. 1803. Delicate erect or climbing herbs. 
About ] 10 species, north temperate zone and S. Africa; 7 in 

U. vS. 

a. C. fab^ceum (Pers. ) Lyons (Cor. fabacea Pers. , Cor. solida Sw. 

Cor. digitata Pers.). Europe. Solid Birth wort. Tubers, 
Tubera corydalis solidse, Ead. aristolochiai solids; Ger. Feste 
(Voile) Osterleiwurzel ; formerly reputed emmenagogue and 
eutocic. 

b. C. flavulum (Raf. ) Kze. Ontario to Minnesota, soutli to 

Louisiana. Pale Corydalis. Colic- weed*. 

c. C. tuberosum (DC.) Lyons (Cor. tuberosa DC., Cor. bulbosa 
Pers., Cor. cava Schweig., Cor. solida Moench.). Europe. 
Bulbous Fumitory, Eound Birthwort, Holewort. Tubers, 
Tubera corydalis cavse, Rad. aristolochise cavae v. fabace*; Ger. 
Hohlwurzel, Donnerwurzel; Fr. Fumeterre bulbeuse; reputed 
emmenagogue, anthelmintic. 

373 CAPN6rEA, Eaf. Capnorea. Hydrophyllaceae. 

Syn. Hesperochiron, Wats. Scapose herbs. Three known 
species, southwestern U. S. 

374. CAPFARIS, L. - Caper. - Capparidaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Shrubs with showy Howers. 
About 150 species, warm and tropical regions. 

a. C. aphylla Roth. (C. Sodada, R. Br.). Africa. Fruit used 
like pepper. 



80 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. C. cynophallophora L. and (c) C. ferruginea L. (Mustard- 

shrub) of the West Indies have root-barks that are vesicating 
and diuretic; plants anthelmintic. 

c. C. spiiioisa L. Mediterranean region to central Asia. Caper 

bush, Hyssop of Scripture; Ger, Kapper; Fr. C^prier; Sp. 
Alcaparro. Buds, called capers, pungent, antiscorbutic. 

375. CAPRARIA, L. Capraria. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Latin, ' 'goat- weed" . Herbs or undershrubs, warmer 
regions of Africa and America; 1 in U. S. 

376. CAPRIOLA, Adans. 1763. Bermuda Grass. Gramiiieae. 

From Latin, (food for the) ''wild goat". Syn. Cynodon, 
Rich. 1805. Matted grasses, 4 species; 1 nat. in U. S. 

a. C. Dactylon (L. ) Kze. ( Panicum Dactylon L. , Cynodon Dacty- 
lon Pers. ). Naturalized in U. S. from Europe and widely dis- 
tributed. Bermuda Grass, Scutch or Scotch Grass, Dog's-tooth 
Grass, Indian Couch-grass, Bahama Grass. Stolom, Radix 
graminis dactyli, used in Europe like Couch-grass. 

377. CAPSICUM, L. Red Pepper, Pod Pepper. Solanaceae. 

From Latin, "box", alluding to the fruit. Herbs with pun- 
gent fruit. About 25 species, warmer regions of both hemi- 
spheres. 

a. C. Annuum L. S. America, now universally cult, in many 

varieties, some of which have been described as species, as C. 
Ionium Fing. C. grossiim Willd. and C. cordiforme Mill. 
Garden Pepper, Pod Pepper, Red Pepper, Spanish Pepper, 
Goat's Pepper, Chili Pepper, Chillies, Guinea Pepper*, Bird 
Pepper*;.Ger. Spanischer Pfeffer, Tiirkischer Pfeffer, Guinea 
Pfefier, TaschenpfefFer, Schotenpfefier; Fr. Piment des jardins, 
Poivre de Guinee (Codex), Piment rouge, Capsique; Sp. Chile, 
Pimiento. Fruit of this and other species. Red Pepper, 
Cayenne Pepper, Paprica; Fructus capsici. Piper hispauicum. 
The German Pharmacopoeia recognizes C. annuum and C. Ion- 
gum. Properties of (b). 

b. C, fastiguitiim Bl. (C. minimum, Roxb. not Mill.) S. America, 

now widely cult. Cayenne Pepper. Fruit known in eommerce 
as African Pepper, Bird Pepper, in Great Britain as Guinea 
Pepper and Chillies; Capsicum. U. S. P., Capsici fructus Br. 
Piper cajannense; Ger. Cajennepfeffer; Fr. Piment de Cayenne 
(Codex). [The only species admitted by the U. S. and British 
Pharmacopoeias. ] Stimulant, stomachic, revulsive, rubefacitnt. 

c C. frntescens L. (C. crassum Willd. ) S. America. The fruit 
of this species, smaller than that of (b), is also called Cayenne 
pepper and is equally active. 

378. CARAPA, Aubl. Crab-tree, etc. Meliaceae. 
Vernacular name, Guiana. Syn. Xylocarpus, in part- 
Trees. About 5 species, tropical America and Africa. 

a. C. Guiaii^nsis Aubl. (X.CarapaSpreng. ). Guiana. Andiroba 
or Carapa tree, Crabwood tree. Bark febrifuge. Seeds yield 
Carapa oil, Carap or Crab oil, Andiroba oil. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 81 

b. C. procera DC. (C Touloucouna Guil. & Per.). Senegal. 
Kundah tree (Touloucouna, Tallicouna). Seeds, Mote nuts, 
yield Kundah (Tallicouna, Tulucuna, Callicoonah, Coundi, 
Kounda) oil, which is bitter, cathartic and anthelmintic. 

379. CARDAMINE, L. Bitter Cress. Cruciferae. 

Greek name of a Cress, ''heart-strengthening". Herbs. 
About 100 species, temperate regions; 29 in U. S. 

a. C. amara L. Europe and northern Asia. Bitter Cress. 

b. C. llirsuta L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Hairy Bitter- 

cress, Small Bitter-cress, Lamb's Cress, Land Cress. 

c. C. pratensis L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America (U.S. ). 

Cuckoo-flower (Flos cuculi). Cuckoo-spit, Meadow or Small 
Bitter-cress, Bonny-bird-een, Headache*, May-flower, Lady's 
Smock (Shakespere), Smick-smock, Milkmaids, Spink; Ger. 
Wiesenkresse, Cukukskraut; Fr. Cresson des pres. Herb, 
Herba nasturtii pratensis. Like the preceding, anti-scorbutic, 
deobstruent. 

d. C. purpurea (Torr. )Brit. (Arabis rhomboidea var. purpurea 

Torr, ), C. Douglassii (Torr.) Brit.). Canada, south to 
Maryland and Wisconsin. Purple Cress, Spring Cress, Moun- 
tain Water-cress. 

e. C. rotundifolia Michx. New Jersey to Ohio and south to N. 

Carolina. American Water-cress, Kound-leared Water-cress, 
Mountain Water-cress. 

380. CARDIOSPERMUM, L. Heart-seed. Sapindaceae. 

From Greek, "heart seed". Herbaceous vines. About 20 
species, warm and temperate regions; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. Halicacabum L. South America and cult, in gardens. 
Balloon- vine. Heart-seed^, Heart Pea, Indian-heart, Winter- 
cherry* Puff-ball t. Root reputed laxative and diuretic. 

381. CARDUUS, L. Thistle, Tassel-bur. Compositae. 

The ancient Latin name, whence our word "card" (for wool 
etc. ). Syn. Cnicus, Cirsium, Serratula, in part. Robust 
prickly herbs. About 250 species, northern hemisphere; 56 in 

U. b. 

a. C. arv^nsis (L.) Robs. (S. arvensis L., Cn. arvensis Hoffm. 

(Kew), Cir. arvensis Scop. ). Europe, nat. in U. S. and else- 
where. Canada Thistle, Boar-, Corn-, Creeping-, Cursed-, 
Dog-, Hard-, Prickly- (Pricky-), Sharp- or Way Thistle, 
Dashel, Dodger. A pernicious weed. 

b. C. lanceoMtum L. (Cn. lanceolatus Willd. (Kew), Cir. lan- 

ceolatum Scop. ). Europe, nat. in U. S. Common Thistle, 
Bull Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Bur Thistle (Scotland); Bank- 
Bell-, Bird-, Blue-, Boar-, Buck-, Button-, Horse-, Plume-, 
Roadside- or Spear Thistle. The emblem of Scotland. 

c. C. nutans L. Asia and Europe, adv. in U. S. Musk Thistle, 

Plumeless Thistle, Queen Ann's Thistle, Bank or Buck This- 
tle, wrongly called Scotch Thistle. 



82 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

382. CiREX, L. - Sedge. - Cyperaceae. 

Classical name of uncertain origin. Grass-like Sedges. 
More than 1000 species; about 350 in U. S. 

a. C. areiiaria L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Sand Sedge, Sand-star, 
Sea Sedge, Red Couch-grass, Sea-bent, Sea Bent-grass, Stare, 
German Sarsaparilla ; Ger. Sandriedgras, Sandsegge, Rothe 
Quecke; Fr. Laiche. Rhizome; Rhizoma caricis, Rad. sarsapa- 
rillse germanicae. Properties of Sarsaparilla. 

383. CARICA, L. Papaw. Caricaceae (Papayaceae). 

Latin name of *'fig". S\'n. Papaya, Tourn. Shrubby or 
arborescent plants, generally with simple stem. About 20 spe- 
cies, tropical America; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. Papaya L. (P. Carica Gaertn., P. vulgaris DC. ). Tropical 
America, cult, in all tropical countries. Papaw (Pawpaw), 
Papaya, Melon tree, Custard Applej, Mamseiro; Ger. Melonen- 
baum, Papaybaum. Milky juice o^Mnri^eivmi, Succus papayse, 
has properties like those of pepsin. 

384. CARLINA, L. Carline Thistle. Conipositae. 

Named for Charlemagne, whose army found in the plant a 
remedy for the plague. Thistle-like plants, natives of Europe. 

a. C. acaiilis L. (A variety of this is C. caulescens Lam. ). Europe. 
Carline Thistle, Ground Thistle; Ger. Sonnendistel, Eberwurz, 
Rosswurzel; Fr. Chardon dore, Carline. Root, Rad. carlinse v. 
cardopatise, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue. Fleshy re- 
ceptacle of this and o( {h) C. acauthifolia All., esculent. 

385. CARLOWRIGHTIA, Gray. Carlowrightia. Acaiithaceae. 

Named for Charles Wright, American botanist. Under- 
shrubs. Three known species, southwestern U. S. 

386. CARMINATIA, Moc. Carminatia. Conipositae. 

Named for Prof. B. Carminati of Pavia. Herb witli rather 
small heads of whitish flowers, Mexico and southwestern U. S. 

387. CARPENTERTA, Torr. Carpenteria. Saxifragaceae. 
Undershrub with large white flowers. A single species, 

California. 

S88. CARPHEFHORUS, Cass. Carphephorus. Conipositae. 

From Greek, ''chaff bearing". Syn. Liatris, in part. 
Perennial herbs, some sufli-utescent. About 8 species, North 
America; 4 in U. S. 

a89. CARFHOCHAETA, Gray. Carphochaeta. Conipositae. 

From Greek, "chaff bristle" . Perennial herbs, some suftru- 

tescent. Three known species, Mexico and its borders; 1 in 

U.S. 

390. CARFINUS, L. Hornbeam. Betulaceae. 

The ancient Latin name. Trees or shrubs. About 12 species, 
northern hemisphere; 1 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 83 

a. C. Carolinifina Walt. (C. Americana Michi. ). Eastern U. S. 
American Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Water Beech, Iron-wood, 
Hurst- or Horst- beech. Horse Beech. 

391. CARTHAMUS, L. Safflower. Compositae. 

The Latin name, from Arabic, "pigment". Herbs. Tifvo 
or more species, Old World. 

a. C. tinctorius L. India, cult, extensively in Europe, Asia and 
Africa. Safflower, Dyer's Saffron, African Saffron, American 
or Thistle Saffron, False or Bastard Saffron, Parrot's Corn; Ger. 
Farbersatlor, Falscher Safran, Deutscher Safran; Fr. Carthame; 
Sp. Cartamo, Azafrancillo, Alazor. Florets; Flores carthami, 
Carthamus; diaphoretic, resembling camomile. [The South 
African Carmendik, used as a stomachic bitter, is from a related 
plant.] 

392. CARUM, L. Caraway, etc. Umbel liferae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Bulbocastanum, Bunium, 
in part. Herbs. About 50 species, temperate and warm regions; 
1 in U. S. See also Apium, Ataenia, Conopodium, Ptychotis. 

a. C. Bulbocdstauuni Koch. (B. LinnaeiSchur. ). Mediterranean 

region. Tubers and leaves esculent. Fruit a condiment. 

b. C. Cariii L. (also written C. Carvi). Northern Asia and 

Europe, adv. in U. S. Caraway, Car vies, Saxifragef. Fruit; 
Carum, U. S. P., Carui Fructus, Br., Semen carvi; Ger. 
Kiimmelsamen, Kiimmel, Garbe; Fr. Carui (Codex), Cumin 
des pres; Sp. Alcaravea; aromatic, carminative, used chiefly as 
a flavor and condiment. 

c. C. feriilaefolium Bois. (Bunium ferula^folium Desf.). Cyprus 

and Candia. Topana. Tubers edible. 

393. C4RY0CAR, - Guiana Butternut. - Rhizobolaceae. 

From Greek, "head nut", from size of fruit. Syn. Pekea, 
in part. Trees producing edible nuts. About 10 species, S. 
America. 

a. C. biityrosiim Willd. (Pekea butyrosaAubl.), Pekea tree and 
(b) C. niiciferum L., Souari (Suwarrow) tree, both of Guiana, 
yield oily nuts called South American or Guiana Butternuts. 

394. CARY6tA, L. Toddy Palm, etc. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, "nut" palm. Tall palms. About 12 species, 
East Indies and southeast Asia. 

a. C. lireiiS L. Ceylon and India. Ceylon Toddy Palm, Jaggery- 
Palm, Bastard Sago- Palm. Sap yields palm wine (toddy) 
and palm sugar (jaggery). Stem yields sago; See Borassus. 

395. CASIMIR6a, La Llave. Zapote. Aurantiaceae. 

Trees. Two known species, tropical N. America. 

a. C. edulis Llav. & Lex. Mexico. Zapote, Fniit edible but 
soporific. Seeds poisonous. 



84 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

396, CASSIA, L. - Cassia. - CaBsalpinaceae. 

Ancient Greek plant name, from Hebrew. Syn. Senna, in 
part. Herbs, shrubs and even trees. About 275 species, warm 
and temperate regions, especially tropical America; about 30 
in U. S. See Cathaitocarpus. 

a. C. Absus L. India to Egypt. Absus Seed. The seeds of this 
and of (b) C. auriculata L. of India are used like those of 
Abrus in ophthalmia. 

0. C. acutifolia Delile(C. lanceolata Nectoux, C. Senna var.b. L., 
C. orientalis Pers., C. lenitiva Bisch., Senna acutifolia Link. ). 
Egypt to Kordofan. Alexandria Senna, Tripoli Senna; Ger. 
Alexandrinische Senna, Palt-Senna; Fr. Sen^ de la Palte, d' 
Egypte, d' Alexandrie (Codex). Leaves of this and of (d); 
Senna U. S. P., Senna Alexandrina, Br., Folia sennae; Ger. 
Sennesblatter; Fr. Feuilles de sene; cathartic. 

d. C. angustifolia Vahl. (C. elongata Lemaire, C. lanceolata W. 

& Am., C. acutifolia Nees., C. medica, Foi-sk., C. mediciualis 
Bisch, Senna officinalis Roxb., S. angustifolia Batka). India 
westward to Somali coast. Tinnivelly Senna, India Senna. 
Leaven, Senna Indica, Br. The East India or Bombay senna 
is less carefully prepared, and still inferior is the Arabian or 
Mecca senna, also sold as Bombay senna, all derived from this 
species; Ger. Indische Senna; Fr. S^ne de Tinnevelly (Codex). 

e. C. Marylaiidica L. (Senna Marylandica Link. ). New England 

to Nebraska and south to the Gulf. Wild Senna, American 
Senna, Locust-plant. Leaves have been used instead of true 
senna, but are inferior. 

f. C. nictitans L. Maine to Indiana and south to Texas. Wild 

Sensitive-plant, Senf^itive Pea. [The larger (g) C. Chamae- 
crista L. of the same region is called Partridge Pea, Dwarf 
Cassia, Prairie Senna or Larger Sensitive-pea. 

h. C. obovata Colladon(C. Senna Forskal, C. obtusa Roxb. C. 
obtusata Hayne, Senna obovata Link.). Arabia and north- 
ern and eastern Africa. Soudan Senna, Syrian or Aleppo Senna. 
The leaves are sometimes mixed with those of Alexandria 



i. C. occidentalis L. Widely diffused in tropical countries. Coffee 
Senna, Stinking Cassia, Styptic weed. Roasted seeds are Negro 
Coffee, Mogdad Coffee, Magotty-boy Bean; Ger. Mogdad- 
Kaflee; Fr. Caf^ chilen; a substitute for coffee. 

j. C. Tora L. (C. obtusifolia L. ). Southern U. S. and widely 
diffused in tropical countries. Low Senna, Sickle Senna. 

897. CASSIOPE, D. Don. Moss-plant, Moss-bush. Ericaceae. 

Name from Greek mythology, like that of the related 

Andromeda. Syn. Andromeda, in part. Evergreen heath-like 

or moss-like shrubs. About 10 species, high north latitudes; 

5 in U. S. and British America. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 85 

398. CASSYTHA, L. - Cassytha. - Lauraceae. 

Slender, apparently leafless vines. About 15 species, mostly 
Australian; 1 in U. S. 

399. CASTALIA, Sali^b. Pond Lily, etc. Nymphseacese. 

Named from the famed spring on Parnassus. Syn. Nym- 
phaea, in part. Aquatic plants with Magnolia-like flowers. 
About 25 species; 7 in U. S. 

a. C. alba ( L. ) Lyons ( Nymphaea alba L. C. speciosa Salisb. ). 

Europe. European White Water-lily or Pond-lily, Water- blobf, 
Water-can; Fr. Nenuphar blanc (Codex), lioot alterative, 
astringent. 

b. C. odonita (Dryand. ) Woodv. & Wood. (Nymphaea odorata 

Dryand., C. pudica Salisb. ). Nova Scotia to Manitoba and 
south to the Gulf. Sweet-scented White Water-lily, White 
Pond-lily, Water-nymph., Wa'er Cabbage, Toad Lily. [The 
same names except the tirst are given to the very similar but 
larger and scentless (c) C.tuberosa (Paine) Greene, northern 
U. S. to Nebraska.] Hoot astringent, demulcent. 

400. CASTANEA, Adans. - Chestnut. - Fagacese. 
Latin name, from a city in Thessaly. Trees or shrubs with 

edible nuts enclosed in a prickly bur. Four or five species, 
northern hemisphere; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. dentAta (Marsh) Borkh. (C. vesca var. Americana Michx., 

C. Americana, Raf. ). Ontario to Michigan and Tennessee. 
American Chestnut, Chestnut, Prickly-bur, Sardinian-nut; 
Ger. Kastanienbaum ; Fr. Chataignier, Marronier; Sp. Cas- 
tano. Leaves sedative, used in whooping cough. Bark as- 
tringent, tonic, febrifuge. Fruit esculent. 

b. C. piiiiiila (L.) Mill. (Fagus pumilaL. ). New Jersey to In- 

diana and southwards. Chinkapin (Chincapin, Chinquapin), 
Dwarf Chestnut. 

c C. Castdnea ( L. ) Lyons ( Fagus Castanea L., C. sativa Mill. 
(Kew), C. vesca Gaertn., C. vulgaris Lam. ). Asia and Europe. 
European Chestnut, Spanish Ches nut, Chastey, Bur, French- 
nut, Meat-nut, Stover-nut. Properties of (a). 

401. CASTAN6pSIS, Spach. Oak Chestnut. Fagaceae. 
From Greek, * 'chestnut-like' ' . Trees producing edible nuts. 

About 20 species, mostly of tropical Asia, 1 in U. S. 

a. C. chrysophylla A. DC. California. Califomian Oak-chestnut, 
California Chinkapin. 

402. CASTELA, Turp. - Castela. - SimarubaceoB. 

Shrubs. About 10 species, tropical America; 1 in U. S. 

403. CASTILLEJA, Mutis. Painted-cup. Scrophulariacese. 

Named for Castill jo, Spanish botanist. Syn. Bartsia, in 
part. Herbs, flower-spikes often with colored bracts. About 
40 species, mostly of New World; 30 in U. S. 



^6 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. coccinea. (L. ) Spreng. (B. coccineaL. ), Ontario to Texas- 
Scarlet Painted-cup, Indian Paint-brush, Bloody-warrior, Red- 
Indians, Election-posies, Prairie-fire, Wickakee. (These 
names given also to other species having red bracts.) 

404. CASTIlLOA, Cervant. Castilloa. Artocarpaceae. 

From Spanish, "Castilian". Trees. About 3 species, 
tropical America. 

a. C. elastica Cervantes and (b) C. Markhamiana Collins, both 
of Mexico, yield India rubber. See Hevea. 

405. CASUARINA, L. Australian Oak, Beefwood. Casuarinaceae. 

From Latin, ' 'cassowary tree", alluding to the plumy foli- 
age. Leafless trees, looking like arboreous Equiseturas. 
About 30 species, Australia to East Indies. lu Australia called 
"oaks", several of the species "she-oaks", one "he-oak". 

a. C. equisetifolia L. (C. Indica Pers. ). Southern Asia to Aus- 
tralia and Polynesia. Iron-wood (South Sea Islands), Swamp 
Oak (Australia), Toa (Fiji Islands, where formerly the wood 
was used for cannibal forks), ^arl- of this and other species 
astiingent. Wood hard and durable. 

406. CATALPA, Scop. - Catalpa. - Bigiioiiiaceae. 

Vernacular Indian name. Syn. Bignonia, in part. Trees or 

shrubs with showy flowers. About 10 species, 2 in Asia, the 
rest American; 2 in U. S. 

a. C. Catdlpa (L.) Karst. (C. bignonioide^ Walt. (Kew), B. 

Catalpa L., C. syringrefoliaSims. ). Southeastern U. S. Catal- 
pa tree, Indian Bean, Bean tree, Smoking-bean, Cigar tree, 
Indian-cigar, Candle tree, Catawba tree*. Fruit antispasmodic, 
cardiac; sedative, ^a?'^ anthelmintic, alterative. 

b. C. speciosa Warder (C. cordifolia Duham). Illinois to Arkan- 

sas. Hardy or Western Catalpa, Catawba tree, Larger Indian- 
bean, Cigar tree, Shawnee-wood. Properties of (a). 

407. CATESBAEA, L. Lily-thorn. Rubiaceae. 
Named for Mark Catesby, English naturalist, d. 1749. 

Shrubs. About 10 species, mostly of West Indies; 1 in U. S. 

408. CATHA, Forsk. (not G. Don). Khat. Celastraceae. 

From the Arabic name. Syn. Celastrus, in part. A small 
shrub. One species. 

a. C. edulis Forsk. (Celastrus edulis Vahl. ). Arabia and eastern 
Africa. Leaves Khat, Kat, Cat, Cafta, Arabian or Abyssinian 
Tea, used like Chinese tea. 

409. CATHARTOC ARPUS, Pers. 1805. Caosalpinaceae. 

Fiom Greek, "purging fruit". Syu. Bactyrilobium, Fistula, 
Cassia, in part. Trees with huge legumes, the seeds embedded 
in pulp. Tropical regions. 

a. C. grandis (L. tils) Pers. (Cassia graudis L. tils (Kew), Cassia 
Brasiliana Lam., Cassia mollis V^ahl.,). South America. Horee 
Cassia. Properties of (b). 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPUJ.AR. 87 

b. C. Fistula (L. ) Pers. (Cassia Fistula L., Bactyrilobium Fis- 

tula Willd. ). Southern Asia, now cult, widely in tropical re- 
gions. Golden-shower tree, Purging Cassia tree, Puddingstick 
tree, Pudding-pipe tree, Dru nstick tree, Tree highly orna- 
mental. Fruit; G ssia Fistula, U. 8. P.,(Cassire Pulpa Br.), 
Purging Cassia, Fructus cassine fistuhe; Uer. Rohrkassie, Koh- 
renkassie, Purgirkassie; Fr. Casse officinale (Codex) Ciisse en 
batons; Sp. Caiia tistula; Laxative, mildly cathartic. 

c. C. moschtitus G. Don (Cassia moschata Kunth. ). Panama. 

Fruit resembles that of (b. ) but is lighter colored and some- 
what astringent. 

410. CAT6P!SIS, Griseb. Catopsis. Broiiieliaceae. 

Herbs. About 3 species, tropical America; 1 in U. S. 

411. CATJCALIS, L. Hedge Parsley. Umbelliferae. 

The Greek name. Syn. Tordylium, Torilis, in part. An- 
nual herbs. About 20 species, northern hemisphere. 

a. C. Anthriscus (L. ) Huds. (Tord. Anthriscus L., Torilis An- 
thriscus Pernli. ). Europe, adv. in U. S. P^rect Hedge-parsley, 
Eough Chervil, Jlenilock Chervil, Scabby-head, Kough Cicely, 
Hogweed, Lady's-needlework. 

412. CAULASTHUS, S. Wats. Caulanthus. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, "stem flower". Herbs. Seven known species, 
all of California and vicinity. 

413. CAULOPHYLLUM, Michx. Blue Cohosh. Berberidaceae. 

From Greek, "stem leaf". Syn. Leontice, in part. A 
glaucous herb with a single compound leaf. One species. 

a. C. thalictroides (L.) Michx. (L. thalictroides L. ). Canada 
to N-: Carolina, Missouri and Nebraska, also in Japan. Blue 
Cohosh, Pappoose-root, Squaw-root, Blueberry-root, Blue Gin- 
seng, Yellow Ginseng. Rhizome, and roots^; Caulophyllum, 
U. S. P.; demulcent, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, diuretic. 

414. CAYAP6nIA, Silv. Manso 1836. Ciieurbitaceae. 

Syn. Trianosperma, Mart. 1843; Bryonia, in part. Herba- 
ceous climbers. About 65 species, mostly of tropical America; 
2 in U. S. 

a. C. Americjilia (Lam.) Cogn. (B. Americana Lam.). West 

Indies. Properties of Bryonia dioica, q. v. 

b. C. flcifolia Cogn. (T. ficifolia Cogn. ). Brazil. Tayuya. Root 

alterative, emetic. 

415. CEAN6tHUS, L. Ked-root, etc. Rhamiiaceae. 

Greek name of a kind of thistle. Shrubs with white or blue 
panicled flowers. About 50 species, all of U. S. and northern 
Mexico. 



88 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. Americ^nus L. Ontario to Manitoba and south to the Gulf. 

Red root, New Jersey Tea, Jersey Tea, Wal^ole Tea, Mountain- 
sweet, Wild Snowball, Spi angles; Gcr, Seckelblume; Fr. 
Ceanothe. i?oo<, astringent, alterative, ieat-es used formerly as 
a substitute for Chinese lea. 

b. C. coeriileus Lagasca ( C. azureus Desf ). Mexico. The plant 

is there used as a febrifuge. 

c. C. thyrsifloriis Esch. California. California Lilac, Blue 

Myrtle. 

416. CEBATHA, Forsk. 1775. Cebatha. Memspprmaoeae. 

An Arabic name. Syn. Cocculus, DC. 1818; Menispermum, 
in part. Dioecious vines. About 10 species, mostly tropical; 
2 in U. S. 

a. C. Carolina (L. ) Britton (M. Carolinum L., Cocculus Carolinus 
DC). Southeastern U. S. Carolina or Red-berried Moonsf-ed. 

417. CEDRELA, P. Br. Spanish Cedar. Cedrelaceae. 

From Greek, "cedar fir". Syn. Cedrusf, in part. Trees. 
About 15 species, tropical Asia and America. 

a. C. odordta L. (C. Cedro Loefl., Cedrus odorata Mill. ). West 

Indies. Jamaica Red Cedar, Spanish Ce(lar; Honduras, Bar- 
badoes, Havana or West Indian Cedar, S^veet scented Cedar. 
Bark aromatic, febrifuge. Wood fragrant; source of Cedar- wood 
oil. 

b. C. Toona Roxb. (C. australis F. Muell. , perhaps a distinct 

species). Malacca to Australia. Toon tree, Indian or East 
Indian Mahogany, Singapore Cedar, Australian Red Cedar. 
Gummy exudate, Cedar gum, resembles Acacia. 

418. CEDRONELLA, Riv. Cedronella. Labiatae. 
Syn. Dracocephaium, in part. Herbs. About 9 species, N. 

America, Canary Islands and Japan. 

a. C. Mexicana Benth. and (b) C. pdllida Lindl. of Mexico are 
used as substitutes for Melissa. 

c. C. triphylla Mcench. (D. Canariense L. ). Canary Islands. 

Balm of Gilead*, Sweet Balm. Herb aromatic, diaphoretic. 

419. CEDRUS, Mill. Cedar of Lebanon. Pinaeeae. 
The classical name. Syn. Abies, Pinus, in part. A spread- 
ing evergreen tree with fragrant wood. One species, Asia and 
Africa. 

a. C. Cedrus (L.) Lyons (Pinus Cedrus L., C. Libani Barrel 
(Kew), C. Libanotica Link, A. Cedrus Poir.). Syria. Cedar 
of Lebanon. Source of Lebanon Manna. A variety of this 
species is the magnificient Deodar Cedar of the Himalayas, C. 
Deodara Loud. 

420. CEIBA, Medic. 1787. Silk-cotton tree. Bombaceae. 
Vernacular name. Syn. Eriodendron DC. ; Bombax, in 

part. Trees. About 8 species, all but one of tropical America. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 89 

:a. C. pentandra Gaertn. (Bom'jax Ceiba Auct., Eriodendron an- 
fractuosum DC. ). Tropical Asia and Africa. Silk-cotton 
tree, Cotton-tree, God-tree, Cabbage-wood. 

421. CELASTRUS, L. Staff-tree. Celastraceae. 

Greek name of an evergreen tree. Shrubs, mostly climbing. 
About 30 species, mostly of Old World; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. scdiidens L. Ontario to Manitoba and south to N. Caro- 

lina and New Mexico. False Bittersweet, Climbing or 
Shrul)by Bittersweet, Wax-work, Staff-tree, Staff-vine, Fever- 
twig, Yellow-root, Climbing Orange-root, Koxbury Wax-work, 
Jacob's Ladder-; Ger. Celaster; Fr. Celastre. Bark emetic, 
discutient, anti-syphilitic. 

422. CELTIS, L. - Nettle-tree. - Ulmace*. 
The ancient Latin name. Trees or shrubs. About 60 species, 

mostly of Old World; 2 in U. S. 

-a. C. occideiitalis L. (C. pumila Pursh.). Canada to Louisiana 
and Kansas. Hackberry. Sugar-berry, American Nettle-tree, 
Beaver-wood, Bastard Elm, False Elm, Juniper-treef, Hoop 
Ashf , Rim Ashf, One-berry. Fruit edible. 

b. C. australis L. Europe. European Nettle-berry. Probably 

the lotus of the ancients, the food of the lotus-eaters. 

423. CENTAtREA, L. Blue-bottle, etc. Compositae. 

Greek name, plant of the Centaurs. Syn. Calcitrapa, 
Cyanus, Plectocephalus, in part. Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 
350 species, mostly of Old World; 1 indigenous in U. S. 

a. C. Americana Nutt. (P. American us Don.). South-central 
U. S. to Mexico. American Star-thistle. 

T). C. Calcitrapa L. (Calcitrapa Calcitrapa (L. ) Hill). Europe, 
adv. in U.S. Star Thistle, Caltrops, Maize-thorn, Mouse-tliorn, 
Knapweed*; Ger. Sterndistel; Fr. Chardon ^toil^. Plant ionic, 
irritant, nauseant. 

•c. C. Cyanus L. ( Cyanus Cyanus (L. ) Hill). Europe, cult, in 
gardens and nat. in U. S. Blue-bottle, Corn Blue-bottle, Corn- 
flower, Bachelor's buttons. Blue-blow, Blue-bonnets, Blue-caps, 
Blue Poppy, Blawort, Blaver, Break-your-spectacles, Brushes, 
Corn-binks, Corn-bottle*, Corn Centaury, French Pink, Hurt- 
sickle, Knapweed*, Witches' -bells, Witches'-thimbles; Ger. 
Kornblume; Fr. Bluet, Barbeau (Codex), Casse-lunette. 
l^lorets, mildly astringent, used in collyria. 

«d. C. nigra L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Black Knapweed, Knap- 
weed, Knobweed, Horse-knobs, Bachelor's-buttons*, Button- 
weed, Black soap, Blue-tops, Bole-weeed, Bull- weed. Bund- 
weed, Centaury, Club-weed, Crop-weed, Dur-bottle, Drumstick, 
How-weed, Hurt-sickle, Iron-head, Iron-weed, Lady's-cushion, 
Loggerheads, Matfelon, Mater-filon, Tar-botlle, Tassel, Sweeps. 
Boot tonic, alterative. 



90 ^ PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

424. C^NTELLA, L. Marsh Pennywort. Unibellifcrae. 

From Latin, "little prickle". Syn. Hydrocotyle, in part. 
Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 20 species, mostly of south Africa; 
1 in U. S. 

a, C. Asiiitica (L. ) Urban (H. Asiatica L. (Kew), H. repanda 
Pers. ). Maryland to Florida and Texas and widely distributed 
in tropical countries. Indian Pennywort, Ovate-leaved Marsh 
Pennywort, Thick-leaved Pennywort; Ger. Asiatischer Wasser- 
nabel; Fr. Plydrocotyle (Codex), Bevilacqua; Sp. llidrocotila. 
Plant, Herba hydroiotyles asiaticae, alterative, narcotic, used 
in cutaneous diseases. 

426. CENTROMADIA, Greene. Centromadia. Conipositae. 

From Latin, "prickly Madia". Syn. Hemizonia, in part. 
Resinous annuals. About 6 species, California. 

426. CE^TUNCULUS, L. Chaffweed, etc. Primulaceae. 

Latin dim. of cento, a "patch". Low annuals. Tliree 
species, America and Australia; 2 in U. S. 

a. C. miiiiiiius L. Europe and North and South America. Chaff- 
weed, False or Bastard Pimperel. 

CEPHAELIS. See URAGOGA. 

427. CEPHALAKTHERA, Rich. Cephalanthera. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "head anther". Terrestrial orchids. About 
10 species, temperate regions; 1 in U. S. 

428. (^EPHALANTHUS, L. Button-bush. Riibiace*. 
From Greek, "head flower". Shrubs or small trees. About 

6 species, Asia and America; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. occidentalis L. Canada to Florida and California. Button- 
bush, Button tree, Buttonwood shrub, Box*, Crouper-bush, 
Crane-willow, Honey-ball, Little Snowball, Mountain Globe- 
flower, Pin-ball, Pond or Swamp Dogwood, River-bush, 
Swamp- wood. Bark tonic, alterative. 

429. CERANTHERA, Ell. Ceranthera. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "horn anther". Fragrant annuals. Two 

known species, southeastern U. S. 

430. CERiSTIUM, L. Chickweed. Caryophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "horn" alluding to the capsules. Herbs with 
flowers in dichotomous cymes. About 60 species, mostly of 
temperate zone, about 6 in U. S. 

431. CERATIOLA, Michx. Ceratiola. Empetraceae. 

A heath-like shrub, one species only, S. Carolina. 

432. CERAT6nIA, L. St. Johns-bread. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "horn" -podded. A small tree, one species 
only. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 91 

a. C. Siliqiia L. Mediterranean Basin. Carob tree, Locust tree. 
St. John's-bread, Honey-bread, Sweet-pod, Locust Bean. [Lo- 
cust because the food of John the Baptist, a name now applied to 
other legunnnous trees]. Ger. Johannisbrod, Soodbrod.Karobe; 
iFr. Caroube (Codex) Carouge; Sp. Algamtba de Valenca, 
Garrobo(froin Arabic). Legumes, Fructus ceratoniie, Siliqua 
dulcis; demulcent, rich in sugar, the "husks" of the parable. 
Seeds, the original kai at weight. See Abrus and Adenanthera. 

433. CERATOPHYLLUM, L. Homwort. Ceratophyllaceae. 

From Greek, ''horn-leaf. Aquatic plants. Une or two 
species, cosmopolitan. 

a. C. demersum L. Cosmopolitan, common in U. S. Hornwort, 
Horn-weed, Morass-weed. Plant reputed emollient. 

434. CERAT(3pTERIS, Brongn. Water-fern. Polypodiaceae. 

From Greek, *'horn frond". Syn. Elbocarpus, Parkeria. 
Small aquatic fern. One species only, in all sub-tropical 
countries, (U. S.) 

436. CERCIDIOI, Tul. Cercidium. Caesalpinaceae^ 

Latin, from Uercis, the Judas tree. Syn. Parkiusonia, in 
part. Trees or shrubs. About 5 species, all American; 3 in 
southwestern U. S. 

436. CERCIS, L. - Judas-tree. - Caesalpinaceae. 

The classical name. Syn. Siliquastrum, Medic. Shrubs or 
small trees. About 6 species, northern hemisphere; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. Canadensis L. (S. Canadense Medic, S. cordatum Moench.). 

Ontario and eastern U. S. American Judas-tree, Red-bud, 
Red Judas-tree, Salad-tree; Fr. Bouton rouge, Gainier. Buds 
have been used in salads and pickles. 

b. C. Siliquastrum L. (S. Arbor-Judae Medic). Europe. 

European Judas-tree, Love-tree; Ger. Judasbaum, Fr. Arbre 
de Judee. 

437. CERCOCARPUS, H. B. K. Mountain Mahogany. Rosaoeae. 
From Greek, "tailed fruit". Shrubs or small trees. About 

6 species, southwestern U. S. and Mexico. 

a. C. ledifolius Nutt. Sierra Nevada Mountains. California 
Mountain Mahogany. 

438. CEREUS, Miller. - Cereus. - Cactaceae. 

Syn. Cactus, in part. A genus of more than 200 species, 
tropical regions. New World. 

a. C. grandiflorus (L. )Mill. (Cactus grandiflorus L.). Tropical 
America. Night-blomiiig Cereus; Ger. Konigen der Nacht; 
Fr. Cierge a grandes Heurs. Plant, especially flowers, cardiac 
sedative. [Several other species have been employed, notably 
(b) C. Bonpliindii Parm., Brazil and (c) C. McDonaldii 
Hook., Honduras.] 

d. C. triangularis Mill. Central America to West Indies. 
Strawberry Pear. Pruit edible. 



92 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

439. CER6xYL0N, Humb & Bonp. Wax Palm. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, "wax-tree". Tall palms. About 8 species, 
South America. 

a. C. Andicolum Humb. New Granada reaching nearly the snow 
line. Wax Palm. Trunk covered with a vegetable wax used 
for candles. 

440. CESTRUM, L. - Cestrum. - Solanacoae. 

Shrubs or small trees. Upward of 100 species, tropical 
America; 2 in U. S. 

441. CETERVCH, Wild. Scale Fern. Polypodiaceae. 

Old Greek name, of eastern origin. A small genus of coria- 
ceous ferns with chaffj fronds. 

a. C. Cetorach (L.) Lyons (Asplenium Ceterach L., C. officina- 
rumWilld. ). Europe to India. Milt-waste, Scale Fern, Scaly 
Fern, Ceterach. Fronds demulcent. 

442. CETRARIA. Ach. - Lichenes (Parmeliacei). 

Lichens. 

a. C. Islandica Achari us (Lichen Islandicus L., Parmelia Islan- 
dica Sprengel. ) . Northern Asia. Europe and N. America. 
Iceland Moss. Plant, .etraria, U. S. P., Lichen islandicus; 
Ger. Islandisches Moos, Jslandische Flechte, Kramperlthee, 
Krampelthee; Fr. Lichen d'Islande (Codex) Mousse d'lslande; 
Sp. Liquen islandico ; Mucilaginous, demulcent. 

443. CEVi-LLIA, Lag. - Ccvallia. - Loasaceae. 

Herb. One species, Texas and New Mexico. 

444. CHAENACTIS, DC. Ch^nactis. Compositae. 

From Greek, ''gaping ray". Herbs, rarely suffrutescent. 
About 25 species, California and adjacent regions. 

445. CHAEROFHYLLUM, L. Chervil. IJmbelliferae. 

From Greek, "fragrant leaf". Herbs. About 30 specues, 
north temperate zone and N. Africa; 3 in U. S. See Anthria- 
cus. 

446. CHAETADELPHIA, Gray. Chaetadelphia. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek; the "bristles" of the pappus being 5-adelphou8. 
Perennial herb. One species, Nevada. 

447. CHAET6CHL0A, Scribn. Millet. Gramineae. 
From Greek, "bristle gra>s". Syn. Setaria, Ixophorus, 

Panicum, in part. Grasses with spike-like panicles. About 
10 species; 4 in U. S. 

a. C. Itdlica (L.) Scribn. (P. Italicura L., S. Italics R. & S., L 
ItalicusNash). Europe, originally from \sia, now widely 
cult. Italian Millet, Hungarian Grass; German, Golden or 
Hungarian Millet. Grain used for food. 

448. CHAETOFAFPA, DC. Chaetopappa. Compositae. 

From Greek, "bristle pappus". Syn. Distaais, in part. 
Slender herbs. Three species, southwestern U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 93 

449. CHALCAS. L. 1767. - Curry-leaf. - Rutaceae. 
Syn. Murraya, L. 1771 (Kew); Bergera, in part. Trees or 

shrubs. About 8 species, tropical Asia to Australia and Ocean- 
ica. 

a. C. Koenigii (L. ) Kurz. (M. Koenigii Spreng (Kew), B. Koe- 
nigiiL. ). India. Curry-leaf tree. Leaves aromatic. Seeds 
yield Simbolee oil. 

450. CHAMAEBATIA, Benth. Chaiuc^batia. Rosaceae. 
From Greek, ''ground bush". Syn. Spirsea, in part. Shrub 

with foliage of Milfoil and agreeable fragrance. One species, 
Californiit. 

451. CHAMAEBATIARIA, Maxim. Charaaebatiaria. Rosaceae. 
Named Irom resemblance to preceding. Syn. Spirsea, in 

part. One species, California. 

452. CHAMAECiSTUS, Oeder. 1761. Alpine Azalea. Ericaceae. 
From Greek, 'ground Cestus". Syn. Loiseleuria, Desv. 

1813; Azalea, in part. Low shrub. One species, circumpolar 

(U.S.). 

a. C. prociimbens (L. ) Kz. (A. procumbens L., C. serpyllifolia 
S. F. Gray). Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. Al- 
pine or Trailing Azalea. 

453. CHAMAECYPARIS, Spach. White Cedar. Pinaceae. 
From Greek, "ground Cypress". Syn. Cupressus, Tlmya, 

in part. Evergreen trees, resembling Thuya. About 7 species, 
N. America and Japan; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. thyoides (L.) B. S. P. (Cup. thyoidesL. (Kew), T. sphaeroi- 
dalis Eich. ). Southeastern U. S. Southern White Cedar, 
Post Cedar, Swamp Cedar, Juniper*. [The Alaska Cedar and 
Port Oxford Cedar of the Pacific coast are also of this genus.] 

464. CHAMAEDAPHNE, Moench 1794. Cassandra. Ericaceae. 
From (ireek, "ground Daphne". Syn. Cassandra, D. Don. 
1834; Andromeda, in part. Small shrub with aspect of Vacci- 
nium. One species, circumpolar (U. S. ). 

a. C. calyculata (L. ) Moench (Cass, calyculata D. Don (Kew), 
A. calyculata L. ). Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. 
Leather-leaf, Dwarf Cassandra. 

455. CHAMAELIRIUM, Willd. Blazing-star. Melanthaceae. 

From Greek, "ground Lily". Syn. Helonias, Veratrum, 
in part. Herb from tuberous rootstock. One species, N. 
America. 

a. C. lliteum(L. ) A. Gray (V. luteum L,, H. dioica Pursh, C 
Carolinianum Willd.). Ontario and eastern U. S. Helonias, 
False Unicorn-root. Blazing-star, Drooping Starwort, Devil's- 
bit, Unict rn-root, Unicorn's-horn, Red-seed. Rhizome tonic, 
diuretic, anthelmintic. 

466. CHAMAENERION, Adans. Willow-herb. Onagraceae. 

From Greek, "ground Rose-bay". Syn. Epilobium, in part. 
Perennial herbs with showy flowers. About 4 species, north 
temperate zone; 2 in U. S. 



94 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. aiigustifoliiiin (L. )Scop. (E. angustifolium L., E. spica- 
tumLam. ). British America, south to N, Carolina, Arizona 
and California. Great Willow-herb, Spiked or French Willow- 
herb, Purple Fire-weed, Fire-weed*, Fire-top, Burnt-weed, 
Wickup, Indian Wicopy, Herb-wickopy, Purple Rocket, Rose- 
bay, Bay Willow, Flowering Willow; Blooming, French or 
Persian Willow, Blooming Sally, Sally-bloom, Pigweed*. 

457. CHAMAERHODOS, Bunge. Chamaerhodos. Rosaceae. 
From Greek, ' 'ground Rose' '. Small sub-shrubs. About 6 

species, northern Asia and N. America; 1 in U. S. 

458. CHAMAESARACHA, Gray. Chamaesaracha. Solanaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'ground Saracha' ' . Perennial herbs or sub- 
shrubs. About 6 species, N. America; 4 in U. S. 

459. CHAPMAMIA, T. & Gr. Chapmannia. Papilionaceae* 

Named for Dr. A. W^. Chapman, American botanist. Viscid 
herb. One species, Florida. 

460. CHAYICA, Miq. Long Pepper, etc. Piperaceae. 

From vernacular name. Syn. Piper, in part. Herbs or 
shrubs resembling Piper. About 40 species, tropical regions, 
Old World. 

a. C. Betle (L. ) Miq. (P. BetleL. ). India, cult, in tropical 
countries. Betel Pepper. Leaves, Betel-leaves, sialagogue, 
stimulant; chewed with the betel-nut. (The leaves of (b) 
C. Siriboa (L. ) Miq. are also used). 

c. C. longum (L. ) Miq. (P. longum L., C. Roxburghii Miq. ) 

India, Ceylon and Philippines. Long Pepper, resembling the 
preceding. 

d. C. officiuarum Miq. (P. ofEcinarum DC, P. Chaba Hunter). 

Java. Long Pepper, Elephant Pepper. Fruit spikes, Piper 
longum, Spadices piperis longi, Spad. chavicae; Ger. Langer 
PfefFer; Fr. Poivre long (Codex); condiment, counter-irritant, 
antiperiodic. 

461. CHEILA^THES, Swz. Lip-Fern. Polypodiaoeae. 

From Greek, "lip flower", alluding to the lipped indusium. 
Small rock-loving ferns. About 65 species; 21 in U. S. 
a. C. gracillinia D. C. Eaton. Pacific slope of U. S. Lace Fern, 
a name applied also to the species of Hymenophyllum and to 
other finely cut ferns. 

462. CHELID6NHJM, L. Celandine. Papaveraceae. 

The Greek name, meaning "swallow wort" . Herb with 
yellow sap. One species. 

a. C. majiis L. (including C. minus L. ). Europe, nat. in U. S. 
Celandine (Saladine), Garden or Greater CelaQdine, Cock-foot, 
Devil' s-milk* Felonwort, Jacob' s-ladder* Kill- wait, Swallow- 
wort*, Tetterwort, Wart-flower, AVart-weed, AV^artwort, Wret- 
weed; Ger. Schellkraut, Schollkraut; Fr. Chelidoine, Herbe 
h, I'hirondelle; Sp. Celidonia mayor. Herb; Chelldonium, 
U. S. P., H. chelidonii; irritant, cathartic, anthelmintic. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 95 

463. CHELONE, L. Turtle-head, etc. Scropliulariaceae. 

From Greek, "tortoise". Perennial herbs. Four species, 
all of U. S. 

a. C. glabra L. Canada and eastern U. S. Balmony, Turtle- 
head, Turtle-bloom, Bitter-herb, Cod-head, Fish-mouth, Shell- 
flower* Salt-rheum weed. Snake-head. Plant laxative, cholo- 
gogue, anthelmintic. 

464. €HEN0P6dIUM, L. Goosefoot, Pigweed. Chenopodiaceae. 

From Greek, "goose foot". Herbs, occasionally shrubby. 
About 60 species, widely distributed; 22 in U. S. 

a. C. album L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Lamb's-quar- 

ters, Pigweed, Bacon-weed, Dirty-Dick, Fat-hen, Frost-blite, 
Meals, Mails, Melge, Miles, Mutton-top3, Muck-weed, Kag-jag, 
White GoosefootI, Wild Spinach; Ger. Weisser Gansefuss; 
Fr. Anserine sauvage. Used as a pot herb. 

b. C. ambrosioides L. Canada and U. S., nat. from tropical 

America. Mexican Tea, Spanish Tea, Jerusalem Tea, Jesuit 
Tea*, Ambrosia; Ger. Wohlreichender Gansefuss, Mexikanis- 
ches Traubenkraut; Fr. Ambroise de Mexique (Codex). Herh^ 
H. chenopodii ambrosioides (v. ambrosiaci), tonic, nervine, 
emmenagogue. 

c. C. anthelmiiiticum L. (C. ambrosioides var. anthelminticum 

A. Gray). Europe, nat. in U. S. Wormseed, American 
Wormseed, Jerusalem-oak. Fruit; Chenopodium. U. S. P.; 
Ger. Amerikanischer Wurmsamen; Fr. Anserine vermifuge 
( Codex ) ; Sp. Epazote. Anthelmintic, source of oil of worm- 
seed. 

d. C. Bonus-Henricus L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Good King 

Henrv, All-good, Blite; English, False or VV'ild Mercury, 
Markerry:}:, Mercury-dockan, Mercury Goosefoot, Perennial 
Goosefoot? , Fat-hen, Koman plant, Shoemaker' s-heels. Smear- 
dock, S middy-leaves; Wild Spinach; Ger. Guter Heinrich; Fr. 
Bon Henri; Sp. Zeniglo. Plant reputed vulnerary. 

e. C. Botrys L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Jerusalem-oak, 

Ambrose, Feather Geranium, Turnpike Geranium, Hind-heal; 
Ger. Traubenkraut; Fr. Chenopode kgrappes. P/a?if aromatic, 
resembling (b). 

f. C. hy'bridum L. Europe and N. America (U. S. ). Maple- 

leaved Goosefoot or Pigweed, Hog's-bane, Sowbane; Swine's- 
bane, Nightshade*. 

g. C. rubruni L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. 

Ked Goosefoot or Pigweed, French Spinach, Fat-hen, Swine' s- 
bane. 

h. C. Quinoa Willd. Peru and Chili. Quinoa (Quinua), Petty- 
rice. Seeds used like buckwheat. 

i. C. Vulvaria L. Europe. Fetid Goosefoot, Stinking Goose- 
foot or Motherwort, Dirty- John, Notch weed; Ger. Stinkender 
Melde; Fr. Vulvaire (Codex), Anserine puante. Plant anti- 
spasmodic, nervine. 



96 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

465. CHIL6pSIS, D. Don. Desert Willow. Bignoniaceae. 

Ornamental shrub. One species, U. S. and Mexico. 

466. CHIMAPHILA, Pursh 1814. Wintergreen, etc. Pyrolacpae. 

From Greek, "winter-loving". Syn. Pseva, Raf. 1819; 
Pyrola, in part. Evergreen herbs. About 6 species, northeast 
Asia and N. America; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. maculata (L. ) Pursh (Pyrola maculata L. ). Ontario to 

Georgia, west to Minnesota. Spotted Wintergreen, Spotted 
Pipsissewa, Spotted Piperidge, Dragon's- tongue. Ratsbane, 
Rheumatism-root, Wild Arsenic, also many of the ^ynonyms 

of(b). 

b. C. iimbHllata (L. )Nutt. (Pyrola umbellata L., Pseva umbel- 

lata (L. ) O. Kze., C. corymbosa Pursh). Europe, Asia and 
N. America, Maine to Georgia, west to California. Pipsissewa, 
Prince' s-pine, Bitter Wintergreen, Bittersweet* Ground Holly, 
King's-cure, Love-in-winter, Noble-pine, Pine Tulip, Pyrola, 
Rheumatism- weed; Ger. Doldenbliithiges Ham kraut, Winter- 
griin; Fr. Pyrole ombellee. Leaves; Chimaphlla, U. S. P., 
diuretic, tonic, astringent. 

467. CHI0C6CCA, P. Br. Sno wherry. Rubiaceae. 
From Greek, "snow berry". Shrubs. About 12 species, 

mostly of tropical America; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. racemosa Jacq. Tropical America to Florida. Cahinca; 
Snowberry, Cluster-flowered Snowberry^, David' s-root. Root, 
Radix caincse (cahincse); Ger. Kainkawurzel; diuretic, hydra- 
gogue. [Similar properties are attributed to the Brazilian (b) 
C. brachiata R. & P. (C. densifoha Mart., C. anguifuga 
Mart. ), Cainana, Caninana, Brazilian Snakeroot, Rad. caincae 
brasiliensis, Rad. serpentariae brasiliensis]. 

468. CHI6GENES, Salisb. Creeping Snowberry. Vacciniaceae. 

From Greek, "snow born". Syn. Vaccinium, in part. 
Creeping evergreen plant. One species, N. America and Japan. 

a. C. hispidula (L. ) T. & Gr. (V. hispidulum L., C. serpyllifolia 
Salisb., C. Japonica A. Gray). British America, south to N. 
Carolina and Michigan. Creeping Snowberry, Ivory Plum, 
Maidenhairf, Moxie-berry, Mountain Partridge-berry, Run- 
ning Birch, White Cranberry, White Pollum, White Tea-berry, 
White Wintergreen. Berries have flavor of gaultheria. 

469. CHIONANTHUS, L. Fringe-tree. Oleaceae. 
From Greek, "snow flower". Shrubs or small trees. Three 

species, China and N. America; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. Virginica L. Delaware to Florida and Texas. Fringe-tree, 
American Fringe-tree, American Fringe, White Fringe, Flower- 
ing Ash, Gray-bt-ard tree. Old-man' s-beard, White Ash*, 
Poison Ash, Shavings, Snow-fl()wer§. Root bark tonic, febri- 
fuge, laxative, reputed narcotic. 

470. CHIONOPHILA, Benth. Chionophila. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Greek, "snow loving". A low herb. One species^ 
high in the Rocky Mountains (U. S, ). 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPUI.AR. 97 

471. CHL0R(3(;ALUM, Kunth. Soap-bulb. Liliaceae. 
From Greek, "yellow milk". Syn. Phalangium, in part. 

Bulbous herbs. About 4 species, western U. S. 

a. C, pomeridianiim (Ker) Kunth. (Phalangium poraeridianum 

Sweet). California. California Soap-root. Soap-bulb, Soap- 
plant, Soap-apple (the bulb), Amole. Bulb formerly used as 
a detergent. 

472. CHL0R6pH0RA, Gaud. Fustic tree. Moraceae, 
From Greek, "yellow bearing". Syn. Madura, in part. 

Trees with milky sap. Two species, tropical Africa and 
America. 

a. C. tinctoria Gaud. ( Madura tinctoria D. Don). West Indies 
and tropical America. Fustic-tree. Wood, Old Fustic, Yellow- 
wood, Cuba- wood, used for dyeing. See Cotinus. 

473. CHOiSYA, H. B. K. Choisya. Riitaceae. 
Named for Jacques Deny Choisy, Swiss botanist, d. 1859. 

Shrub with ternate leaves. One species, Mexico and south- 
Avestern U. S. 

474. CHONDRILLA, L. Gum Succory. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "lump" , alluding to exudate on stems. Peren- 
nial herbs, leaves mostly baaal. About 18 species, Old World. 

a. C. jiincea L. _ Europe, sparingly naturalized in U. S. Gum 
Succory, Devil' s-grass. Hog-bite, Naked- weed. Skeleton- weed. 

475. CHONDRODENDRON, K. & Pav. Meiii sperm aceae. 

From Greek, "cartilage tree" (incorrectly spelled Chondo- 
dendron). Syn. Botryopsis, Cocculus, in part. Shrubby 
climbei-s. About 7 species. South America. 

a. C. tomeiitosiim E. & Pav. (Cocculus Chondrodendron DC, B. 
platyphylla Miei-s). Brazil and Peru. Abutua, Pareira brava. 
Root', Pareira, U. S. P., Pareirae radix, Br., Rad. pareirae 
(bravae); Ger. Grieswurzd, Pareirawurzel; Fr. Sp, Butua; 
diuretic. 

476. CH0NDR6PH0RA,_Raf. Rayless Golden-rod. Coinpositae. 

From Greek, "cartilage bearing". Syn. Chrysocoma, 
Bigdovia, in part. Perennial herb with aspect of a depauper- 
ated Golden-rod. One species, eastern U. S. 

477. CH6nDRUS, Lyngb. Sea Moss. Gigartine*. 

From Greek, "cartilage" or "gelatine". Syn. Sphaero- 
coccus, Fucus, in part. Dull purple or green seaweeds. 

a. C. crispilS (L.) Lyngbye (F. crispus L., S. crispus Agardh). 
Northern Atlantic Ocean. Irish Moss, Carrageen (Carigeen, 
Carrigeen, Carragheen), Killeen, Pig- wrack. Pearl INIoss; Ger. 
Knorpeltang, Perlmoos, Irlandisches Moos; Fr. Carragaheen, 
Carrageen, Mousse perlee (Codex); Sp. Caragaheen. The 
tt7<o/e p/an/; Chondrus. U S. P., Fucus crispus, Fucus irlandi- 
cus; demulcent, mucilaginous. 



98 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

478. CHORIZANTHE, E. Br. Chorizanthe. _ Polygonaceae. 
Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 50 species, chiefly of Chili and 

California; 34 in U. S. 

479. CHROSPERMA, Eaf. 1825. Fly Poison, etc. Melanthaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'color seed' ' . Syn. Amianthiura A. Gray, 
1837; Melanthium, Zygadenus, in part. A lily-like bulbous 
plant. One species (U. S. ). 

a. C. miiscaetoxicum (Walt. ) Kze. (M. muscaetoxicum Walt, 
Z. muscaetoxicum Eegel (Kew), A. muscaetoxicum A. Gray). 
Long Island to Florida and Arkansas. Fly poison. Crow- 
poison, Fall-poison. Bulb insecticide. 

480. CHRYSACTINIA, Gray. Chrysactinia. Compositae. 

From Greek, * 'golden rayed" . Resinous-aromatic sub-shrub. 
One species, Mexican border of U. S. 

481. CHRYSAMPHORA, Grn. Pitcher-plant*. Sarraceniaceae, 

From Greek, "golden vase". Syn. Darlingtonia, Torr., 
not DC. Plant resembles Sarracenia. One species, California. 

a. C. Califoriiica (Torr.) Greene (D. Californica Torr.). Cali- 
fornia Pitcher-plant, California Side-saddle flower. 

482. CHRYSANTHEMUM, L. Chrysanthemum. Compositae. 

From Greek, "golden flower". Syn. Balsamita, Leucan- 
themum, Matricaria, Pyrethrum, Tanacetum, in part. An- 
nual or perennial herbs. About 100 species, northern hemi- 
sphere; 8 in U. S. (indigenous or naturalized). 

a. C. Balsamita L. (P. Balsamita WlUd., T. Balsamita L., B. 

suaveolens Pers., P. Tanacetum DC). Europe and Asia, cult, 
in gardens and adv. in U. S. Costmary, Cost (from Latin 
costus), Alecost ( so named from its former use in brewing), 
Alecoast, Cock Mint, Lavenderf, Maudlin (i. e. Magdeline), 
Mint Geranium; Ger. Frauenminze, Balsamkraut, Marien- 
blatt; Fr. Balsamite odorante, Baume-coq, Menthe-coq, Coq 
desjardins (Codex). Herb; H. balsamita^, H. menthse sara- 
cenicae v. romanoe; aromatic, emmenagogue, resembling Tana- 
cetum. 

b. C. carueum Weber (P. cameum Bieber. ) and (c) C. roseum 

Weber (P. roseum Bibers. ). Both species referred in Index 
Kewensis to C. coccineum Willd. Persia to Caucasus mountains, 
i^oiters, Fl ores pyrethri (rosei V. persici), Pulvis insecticidus 
persicus; Pei-sian insect-powder, Bubach; Ger. Persische Ber- 
trambliithen; Fr. Pyrethre du Caucase (Codex), Chamomile de 
Perse; insecticide. [The Dalmatian insect-powder, from 
flowers of Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium Trev., is much inferior 
in activity. ] 

d. C. frutescens L. Canary Islands, cult, in gardens. Marguer- 

ite (of gardens) , Paris Daisy. 

e. C. Leiicanthemum L. (L. vulgare Lam. ) . Europe and Asia, 

nat. in eastern U. S. Ox-eye Daisy, Common Field Daisy (of 
U. S.); Bull-, Bulls-eye-, Butter-, BV, Devil's-, Dog-, Golden-, 



SCIENTIFIC AXD POPULAR. 99 

Great-, Horse-, Maudlin- (Magdalene), Midsummer-, Moon-, 
Poor-land- or White Daisy; Dog-blow (Nova Scotia), Dutch 
Morgan, Horse-Gowan, Kellup-weed, Herb Margaret, Margue- 
rite, Maudlinwort, Moon-flower, Moon-penny, Great White 
Ox-eye, Pismire, Poverty-weed, Sheriff-weed, White-weed. 

f. C. Partlieiiiiini (L.) Pers. (M. Parthenium-L., P. Parthenium 

Smith, T. Parthenium Schulz). Europe, cult, in gardens and 
adv. in U. S. Feverfew, (Featherfew, Fetter-foe), Febrifuge 
plant. Wild Camomile, Pellitory, Bertram, Whitewort; Ger. 
Mutterkraut; Fr. Matricaire (Codex). Herh bitter, tonic, 
febrifuge, anthelmintic. 

g, C. segetiim L. (P. segetum Moench. ). Europe. Corn Mari- 

gold, Field or Wild Marigold (of England), Golden-flower, 
Yellow Ox-eye. 

h. C. Sinense Sabine and (i) C. ludicuiii'L. of Japan, especially 
the former, are the well-known garden Chrysanthemums. 

483. CHRYSOBALANUS, L. Cocoa Plum. Drupaceae. 
From Greek, "golden date". Shrubs or trees. About 8 

species, sub- tropical America and Africa; 2 in U. S. 

■a. C. Icaco L. West Indies and Florida. Cocoa Plum. Leaves 
and roots astringent; Fr. Prune-coton, Prune des anses. Fruit 
edible. 

b. C. obloiigifolius Michx. Florida to Alabama. Gopher-root. 

484. CHRYSO(tO>'UM, L. Chrysogonum. Coiiipositae. 

From Greek, '•golden knee'". Perennial herb with yellow 
flowers. One species, southeastern U. S. 

485. CHRYS6mA, T. & Gr. Chrysoma. Coiiipositae. 

Syn. Aplopappus, Bigelovia, in part. Perennial herbs re- 
sembling Solidago. About 14 species, southwestern U. S. 

486. CHRYSOPHYLLUM, L. Star-apple. Sapotaceae. 

From Greek, "golden leaf". Syn. Cainito, in part. See 
Lucuma. Trees with milky juice. About 60 species, tropical 
regions; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. Cainito L. (Cainito pomifemmTuss.). West Indies. Star- 
apple, Cainito. Fruit esculent. 

487. CHRYSOPLEMUM, L. Golden Saxifrage. 8axifragaceae. 

From Greek, " golden spleen". Small semi- aquatic herbs. 
About 15 species, north temperate zone and S. America; 4 in 
U. S. 

a. C. Americaiium Schw. British America and northern U. S. 
Water-carpet, Golden Saxifrage. [In Europe some species are 
used as salad, called Rock-cress; Ger. Goldmilz; Fr. Cresson de 
roches]. 

488. CHRYS(3pSIS, Nutt. 1818. Golden Aster. Coiiipositae. 
From Greek, of "golden appearance''. Syn. Diplogon, Raf. 

1818. [not Poiret 1811], also Inula, Ame'llus, Diplopappus, 
in part Perennial herbs. About 35 species, U. S. and Mexico. 



100 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. gramiuifolia (Michx. ) Nutt. (I. graminifolia Michx. ) 

Southeastern U. S. Grass-leaved Golden-aster, Golden-star, 
Silver Aster, Silver-grass, Silk-grass, Scurvy-grass. 

b. C. yillosiis (Pursh) Nutt. (A, villosus Pursh. ). Alabama to 

Nebraska and British Columbia. Hairy Golden-aster or Rosin- 
wood. 

489. CHRYSOTHAMNUS, Nutt. Chrysothamnus. Compositae. 

From Greek, ''golden bush". Syn. Linosyris, Aplopappus, 
Bigelovia, in part. Low shrubs with numerous small flower- 
heads (yellow). About 30 species, all of U. S., mostly western. 

a. C. nauseosus (Pursh) Brit. New Mexico to California and 
British Columbia. Fetid Rayless-Goldenrod§, Eabbit-brush. 

490. CHYLISMA, Small. Chylisma. Ona^raceae. 

Syn. Oenothera, in part. Herbs. Seven species in (J. S. 

491. CHYTRACULIA, P. Br. 1756. Chytraculia. Myrtaceae. 
Syn. Calyptranthes Sw. 1788; Eugenia, in part. Shrubs or 

trees. About 90 species. New World; 1 in U. S. 

492. CIB<3tIUM, Kaulf. Tree-fern. Polypodiaceae. 

Arboreous ferns. About 10 species, tropical regions. 

a. C. Barometz J. Sm. (b) C. glaiicescens Kze. and (c) 
C. Djambianum Hassk. oi Snraatra yield penghaicar djambi the 
* 'golden moss" of the Chinese, consisting of chafty hairs from 
base of stipes; Pilifv. Palese cibotii; Ger. Farnhaar. In Mexico 
a similar product called Ocopetate or cola de mono is obtained 
from ( d ) C. Scliiedei Schlecht. , and in the Hawaiian Islands 
the more silky pidu is obtained from (e) C. Meiiziesii Hook, 
and (f) C. glaucum H. & A. These are used in surgery as 
haemostatics, the last named a material for stuffing cushions, etc. 
The shaggy caudex of (a) was the Tartarian lamb (agnus 
scythicus) of early travelers, to which magical virtues were at- 
tributed. See also Alsophila and Dicksonia. 

493. CiCER, L. - Chick Pea. - Papilioiiaceae. 

The Latin name. Syn. Nochetta, S. G. Gmel. Herbs, 
About 10 species, Mediterranean region to central Asia. 

a. C. arietinuni L. (N. oleracea S. G. Gmel., C. sativum 
Schkur. ). Southern Europe and the Orient. Chick Pea, 
Egyptian Pea, Coffee Pea. Called in Italy Cece, in Spain, Gar- 
banzos; in India,. Gram. One of the most important of food 
plants. 

494. CICH<3rIUM, L. - Chicory. - Ciclioriaceae. 

Classical name from the Arabic. Herbs with cauline leaves 
very small. About 10 species. Old World. 

a. C. Endivia L. Southern Europe and Asia, widely cult. Gar- 
den Endive, Endive, Garden Succory, Chicken' s-meat. Blanch- 
ed tops used like Celery. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 101 

b. C. IntybiiS L. Europe, Asia and nortliern Africa, nat. in 
U. S., (also cult. ). Chicory, AVild Succory, Blue Daisy, Blue- 
sailors, Bachelor's-buttons*, Bunk; Ger. Endivie, Cichorie; 
Fr. Cliicoree sauvage (Codex). Moot; Kad. cichorii; bitter, 
used as a substitute for coffee. 

495. CICUTA, L Water Hemlock, etc. Uinbelliferae. 

The ancient Latin name. Syn. Cicutaria, in part. Peren- 
nial herbs. About 8 species, north temperate zone and Mexico; 
7 in U. S. 

a. C. biilbifera L. Canada and northeastern U. S. Bulb- bearing 

AVater-hemlock. 

b. C. niaoiilata L. (C. virosa var. maculata Coult. & Hose.). 

Ontario and eastern U. S., west to X. Mexico. American 
Water-hemlock, Musquash-root, Beaver-poison, Childrens-' 
bane, Death-of-man, Musquash-poison, Poison Plemlock*, Poi- 
son Snakeweed, Spotted Parsley, Wild Parsnip, Wild Hem- 
lock (not to be confounded with Conium maculatum q. v.). 
Properties of (c). 

c. C. virosa L. (Cicutaria aquatica Lam.). Northern Europe 

and Asia. European Water-hemlock, Brook-tongue, Cowbane, 
Deathin, with many of the synonyms of (b); Ger, Wasser- 
schierling, Giftwlitherich; Fr. Cigue vireuse; Sp. Cicuta 
virulenta. Plant, especially the?'Oo^, poisonous; reputed altera- 
tive and local anodyne. 

496. CIENFUEGOSIA, Cav. 1787. Cienfuegosia. Malvaceae. 
Syn. Fugosia, Juss. 1789, Cienfuegia, Willd. 1800. Shrubby 

plants with habit of Hibiscus. About 16 species, troj^ical Ame- 
rica, Africa and Australia; 2 in U. S. 

497. CDIICIFUGA, L. Black Cohosh. Ramiiiculaceae. 

From Latin, "bug-banisher" . Syn. Thalictrodes (1739). 
Actaea, Macrotys, Botraphis, in part. Tall perennial herbs. 
About 10 species, N. America, Asia and eastern Europe; 7 in 
U. S. 

a. C. racemosa (L. ) Nutt. (A. racemosaL., C. serpentarlaPursh. 
M. actaeoides Raf., B. actaeoides Raf. T. racemosum (). Kze. ). 
Ontario to Georgia, west to Minnesota and Wisconsin. Black 
Cohosh, Black Snakeroot, Bugbane, Bugwort, Rattlesnake' 8- 
root. Rattle-root, Rattle-weed, Rattle-top, Rich-weed, »Squaw- 
root; Ger. Klapperschlangenwurzel, Schwarze Schlangen- 
wurzel; Fr. Actee a grappes. Rhizome and roots; Cimicifuga, 
U. S. P., Rad. cimicifugpe, Rad. actefft, Rad. christophoriause; 
alterative, antispasmodic, anti-rheumatic, emmenagogue. 

498. CINCHONA, L. (Quinquina, Kinkina). Rnbiaceae. 
Named for the countess of Chinchon, cured of malarial fever 

by the bark in 1638. Trees. About 50 species, Peru, north to 
Venezuela, in the Cordilleras. The more valuable species are 
now cultivated in Java, Inditi and Jamaica. 



102 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. Calisaya Weddell (C. WeddellianaO. Kze. To this species 

are also referred C. Ledgeriilna Moens. and perhaps C. Has- 
skarlidna Miq. ). Peru to New Granada. Bark; Cinchona, 
U. S. P. (in part). Cinchona flava U. S. P. 1880, Cinchona? 
flav» cortex, Cort. chinse calisayag, Cort. chinse regife; Yellow 
Cinchona Bark, Calisaya Bark, Yellow Peruvian Bark; Ger. 
Kalisayachina, Kalisaya-rinde, Konigschina; Fr. Quinquina 
jaune royale, Quinquina Calisaya (Codex); Sp. Quina 
Calisaya. Tonic, antiperiodic, particularly^ rich in quinine. 

b. C. cordifolia Mutis. Bolivia. Y^ields the hard Carthagena Bark 

or West Pitaya Bark, which is rich in alkaloids, 

c. C. micrantlia Kuiz. & Pav. (C. Pavoniana O. Kze. ). Bolivia 

and Peru. Source of Lima Bark and in part of the Gray and 
Huanuco Barks; Fr. Quinquina gris Huauuco (Codex.) 

d. C. nitida Ruiz. & Pav. (Perhaps belongs to C. Pavoniana O. 

Kze.). Peru and Equador. Source of part of the Gray and 
Huanuco, and some of the Loxa Bark. 

e. C. officinalis L. (C. Condaminea Humb. Probably includes 

C. lancifolia Mutis. and C. Pitayensis Wedd., both of which 
yielded formerly Pitaya Bark. ). Ecquador and Peru. Source 
especially of Loxa Bark, CroAvn Bark and Brown Peruvian 
Bark. Bark; Cinchona, U. S. P., in part; Cinchona pallida, 
Cortex cinchonae pallidae, Cort. chinae fuscus v. griseus, 
China fusca v. grisea v. pallida v. cinerea; Pale Peruvian 
Bark; Ger. Braune Chinarinde, Graue Chinarinde, Kronchina; 
Fr. Quinquina gris de Loxa, (Codex); Sp. Quina gris de Loja, 
Quina Charhuarguera. Properties of (a). 

f. C. Sliccinibra Pavon. Peru and Ecquador. Bark; Cinchona 

rubra, U. S. P., Cinchonse rubrae Cortex, Br., Cortex chin» 
(ruber) P. G., China rubra; Red Cinchona, Red Peruvian Bark, 
Red Bark; Ger. Rothe Chinarinde; Fr. Quinquina rouge (Co- 
dex); Sp, Quina roja. Properties of (a). 

499. CINNAMODENDRON, Endl. False Canella. Caiiellaceae. 

From Greek, "cinnamon tree". -Syn. Canella, in part. 
Trees. About 3 species, tropical America. 

a. C. axillare Endl. (Canella axillaris Mart. ) . Brazil. Paratudo 

(i. e. Heal-all) aromatico. ^a/-A- pungent, aromatic. 

b. C corticosuiii Miers. Jamaica. Jamaica Canella. ^arA; of this 

and of (c) C. macraiithum Baill. of Puerto Rico, are used like 
Canella and often sold as Canella, also as Winter's Bark; see 
Drimys. 

500. CINNAM6mI]M, L. Cinnamon, Camphor, etc. Lauraceae. 
The classical name. Syn. Laurus, Camphora, in part. Trees 

with ribbed leaves. About 100 species, warmer regions, India 
to Australia. 

a. C. arom.iticum Nees (L. Cassia Nees, C. Cassia Blume (Kew), 
not Burm. ). Southern China. Cassia, Chinese Cinnamon. Bark 
of the shoots of this and some, other species grown in China; 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 103 

Cinnamomum Cassia, U. S. P., Cortex Cinnamomi, P. G., 
Cort. cinnamomi cassiae v, chinensis, Cassia cinnamomea, 
Cinnamomum chinense, Cassia lignea; Cassia bark, Cassia 
Cinnamon; Ger. Zimmtkassie, Chinesischer Zimmt, Kaneel, 
Zimrat; Fr. Canelle de China; Sp. Canella; aromatic, carmin- 
ative, astringent, condiment. Atuong other species yielding 
Cassia Bark is probably (c) C. Burmamii Blume of Javaand 
Sumatra. Cassia Bark is the source of the oil of Cinnamon of 
the U. S. P. 

b. C. Caiiiphora (L. ) T. Nees & Eberm. (Laurus Caraphora L., 
Camphora officinarum C. Bauhin). Southeastern Asia, Japan, 
Formosa and cult, elsewhere in tropical countries. Camphor 
tree, Camphor Laurel. Source of Camphor, a concrete volatile oil 
(ketone) obtained by sublimation from the wood; Camphcra, 
U. S. P. ; Ger. Kampfer; Fr. Caraphre; Sp. Alcanfor; nervous 
sedative, small doses stimulant. 

d. C. ZeyMnicum Xees. (Kew) (L. Cassia Burm. J7G8, L. Cinna- 

jT;omum L., probably the oldest name but possibly applied to a 
different plant). Ceylon, Borneo and Cochin China. Bark; 
Cinnamomum Zsylanicum, U. S. P., Cinnamomi Cortex, 
Br., Cort. cinnamomi zeylanici, Cinnamomum acutum v. 
verum; Ceylon Cinnamon, True Cinnamon, Cinnamon bark; 
Ger. Zeylonzimmt, Feiner Zimmt, Echter Zimmt; Fr. Canelle 
de Ceylan (Codex). Properties of (b), but flavor much 
superior. Source of the oil of Cinnamon of the British and 
French Pharmacopoeias. 

e. C. Culil.al)aii (L. ) Lyons, Blume (Laurus Culilaban L., C. Culi- 

lawan Blume, C. Culitlawan Nees. ). Moluccas. Culilawan 
Bark, Clove Bark. Bark aromatic, clove-like in flavor. 

f. C. Loureirii Nees. (Laurus Cinnamomum Lour, not L. ), Cochin 

China. The unripe fruits o? this and other species are Clavelli 
cassiae v. cinnamomi, Flores cassiae; Cassia Buds; Ger. 
Zimmtbliithen, Kaneelbliithen, Zimmtnagelchen. Properties 
of(b). 

g. C. Tamala Nees (Laurus Tamala Buch. L. Cassia Eoxb. ). In- 

dia. Yields a coarse kind of Cassia bark, Cortex malabathri. 
From this and other species are obtained Cassia leaves, Folia 
malabathri, not now much used. Properties of (b). 

h. C. sp. indet. Annam. Bark; Cinnamomum Saigonicum, 
U. S. P., Cortex cinnamomi saigonici; Saigon Cinnamon; Ger. 
Saigonzimmt; Fr. Canelle de Saigon. Properties of (b) but 
generally richer in essential oil and therefore preferable. 

601. CIRCAEA, L. Enchanter's Nightshade. Onagraceae. 

Named after Circe, the enchantress. Perennial herbs. 
About 5 species, northern hemisphere; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. Lutetidna L. Canada to Cieorgia, west to Missouri. Com- 
mon Enchanter's Nightshade, Bindweed Nightshade, Wild 
Mandrake, 



104 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

602. ciSSUS, L. (notPers.). Cissus. Titaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of Ivy. Syn. Vitis, in part. Shrubby 
climbers, mostly of warmer regions; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. acida L. Tropical America to Florida. Sorrel vine. 

503. CiSTUS, L. Gum Cistus, Eock Rose. Cistaceae. 

Ancient Greek plant name. Handsome shrubs. About 40 
species, Mediterranean region. 

a. C. Cyprimis Lam., Cyprus; (b) C. LadaiiiM*us L., Spain 
and Portugal, and (c) C. polyniorpliiis Willk. (including C. 
Creticus L. ), Crete, Kose of Crete; yield the rednous exudate 
called Labdanum or Ladanum, Eesina ladanum, aromatic, 
emmenagogue, stimulant. 

604. CITHAREXYLUM, Mill. Citharexylum. Yerbenaceae. 

Shrubs or trees. About 40 species, warmer regions, New 
World; 2 in U. S. 

505. CITRULLUS, Forsk. 1775. Melon, etc. Ciicurbitaceae. 

From Latin name of Lemon. Syn. Colocynthis, Tournf. 
1735; Cucurbita, Cucumis, in ])art. Herbaceous vines. About 
4 species, warmer regions of Old World. 

a. C. Citriillus (L. ) Karst. (Cucurbita Citrullus L., Cit. vulgaris 

Schrad. ). Native of Asia, everywhere cult. Water melon. 
Fruit, especially seech, diuretic; seeds, formerly called cold seeds, 
emollient. See Cucumis and Cucurbita. 

b. C. Colocynthis (L. ) Schrad. (Cucumis Colocynthis, L., Colo- 

cynthis vulgaris Sclirad. ). Asia, Africa aud southern Europe. 
Colocynth, Bitter Apple, Bitter Gourd, Bitter Cucumber. 
The decorticated fruit; OolocynthlE, U. S. P., Fructus colocyn- 
thidis, Poma colocynthidis; Ger. Koloquinten; Fr.Coloquinthe 
(Codex); Sp. Coloquintide. (The pulp only is official in the 
British Pharmacopoeia); Bitter, cholagogue, cathartic. 

606. CITRUS, L. Citron, Orange, etc. Aiiraiitiaceae. 

The classical name of "citron". Thorny trees with aromatic 
foliage and generally acid fruit. About 20 species, reduced by 
some to 5, tropical Asia to Australia. 

a. C. acida Pers. and (b) C. acris Mill., both perhaps referable 
to (k). Lime, Sour Lime. Fndtj exceedingly acid, antiscor- 
butic. See (h). 

c. C. amara (L. ) Lyons (C. Aurantium var, amara L., C. 

Aurantiaca var. Bigaradia Brandis, C. Aurantium var. vulgaris 
W. & A., C. vulgaris Risso, C. Bigaradia Loisel. ). Lidia, nat. 
in Florida and other tropical countries. Bitter Orange, 
Seville Orange, Wild Orange, Ger. Pomeranzenbaum; Fr. 
Bigaradier. Rind of fruit; Aurantii Amari Cortex, U. S. p. 
Aurantii Cortex recens and Aurantii Cortex si ccatus, Br., Cort. 
aurantii fructus v. pomorum, Cort. aurantiorum; Bitter Orange- 
peel; Ger. Pomeranzenschale; Fr. Ecorce d' orange amere, 
]Ecorce de Curagao( Codex); bitter, used for flavor, source of 
oil of Orange. Unripe fruit yields oil of Keroli petit-grain. 
Flowers, Flores naphse, yield oil of Neroli petale, and by dis- 
tillation orange-flower water. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR, 105 

•d. C. Aiirdutiiiin L. (C. dulcis Pers. ), generally regarded as a 
variety of (c) improved by cultivation. Sweet Orange. 
Among the numerous varieties may be mentioned the Blood 
Orange, with red juice, the seedless 2s'avel Orange and the aro- 
matic Curasao Orange, incorrectly written Curagoa. Hind of 
fruit; Aurantli dulcis Cortex, U. S. P., used as a flavoring 
agent. Fruit esculent, 

e. C. Bergdiiiia Risso & Poit. (C. Aurantium var. Bergamia W. 

cfc A. ). Probably to be referred to (k), perhaps a hybrid. 
Southern Italy. Bergamot Orange or Leinon. Jiind of fruit, 
source of oil of Bergamot. 

f. C. Cedra Gallesio. Probably referable to (k). Citron (Cedrat), 

Cedrate, Adam's Apple. The thick rind made into a confection. 
One variety yields oil of Cedra (Cedrate). 

g. C. Decumaiia Murr. Eastern Asia, cult in all sub-tropical 

countries. Shaddock, Pomelo, Pompelmos. Varieties are 
known as Grape-fruit and Forbidden-fruit. Fruit acid, escu- 
lent. 

h. C. Limetta Eisso. Probably referable to (k). Sweet Lime, 
Sweet or Pear Lemon (According to F. von Mueller C. Limetta 
is the true Lime, the Sweet Lime being C. Aumia Kisso. ). 
Fruit esculent. 

i. C. Limoiiium Risso (C, medica var. b. L.), Referable to (k). 
Lemon. Bind of fruit; Limonis Cortex, U. S. P., Br., Cort. 
fructus citri, Flavedo citri, used as a flavor; source of oil of 
Lemon. Juice of ripe fruit, Limonis SUCCUS, U. S. P., Succus 
citri recens; acid, antiscorbutic. Fruit, Lemon; Ger. Citrone, 
Limonie; Fr. Citron, Limon (Codex), acid, refrigerant, anti- 
scorbutic, 

k. C. medica L. Southern Asia. Cult, in many varieties (see 
above) in sub-tropical countries. Citron, in the comprehensive 
sense of the word. 

1. C. iiobilis Lour. Regarded by some as a variety of (c). Ja- 
pan and China. Mandarin or Chinese Orange, Kid-glove 
Orange, Tangerine, Oonshin. Fruit esculent. 

o07. CLADOTHAMNUS, Bong. 1833. Cladothamnus. Ericaceae. 
From Greek, "branch bush". Syn. Tolmiaea, Hook. 1834. 
Shrubs. Two species, northwestern U. S. 

508. CLADOTHRIX, Nutt. Cladothrix. Ainarantliaceae. 

From Greek, "branching-haired". Syn. Achyranthes, in 
part. Stellate-pubescent herbs. About 4 species, southwest- 
ern U. S. and Mexico. " 

509. CLADRASTIS, Raf. Yellow- wood. Papili<niaceae. 

From Greek, "brittle-branched". Syn. Virgilia, in part. 
Trees with showy Avhite flowers. Two species, one of China; 
1 in U. S. 



106 PI.AXT XAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. liitea (Michx. ) Koch (Virgilia lutea Michx., C. fragrans^ 
Raf., 1824, C. tinctoria Eaf., 1825). Kentucky, Tennessee and 
N. Carolina. Kentucky Yellow-wood, American Yellow-wood, 
Yellow Locust, Gopher- wood. Yellow Ash, American Fustic, 
Wood yields a yellow dye. 

510. CLAPPIA, Gray. Clappia. Compositae. 

Named for Dr. A. Clapp, American botanical author. Per- 
ennial herb, with fleshy terete leaves. One species, southwest- 
ern U. S. 

511. CLARKIA, Pursh (Clarckia). Onagraceae. 

Annual herbs with purple or rose-colored flowers. About 6 
species; Pacific coast of N. America (U. S. ). 

512. CLAVICEPS, Ergot. Pyienomycetes. 

From Latin, ''club head". Syn. Cordiceps. Parasitic on 
fruit of various grasses. 

a. C. purpurea (Fries) Tulasne (Cordiceps purpurea Fries). Para- 
sitic on Rye. Ergot, Spurred Rye, Smut of Rye, Cockspur 
Eye, Mother of Rye, Hornseed. Sderotium of the fungus; 
Ergota, U. S. P., Br.; Secale cornutum, Clavus [secalinus, 
Mater secalis; Ger. Roggenmutter, Mutterkorn, Zapfenkorn, 
Hungerkorn; Fr. Ergot de Seigle (Codex), Seigle ergote 
(noir), Ble cornu; Sp. Cuernecillo (Tizon) de Centeno; ecbolic, 
haemostatic. 

513. CLAYT6NIA, L. Spring-beauty. Portulacaceae. 

Named for John Clayton, American botanist, d. 1773. Syn. 
Montia, in part. Succulent herbs. About 25 species, mostly 
of N. America; 20 in U. S. 

a. C. Caroliuiana Michx. and (b) C. YirginicaL., of the eastern 
U. S. are called Spring-beauty, Good-morning-Spring, Grass- 
flower, May-flower, Wild Potato. The related (c) C. lanceolata 
Pursh. of the west is called also Pigeon-root. 

d. C. Cliamissoi Ledeb. Western U. S. Chamisso's Claytonia, 

Toad-lily. 

e. C. perfoliataDonn. (M. perfoliata Greene). British Columbia 

to Mexico. Indian Lettuce, Spanish Lettuce. Plant used as a 
pot herb. 

514. CLEMATIS, L. Virgin' s-bower. Ranunculaceae. 

The Greek name of some climbing plant. Vines or peren- 
nial herbs with persistent plumose styles. About 100 species, 
25 in U. S. The plants are acrid and many have been used as 
vesicants and counter-irritants. 

a. C. crispa L. (C. cylindrica Sims). Southeastern U. S. 

Marsh Clematis, Curl-flowered Clematis, Bluebell vine. Blue 
Jessamine (Jasmine). 

b. C. riammula L. Southern Europe and northern Africa. 

Sweet-scented Virgin' s-bower. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 107 

c. C. Virginiana L. Canada to Georgia and Kansas. Common 

Virgin' s-bower of northern U. S., Devil' s-darning-needle, 
Devil' s-hair, Love-vine, Traveler's-joy, Woodbine*. 

d. C. vitalba L. Europe. Virgin' s-bower, Traveler's-joy, Bind- 

^ith, Crocodile, Gray-beard, Love-bind, Love-entangled, La- 
dies' -bower, Maiden' s-honesty, Old-uian's-beard, Old-man's- 
woozard, Kobin-Hood's-fetter, Smoke-wood, Snow-in-harvest, 
Withy-wind, White-vine; Fr. Herbe aux gueux (used by beg- 
gars to cause ulcers). 

Of indigenous species, (e) C, ochroleiica Ait. is called 
Curly-head, (f) €. ligiisticifolia Nutt., Western Virgiu's- 
bower, Wind-flower; (g) C. Simsii Sweet, also (h) C. Viorna. 
L. are called Leather-flower. 

615. CLEOME, L. Cleome, Spider-flower. Capparidaceae. 

An old Greek plant name. Herbs or sub-shrubs, many orna- 
mental. About 75 species, mostly tropical, especially American 
and African; 7 in V. S. 

516. CLEOMELLA, DC. Cleomella. Capparidaceae. 

Diminutive of Cleome. Annual glabrous herbs with yellow 
flowers. About 10 species, all of Mexico, and adjacent terri- 
tory; 8 in U. S. 

517. CLERMONTIA, Gaud. Oha-wai. Lobeliaceae. 

Shrubs, some arborescent. About 11 species, all of Hawaiian 
Islands. 

a. C. macrocarpaGaud. (C. Kakeana Meyen). Hawaiian Islands. 
Oha-wai. Iridt esculent, although insipid. 

518. CLETHRA, L. Sweet Pepper-Bush, etc. ClfthracPae. 

From Greek name of Alder, the foliage being similar. 
Shrubs or small trees. About 30 species, America and Japan; 
2 in U. S. 

a. C. ainifolia L. Maine to Florida. Sweet Pepper-bush, Spiked 
Alder, White-bush. 

519. CLIFT(3nIA, Banks 1805. Buckwheat tree. Cyrillaceae. 

Syn. Mylocaryum, Willd. 1809. Shrub. One species, 
southern U. S. 

a. C. monophylla (Lam.) Sarg. (C. nitida Gaertn. (Kew), C. ligu- 
Btrina Sims, M. ligustrinum, Willd. ) . Georgia and Gulf States. 
Titi, Buckwheat tree, Ironwood*. 

520. CLEVOPODIUM, L. 1753. Calamint, etc. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "bed foot". Syn. Calamintha, Moench. 1794; 

Thymus, Melissa, in part. [Some botanists refer the species to 
Satureia L. ] Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 50 species, north 
temperate zone; 15 in U. S. 

a. C. Acinos (L. ) Kze. (T. Acinos L., M. Acinos Benth., Cal. 
Acinos DC. ). Europe, adv. in U. S. Basil Thyme (i. e. royal 
Thyme), Basil Balm, Mother of Thyme, Poly-mountain. 



108 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. C. Calamintlia (L. ) Kze. (M. Calaraintha L., Cal. officinalis 

Moench). Europe and Asia, cult, in gardens. Calamint (i. e. 
excellent Mint), Calamint Balm, Cap-mint, Mountain Mint. 

c. C. Nei)eta(L. ) Kze. (M. Nepeta L., Cal. Nepeta Link. & 

Hofl!). Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Field Balm, Basil 
Thyme, Field or Lesser Calamint. 

d. C. viiU'are L. (M. ClinopodiumBenth.,Cal. Clinopodium DC. ). 

Europe, Asia and Xortli America, south to W. Virginia and 
Colorado. Field Basil, Wild Basil, Stone Basil, Basil- 
weed, Bed's-foot, Dog-mint, Horse or Field Thyme, Mother of 
Thyme*, Poly-mountain*. Like the preceding specie-:, stimu- 
lant, diaphoretic. 

521. CLINTONIA, Kaf. Clintonia. Convallariaceae. 

Named for Gov. DeWitt Clinton of N. Y., d. 1828. Syn. 
Dracaena, in part. Unpretentious scapose herbs. About 
6 species, N. America and Asia; 4 in U. S. 

a. C. borealis (Ait.) Kaf. (D. borealis Ait.). Canada to N. Caro- 
lina, west to Minnesota. Yellow Clintonia, Bear-tongue, Cow- 
tongue, Dog-berry, Heal-all, Clinton's Lily, Northern Lily, 
Wild Lily-of-the-valley. 

522. CLITORIA, L. Butterfly Pea, etc. Papilionaeeae. 

From Latin, "clitoris", anatomical terra. Woody vines or 
sufFrutescent herbs. About 30 species, warm and temperate re- 
gions; 1 in U. S. [The root of the ornamental C. ternatca 
L. (Ternatea vulgaris H. B. K. ) is used in India as an emetic 
and cathartic] 

523. CLTJSIA, L. Monkey Apple, etc. Guttiferaceae. 

Named for Clusius (C. de TEscluse) French botanist. Trees 
or shrubs. Ab()Ut 65 species, tropical America; 1 in U. S. 
[The Cow tree of Venezuela has been referred to this genus. ] 

a. C. flava Jacq. West Indies to Florida. Monkey Apple, Moun- 
tain Mango, Wild Fig. Mesinous exudate used like pitch. 

624. CNEORIDIUM, Hook. f. Cneoridium. Rutaceae. 

Latin, from Cneorum, the name of an allied genus. Shrub. 
One species, California. 

525. CNICUS, L. Blessed Thistle. Compositae. 

Greek name of Carthamus, early transferred to Thistles. 
Syn. Centaurea, Calcitrapa, in part. Thistle-like herb. One 
species. 

a. C. beiiedictiis L. 1753 (Centaurea benedicta L. 1763, Cal. 
lanuginosa Lam. ). Southern Europe, adv. in U. S. Blessed 
Thistle, Our Lady's Thistle, St. Benedict's Thistle, Bitter 
Thistle, Holy Thistle, Cursed Thistle, Spotted Thistle, Spotted 
Cardus. Blessed Cardus; Ger. Spinnendistel, Bitterdistel, Hei- 
lige Distel; Fr. Chardon benit (Codex); Sp. Cardo Santo. 
Leaves and jloioering tops; lierha, cardm benedicti; Ger. Cardo- 
benediktenkraut, Cardenbenedict, Bernhardinerkraut, Bitter 
tonic with irritant properties. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 109 

626. COCC6lOBIS, P. Br. (Coccoloba L.). Polygoiiaceae. 

From Greek, "berry pod". Shrubs or trees, many produc- 
ing edible berry-like fruits. About 80 species, tropical Ame- 
rica; 2 in U. S. 

a. C. laiirifolia (Jacq. )Sarg. (Coccoloba Floridana Meisn., C. 

parvifolia Nutt. ). Southern Florida. Pigeon Plum. 

b. C. uvifera (L. )Sarg. (Coccoloba uvifera L.). West Indies, 

Florida. Sea-side Grape, Lobe-berry, Sea-grape, Grape tree, 
Mangrove*. Fruit edible. Tree yields Jamaica, West 
Indian or Caracas Kino, an extract from the wood and bark. 
Astringent. 

527. COCKLE ARIA, L. Scurvy-grass, etc. Criiciferae. 

From Greek, "spoon" -shaped of the leaves. Maritime 
herbs. About 25 species, north temperate zone; 5 in U. S. 
See Roripa. 

a. C. officinalis L. (C. oblongifolia DC. ). Arctic Europe, Asia 
and N. America. Scurvy -grass. Scurvy-weed, Scrubby-grass, 
Spoon wort; Ger. Loffelkraut, Skorbutkraut; Fr. Cochlearia, 
(Codex), Herbe au scorbut. Fresh herb, Herba cochlearise, 
antiscorbutic; used as a salad. 

528. C0CHL08PERMLM, Kunth. Kutera. Bixaceae. 
From Greek, "snail seed". Shrubs or small trees with pal- 

mately lobed leaves. About 15 species, tropical Asia, Africa 
and America. 

a. C. Gossypium DC. India. Source of Hogg Gum, Kutera or 
Kathira, resembling gum tragacanth. See Moronobea. 

529. C6C()S, L. - Cocoa Palm. - Sabalaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of a Palm. Tall, graceful palms. 
About 35 species, mostly American; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. aciileata Jacq. (Acrocomia sclerocarpa Mart.). Tropical 

America. Fruit source of macaja butter, resembling palm oil. 

b. C. iiiioifera L. Found in all tropical countries. Cocoa Palm, 

Cocoanut tree; Ger. Kokospalm; Fr. Cocotier; famed for the 
number and variety of its useful products, which include mater- 
ial for mats, fibre for ropes (coir), palm wine (toddy) and 
palm sugar. Fruit yields cocoanut oil; Oleum cocois. Oleum 
cocos; Cocoanut butter; Ger. Kokosnussol Kokosbutter, Kokos- 
61; Fr. Beurre de coco; used in manufacture of soap, of hair 
dressings, etc. Pulp of fruit used in India and Abyssinia as a 
taenicide. 

530. COELOPLEURUM, Ledeb. Coelopleurum. Umbelli ferae. 

From Greek, "hollow ribbed". Syn. Archangelica, Angelica, 
in part. Herbs. Two known species, western U. S. 

531. c6fFEA, L. - - Coffee. - - Rubiaceae. 

From Arabic name of the beverage "coffee". Shrubs or 
small trees. About 60 species, tropical regions of both hemi- 
spheres. 



110 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYoMS 

a. C. Ardbica L. Tropical Africa, especially Abyssinia, but now 
cult, in all tropical countries. Coffee tree; Ger. Kaffeebaum; 
Seeds, Semen cofiese, Cofiee; Ger. KafFee, KafFeebohnen; 
Fr. Cafe (Codex); stimulant, nervine. 

532. COIX, L. - Job's-tears. - Oramiiieae. 

Syn. Lithagrostis, Gaertn. Eobust grasses with bony fruits. 
About 6 species, tropical Asia. 

a. C. Lachryma-Jobi L. (C. Lachryma L., L. Lachryma-Jobi 
Gaertn. ) . East Indies and Japan, cult, in gardens. The bony 
"seeds" are called Job's-tears and are reputed diuretic and 
lithontriptic. 

533. c6lA, Schott & Endl. 1823. Cola. Sterculiaceae. 

From vernacular name. Syn. Bichea, Stokes 1812. Lun- 
anea, DC. 1825, Colaria, Kaf. 1824; Ste«rculia, in part. Trees. 
About 12 species, tropical Africa. 

.a. C. acuminata (Beauv.) Schott (S. acuminata Beauv. , Bichea 
solitaria Stokes, Lunanea Bichy DC. ). Tropical Africa, nat. 
in West Indies. Kola-nut tree. /Seeds, Kola-nut, Cola-nut, 
Female Cola, Soudan Coffee*, Guru (Gourou, Gooroo), Bichy 
or Bissy-bissy (W. Indies), Ombene; Ger. Kolanuss; Fr. Noix 
de Kola, Noix de gourou. Cafe du Soudan; Sp. Nuez de Cola 
(Kola); contains caffeine and theobromine. Properties re- 
sembling those of coffee. 

:5S4:. c6lCHICUM, L. Meadow Saffron. Liliaceae. 

Greek name of a poisonous bulbous plant ("Colchis", the 
land of sorcery. ). Ornamental scapose herbs. About 45 
species, Mediterranean region to central Asia. 

-a. C. autiinmale L. Central and southern Europe. Colchicum, 
Meadow Saffron, Autumn Crocus; Autumn, Fog, Meadow or 
Michaelmas Crocus, Purple Crocus, Rams, Son-before-the- 
father. Naked Ladies, Upstart; Ger. Herbstzeitlose, Wiesen- 
safran; Fr. Colchique (Codex), Safran batard; vSp. Colchico. 
Corm; Colchici radix, tl. S. P., Colchici cormus, Br.. Bulbus 
V. Tuber colchici, Colchicum root; Ger. Colchicumzwiebel, Zeit- 
losenwurzel; Fr. Bulbe de Colchique. Seeds; Colchici Semen 
U. S. P., Colchici semina, Br.; Irritant, evacuant, antiarthri- 
tic. 

'b. C. Tariegiitum L. Southern Europe and Levant. Chequer- 
flower. From this or more probably some other species come 
th« corms known in the orient as hennodactyls. 

535. COLDENIA, L. - Coldenia. - Boraginaceae. 

Named for Dr. C. Colden, Colonial Lieut. -Governor of 
N. Y., 18th Century. Herbs. About 12 species, mostly of 
New World; 6 in southwestern U. S. 

.636, C0LE6GYNE, Torr. Coleogyne. Kosaceae. 

From Greek, "sheath style". Shrub. A single species, 
California. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. HI 

537. COLEOSANTHUS, Cass. 1817. Coleosantluis. Coinpositae. 

From Greek, ''sheath flower". Syn. Brickellia, Ell. 1824 
Eupatorium, in part. Herbs or shrubs. About 60 species, S6 

in IJ. S. 

538. COLLINSIA, Nutt. Collinsia. Serophulariaceae. 

Named for Zacchaeus Collins, botanist of Philadelphia, d. 
1831. Herbs. About 25 species, K America; 22 in U.' S. 
mostly of California. 

a. C. verna Nutt. New York to Wisconsin and Indian Territory. 
Blue-eyed Mary, Innocence, Broad-leaved Collinsia. 

539. C0LLINS6XIA, L. Horse-balm, etc. Labiatae. 
Named for Peter Collinson, English botanist, d. 1768. Syn. 

Hypogon, in part. Kank-growing aromatic herbs. Two or 
three species, eastern N. America; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. anisata Sims (H. anisatum Eaf. ). Southeastern U. S. 

Anise-root. 

b. C. Canadensis L. Ontario to Florida and west to Kansas and 

Wisconsin. Horse-balm, Stone-root, Citronella, Rich-weed. 
Rich-leaf, Horse-weed, Ox-balm, Heal-all*, Knob-root, Knob- 
grass, Knob-weed, Hard-hack* Knot-root; Ger. Collinsonie; 
Fr. Guerit-tout, Baume de cheval. i^ooi diuretic, diaphoretic,' 
expectorant. Leaves vulnerary 

540. COLLOMIA, Nutt. Collomia. Polemoniaceae. 

From Greek, ''glutinous", of the seeds. Syn. Gilia, in 
part. Herbs, mostly annual. About 15 species, western N. 
America; 9 in U. S. 

541. COLOCASIA, Schott. _ Taro, Cocco, etc. Araceae. 
Greek name of an Egyptian Avater plant. Syn. Arum, Cala- 

dium, in part. _ Acrid herbs from thickened rhizomes. About 
5 species, tropical Asia, one widely distributed. 

a. C. Colocasia (L. ) Lyons (A. Colocasia L., C. antiquorum 
Schott, especially the variety esculenta, C. esciilenta (L. ) 
Schott, A. esculentum L., Cal. esculentum Vent.). - Tropical 
Asia, cult, in most tropical countries. Fleshy rhizomes acrid 
when uncooked, abounding in starch, when cooked a, palatable 
and nourishing food, the Taro (Kalo) of the Pacific Islands, 
where it is the chief food of the natives. In the West Indies 
called Cocco, Cocoe, Tanya, in West Indies and Africa also 
Eddoes (Eddas, Edders), in China Yu-tao, in Japan Sato-imo, 
in Central America Oto. Another name is Kalkas. Leaves 
(luau) used as a pot herb. Plant much cultivated in U. S. for 
ornament. 

542. COLOCrANIA, Kunth. Cologania. Papilionaceae. 

Herbaceous climbers. About 12 species, New World, es- 
pecially Mexico; 4 in U. S. 

543. C0L6pTERA, Coult. & Rose. Coloptera. Umbelliferae. 

Herbs. Three species in western U. S. 



112 PLANT NAMES ANT) SYNONYMS 

544. COLUBRO^A, Rich. Puerto Rico Bark. Rhamnaceae.. 

From Latin, "serpent". Small trees or shrubs. About 15 
species, warmer regions, both hemispheres; 3 in U. S. 

a.^ C. reelinata Brongn. [Ceanothus reclinatus L'Her, (Kew, )]. 
"West Indies. Puerto Rico Bark; Fr. Ecorce costiere, Sp. Palo 
niabi. Bark of this species, as well as of the West Indian (b) 
C. feiTiigiiiosa Brongn. and (c) C. fermentiim Rich., used 
as a substitute for hops. 

545. COLUTEA, L. Bladder-Senna. Papilionaceae. 

Greek name of a leguminous tree, ' *pod bearing" . Shrubs. 
About 10 species, southern Europe to central Asia. 

a. C. arborescens L. Southern Europe. Bladder Senna, Bas- 
tard Senna; Ger. Falsche Senna; Fr. Baguenaudier, Sene indi- 
gene; Sp. Espanta-lobos. Leaves cathartic; smoke therefrom 
errhine. 

546. COMA^SDRA, Nutt. Bastard Toad-flax. Santalaceae. 

From Greek, "hair anthered". Syn. Thesium, in part. 
Perennial herbs, parasitic on roots. About four species, one 
in Europe; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. iimbellata (L. ) Nutt. (T. umbellatumL. ). British Amer- 
ica south to Georgia, Arizona and California. Bastard Toad- 
flax. 

547. C6mARUM, L. Marsh Cinquefoil. Rosaceae. 
Greek name of Arbutus. Syn, Potentilla, in part. Peren- 
nial bog-herb, a single species, north temperate zone (U. S. ). 

a. C. pahistre L. (Potentilla palustris Scop., P. comarum Xestl. ) . 
Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, south to New Jersey, 
Iowa and California. Marsh Cinquefoil, Purple Cinquefoil, 
Marsh Five-finger, Purple Marsh-locks, Purplewort, Cow-berry, 
Bog Strawberry. Plant astringent. 

548. CO^IBRETCM, L. Butter tree, etc. Combretaceae. 

Shrubby climbers or small trees. About 120 species, tropi- 
cal regions, Asia, Africa and America. 

a. C. butjrosum Tul. (C. butyraceum, Carnel. ). S. Africa. 
Butter'tree. Fruit yields a butter-like fat, chiquito, used by the 
Kafirs as food. 

549. COMMELINA, L. Day-floAver. Commeliiiaceae. 

Named for J., G. and K. Coramelin, Dutch botanists of 17th 
and 18th centuries. Herbs. About 95 species, warm or tem- 
perate regions; 8 in U. S. 

550. COMMIPHORA, Jacq. 1797. Myrrh, etc. Burseraceae. 

From Greek, "gum bearing". Syn. Balsam ea, Gled. 1782, 
Niouttout, Adans. 1759, Balsamodendron, Kunth, 1824; Amy- 
ris, Heudelotia, in part. Balsamic trees or shrubs. About 40 
species, tropical Asia and Africa. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 113 

a. C. Africana Endl. ( Balsamea Africana Baill. Bal8amodendrt)n 

Africanum Arn., H, Africana Eich, ). Western Africa. 
Hesinous exudate, African Bdellium; Fr. Bdellium d'Afrique 
(Codex); vulnerary, expectorant, emmenagogue. 

b. C. Miikul Engl. (Balsamea Mukul Baill., Balsamodendron 

Mukul Hook. ). India. Exudate is East Indian Bdellium, 
produced also by other species, notably (c) C. A^allocha 
Engl. (A. Commiphora Roxb. ). 

d. C. Myrrlia (Nees) Engl. (Balsamea Myrrha Baill., Balsamoden- 

dron Myrrha Nees. ). Arabia and eastern Africa. Resinous 
exudate; Myrrha, U. S. P., Br., P. G., Gummi-resina (Gummi) 
Myrrha; Myrrh; Ger. Fr. Myrrhe (Codex); Sp. Mirra; vul- 
nerary, tonic, emmenagogue. 

e. C. Opobalsamum (Forst. ) Engl. (Amyris Opobalsamum Forst., 

Balsamea Meccanensis Gled., Balsamodendron Gileadense DC, 
B. Ehrenbergianum Berg., B. Opobalsamum Kunth. ). Abys- 
sinia and southward. Balm-of-Gilead tree. Resinous exudate. 
Balm of Gilead (true). Balm or Balsam of Syria, Mecca Balsam; 
Balsamum gileadense, Opobalsamum (verum), Balsamum 
meccse v. judiacum; Fr. Baume blanc, Baume de la Mecque; 
balsamic, vulnerary. 

551. C0MPT6nIA, Banks. Sweet Fern. Myrioaeeae. 

Named for Bishop Henry Compton, d. 1713. Syn. Liquid- 
ambart, Myrica, in part. A small aromatic shrub. One 
species. 

a. C, peregriiia (L. ) Coulter (L. peregrina L., M. asplenifolia 
L., C. asplenifolia Gaertn., M. Comptonia DC.). Canada and 
northeastern U. S. Sweet Fern, Fern-gale, Fern bush, Meadow 
Fern,Shrubby Fern, Canada Sweet-gale, Spleenwort bush, Sweet- 
bush, Sweet Ferry; Fr. Liquidambar a feuilles de ceterach. 
Leaves and tops astringent, aromatic, carminative. 

552. CONANTHUS, S. Wats. Conanthus. Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "cone flower" . Herbs. About 15 species in 
western U. S. 

553. CO^BALIA, Cav. Black Ironwood. Rliamnaceae. 

Shrubs. About 9 species. New World; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. microphylla Cav. Chili and Argentina. Piquillin. Fruit 
edible. 

554. CONIOSELINUM, Hoffm. Hemlock Parsley. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "hemlock-parsley". Herbs. About 4 species, 
all of N. America; 1 in U. S. 

555. CONIUM, L. Poison Hemlock. Umbelliferae. 

The ancient Greek name of Hemlock. Herbs. Two species, 
one of Europe and Asia, one of Africa. 

a. C. maculatum L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Poison 
Hemlock, (Humlock, Humly); St. Bennet's Herb, Spotted 
Parsley, Bad-man' s-oatmeal. Heck-how, Poison Snakeweed* or 



114 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

Snakeroot, Wode-whistle, Cashes, Bunk, Poison Parsley, Spot- 
ted Cowbane (often confounded with Cicuta maeulata); Ger. 
Gefleckter Schierling; Fr. Cigue officinale, Grande Cigue (Co- 
dex); Sp. Cicuta mayor. Fruit; Oonium, U. S. P., Conii fruc- 
tus Br. ; Conium-seed, Hemlock-fruits. Leaves; Conii folia, Br., 
Herba conii, H. cicutse (majoris). Sedative, anodyne, discu- 
tient; active principle coniine. 

556. C0N6bEA, Aubl. Conobea. Scrophiilariaceae. 

Vernacular name, Guiana. Syn. Capraria, in part. Herbs. 
About 8 species, all American; 2 in U. S. 

557. COXOCARPUS, L. Button tree. Combretaceae. 

From Greek, "cone fruited". Trees and shrubs, tropical 
America; l^in U. S. 

a. C. erectus L. West Indies to Florida. Buttonwood, Button 
tree, Zaragoza Mangrove. 

558. CONOPHOLIS, Wallr. Squaw-root, etc. Orobanchaceae. 
From Greek, "scaly cone". Parasitic scaly herbs. Two 

species; U. S. and Mexico. 

a. C. Americana (L. f. )Wallr. (Orobanche Americana L. f. ). 
Maine to Michigan and south to Florida. Squaw-root, Squaw- 
drops, Cancer- root. Earth-club, American Broom-rape, Clap- 
wort. Improperly called Beech-drops, as it grows in Oak 
woods. Plajit astringent. 

559. CONOPODIUM, Koch. 1824. Earth-nut. llmbelliferae. 

Syn. Bulbocastanum Lag. 1821; Bunium, Carum, in part. 
Herbs. About 12 species, Spain to Turkestan. 

a. C. deniidatiim ( DC ) Koch. ( B. flexuosum With. , Bulbocastanum 
majus Lag., Carum flexuosum Fries, Bunium denudatum DC). 
Western Europe. Earth Chestnut. Tubers edible, called Kip- 
per-nuts, Earth-nuts, Yer-nuts^, Jur-nutsj, Ar nuts^. Pig- 
nuts, Hawknuts, Grunnut:}:, Trufflet. See Carum. 

560. COiSRADINA, Gray. Conradina. Labiatae. 
Named for Solomon W. Conrad, botanist of Philadelphia. 

Canescent herb. One species, Alabama to Florida. 

561. CONRINGIA, Heist. (Gorinkia). Hare's-ear. Cruciferae. 

Named for Prof. H. Conring, of Helmstadt, d. 1681. Syn. 
Brassica, Erysimum, in part. Herbs. About 7 species, Europe 
and western Asia. 

a. C. orieiitalis ( L. ) Dumort ( B. orientalis L. , B. perfoliata Lam. , 
E. orientale R. Br.). Europe, nat. in U. S. Hare's-ear, 
Treacle Mustard. 

662. CONVALLARIA, L. Lily of the Valley. Convallariaceae. 

From Latin , ' 'valley flower' '. Perennial herb. One species. 

a. C. majalis L. (C. latifolia Lam. ). Northern Europe, Asia and 
N. America (Allegheny mountains). Lily of the valley, Con- 
val-lily, May or Park Lily, Wood Lily, May-blossom, Liricon- 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 115 

fancyt, Valleys; Ger. Maiblume, Maiglocken; Fr. Muguet (Co- 
dex ) ; Sp. Liris de los valles. Rhizome and rootlets; Convallaria, 
U. S. P. ; cardiac tonic, like Digitalis. Fioxms and leaves are 
also used. 

068. CONVOLYULUS, L. Bind-weed. Coiivolvulaceae. 

From Latin, "twining". Syn. (.'alystegia, Volvulus, in part. 
Trailing or twining vines. About 175 species, widely distribut- 
ed; 16 in U. S., including naturalized species. 

a. C. arvensis L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Small Bind- 

weed, Bear-bind, Pledge-bells, Bell-bind, Corn-lily, Corn-bind, 
Lap-love, Sheep-blue, Wind, With-wind. 

b. C. Scamnionium L. (Calystegia Scaramonia Pritz. ). South- 

ern Europe and the Levant. Scamniony plant. Root; Scam- 
monise radix, Br. 7>te(/ /a/cx; Scammonium, U. S. P., Br.; 
Gummi-resina Scamuionium, Diagrydium; Scammony; Ger. 
Scammonium, Scamraon; Fr. Scammonee d'Alep (Codex). 
Cathartic, hydragogue. [The best quality is called virgin 
scammony. The Aleppo is considered better than the Smyrna 
scammony] . 

c. C. Sepiiim L. [Cal. Sepium R. Br. (Kew)]. Europe, Asia 

and X. America, south to N. Carolina and Utah. Hedge 
Bindweed, Bracted or Great Bindweed, Bell-bind, Greater Bear- 
bind, Creeper, Hedge-bells, Hedge-lily, Lily-bind, Ladies' - 
nightcap, Rutland-beauty, Woodbind, Woodbine*, German 
Scammonyf. 

d. C. spitliamaeus L. (Cal. spithamsea Paeste (Kew), V. spith- 

amseus Kze. ). British America and eastern U. S. Upright 
Bindweed, Dwarf Morning-glory, Bracted Bindweed. 

564. COOPERIA, Herb. Prairie Lily. Amaryllidaeeae. 

Named for Daniel Cooper of London, d. 1842. Scapose 
herbs from bulbs. Two species, southern U. S. and Mexico. 

565. COPAIVA, Jacq. 1760. Copaiba. Caesalpiiiaceae. 

From vernacular name. Syn. Copaiba, Adans. 1763, (Mill. 
l_73y), Copaifera, L. 1762. Trees or shrubs. About 12 spe- 
cies, tropical S. America and Africa. 

a. C. Langsdorfli (Desf.) O. Kze. (Copaifera Langsdorfii Desf. ). 
Brazil. Oleoresin from this and other species, Ccpaiba, 
U. S. P., Br., Balsamum Copaivse, P. G., Balsam of Copaiba 
(Copaiva, Capivi); Ger. Copaivabalsam; Fr.-Copalm (Codex), 
Baume de Copalm; Sp. Balsamo di Copaive. Antiseptic, 
-diuretic, balsamic. 

Other species yielding balsam of Copaiba are(b) C. coridcea 
(Mart.) Lyons (Copaifera coriacea Mart.), Brazil; (c) 
C. Gniauensis (Desf. ) Lyons (Copaifera Guianensis Desf.), 
Guiana to Brazil; (d) C. offlciiidlis (L.) Lyons (Copaifera 
officinalis L., C. Jacquini Desf.), Venezuela, New Grenada 
and VV. Indies. 

566. COFERNICIA, Mart. 1837. Wax Palm. Sabalaceae. 

Named in honor of Copernicus. Syn. Chrysophylla, Blume 



116 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1836, not Chrysophyllum L. 1752; Corypha, in part. Fan 
palms of medium size. About 6 species, tropical America. 

a. C. cerifera (Ar. ) Mart. (Cor. cerifera Arruda). Brazil. 
Brazilian Wax Palm. Young leaves coated with a vegetable 
ivax, Carnauba wax, used for candles, etc. i^oof alterative, like 
Sarsaparilla. 

567. c6pTIS, Salisb. Gold-thread. Ranimculaceae. 

From Greek, "cut leaved". Syn. Helleborus, Isopyrum, in 
)art. Herbs. About 9 species, north temperate zone; 5 in 

- S. 



W 



a. C. Teeta Wallich. India. Mishmee Bitter, Chinese Gold- 

thread. Properties of (b). 

b. C. trifolia (L. ) Salisb. (H. trifolius L., H. trilobus Lam., H. 

pumilus Salisb. I. trifolium Brit. ). British America, south to 
Maryland and Minnesota. Gold-thread, Canker-root, Mouth- 
root, Yellow-root; Ger. Gelbe Niesswurz, Kleinste Niesswurz; 
Fr. Coptide. Boot Bitter tonic. Contains berberine. 

568. CORALLORHIZA, K. Br. Coral-root. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "coral-root". Syn. Cymbidiura. Scapose 
herbs with coral-like roots. About 15 species, north temperate 
zone; 8 in U. S. 

a. C. odoiitoiiiizon (Willd. ) Nutt. (Cymbidium odontorhizon. 
Willd. ). Massachusetts to Florida and west to Missouri. 
Small-riowered Coral-root, Small or Late Coral-root, Crawley- 
root, Crawley, Chickens'-toes, Dragon' s-cl aw, Turkey-claw, 
Fever-root; most of these names also applied to other species. 
Boot diaphoretic, febrifuge. [The roots of other species are 
no doubt collected as crawley-root, notably of (b) C. multi- 
flora Nutt.]. 

669. c6rCH0RUS, L. Jew's Mallow, Jute. Tiliaceae. 
Greek name of a plant with bitter taste. Herbs and small 

shrubs. About 50 species, warmer regions of Old and Kew 
World; 2 in U. S. 

a. C. capsiilaris L. India and widely naturalized. Jute plant. 

Fiber, jute, used for gunny-bags, carpets, etc. 

b. C. olitoriiis L. India and cult, in most sub-tropical countries. 

Jew' s Mallow. Shoots used as a pot herb. Fibe7^ forms part of 
the jute of commerce. 

CORDIA, SeeYARRONIA. 

670. COREMA, Don. 1826. Broom Crowberry. Empetraceae* 

From Greek woi'd for "broom" • Syn. Gakesia, Tuckerm. 
1842; Empetrum, in part. Low shrubs. Two species, one ©f 
Europe, one of northeastern U. S. 

a, C. Coiirddii Torr. Newfoundland to New Jersey near the 
coast. Plymouth Crowberry, C]onrad's Broom Crowberry^, 
Brown Crowberry, Crakeberry*, Foverty-grass. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 117 

571. C0RE6pSIS, L. Ticksecd Sunflower. Compositae. 

From Greek, "bug like" , of the achenia. Syn. Calliopsis, 
in part. Herbs, mostly with showy flowers. About 50 species, 
America, S. Africa and Australia; 25 in U. S. 

a. C. tiiictoria Nutt. Central U. S. and cult, in gardens. Gold- 
en Coreopsis, Wild Flax* Nuttall's weed. 

572. C0RETHR6GYNE, DC. Corethrogyne. Compositae. 

From Greek, "broom style" Aster-like perennials. About 
6 species, all of California. 

573. CORIANDRUM, L. Coriander. Uinbelliferae. 

Classical name from the bug-like smell. Herb. Probably 
a single species. 

a. C. sativum L. Asia, cult, and adv. in U. S. Coriander 
(Coliander). The fruit; Coriandrum. U. S. P.; Coriandri fruc- 
tus, Br., Semen coriandri; Coriander seed. Coriander; Ger. 
Koriandersamen, Fr. Coriandre (Codex); Sp. Cilantro, Culan- 
tro. Aromatic, carminative, condiment. Source of oil of 
coriander. 

574. CORIARIA, L. Tanner's Sumac. Coriariaceae. 

From Latin, "tanner's" shrub. Poisonous shrubs. About 
10 species, warmer regions of Old and New World. 

a. C. myrtifolia L. (C. tinctoria Dulac. ). Southern Europe and 

northern Africa. Tanner's Sumac, Currier's Sumac, Ger. 
Gerberstrauch; Fr. Redoul, Sumac des corroyeurs. Fruit 
poisonous. Leaves have been used to adulterate Senna. 

b. C. sarmentosa Forst. NewZeland. Wine-berry shrub. Tutu 

(vernacular). Toot plant. Seeds poisonous, but wine is made 
from the juice of the fruit. Source of the New Zealand toot- 
poison. 

575. CORISPERMUM, L. Bug-seed, Tick-seed. Clienopodiaceae. 

From Greek, "bug seed". Herbs. About 10 species, cir- 
cumpolar; 1 in U. S., viz. (a) C. hyssopifolium L., Bug-weed, ' 
Tumbleweed. 

576. CORNUS, L. Cornel, Dogwood. (.ornaceae. 
The Latin name, "horny", from hardness of the wood. 

Shrubs or trees. About 25 species, north temperate zone, 
Mexico and Peru; 20 in U. S. » 

a. C. alternifolia L. fils. Canada and northeastern V. S. Blue 

or Purple Dogwood, Green Osier, Umbrella treef. 

b. C. Amoniim Mill. ( C. sericea L. ) . Ontario and eastern U. S. 

Silky Cornel, Blue-berried Cornel, Kinnikinic (Killikinic), 
Female or Swamp Dogwood, Ked-brusli, Red Osier, Red-rod, 
Red Willowf. Rose Willowf, Squaw-bush; Ger. Sumpfkornel'; 
Fr. Cornouiller soyeux. Bark bitter, expectorant, nauseant. 



118 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. C. Canadensis L. British America, south to New Jersey, 
Minnesota and California. Low or Dwarf Cornel, Bunch-berry, 
Bunch Plum, Cracker-berry, Small Fowering-cornel. Very 
similar to this is the arctic (d) C. Suecica L., called Plant- 
of-gluttony and Dwarf Houeysucklef. 

e. C. circinata L'Her. (C. rugosa Laur., possibly the older name). 

Canada and northeastern U. S. Bound-leaved Cornel or Dog- 
wood, Green Osier. Bark bitter, astringent, febrifuge. 

f. C. florida L. Ontario and eastern U. S. Flowering Dogwood, 

Dogwood; American, Virginia or Florida Dogwood, Boxwood; 
New England, American or Fal<e Box- wood, American Cor- 
nelian tree; Flowering, Florida or White Cornel, Indian 
Arrow-wood, Nature' s-mistake; Ger. Grossbllithige Kornel, 
Hornbaum; Fr. Coruouiller a grandes fleurs. Bark of root; 
Cornus, U. S. P., Dogwood bark; bitter, tonic, febrifuge. 
[The Flowering Dogwood of California and British Columbia 
is the larger tree ( g ) C. occklentalis (T. &G. ) Coville (C. 
Nuttallii Audubon)]. 

h. C. Mas L. (C. mascula L. ). Europe and northern Asia. 
Cornelian Cherry, Male Cornel, Cornelian tree, Redwood of 
Turkey; Ger. Kornelkirsche, Diirlitze, Herlitze; Fr. Cornouil- 
ler. Flowers astringent. Fruit edible but austere. 

i. C. stolonifera Michx. British America, south to Kentucky, 
Arizona and California. Red Osier Cornel or Dogwood, Red- 
brush, Dogberry tree, Gutter tree, Kinnikinic, Killikinic,, 
Waxberry Cornel. [Similar to this is (j ) C. sanguinea L., 
the common Dogwood of Europe. ] 

677. CORO^iLLA, L. - Axseed. - Papilionaceae. 

Latin diminutive, a little crown. Syn. Eiuerus, Mill., 
Scorpius, Medic. Herbs. About 25 species, Europe, Asia and 
N. .Itrica. 

a. C. scorpioides (Medic. ) Koch (S. scorpioides Medic. ). Europe. 
Coronilla. P/a?i^ cardiac tonic, like Digitalis, [(b) C. Enie- 
rns L. (E. Caesalpinia Medic. ), Europe, is Scorpion Senna; 
(c) C. varia L., Europe, adv. in U. S., is Axseed, Axwort, 
Hive- vine. 

678. CORONOPUS, Gaertn. 1791. Wart Cress. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, ''crowfoot", alluding to dissected leaves. Syn. 
Senebiera, DU. 1799; Cochlearia, in part. Diffuse herbs. 
About 6 species, warm and temperate regions. 

a. C. Coronopus (L. ) Karst. (Coch. Coronopus L., S. Coronopus 
Poir. ), Europe, adv. in U. S. Wart Cress, Wartwort, Swine's 
Cress, Sow-grass, Buck's-horn, Herb Ivy*, Wild Scurvy-grass. 
Plant anti-scorbutic. 

679. CORYLUS, L. Hazel, Filbert. Betulaceae. 

Ancient Greek name, from "helmet" -like involucre. Shrubs 
or small trees. About 7 species, northern hemisphere; 2 (or 3) 
in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 119 

a. C. Americana Walt., Canada and eastern U. S. and (b) 
C. rostrata Ait., British America south to Georgia and 
Oregon (a variety in California), are the American Hazel- 
nut bushes, the latter the Beaked Hazel, (c) €. Avellana L. 
(C. maxima Mill. ), Europe and Asia, is the European Hazel 
(Hezzle, Haul, Halse) or Filbert (Filberd, Filbeard, Philbert), 
Beard tree, Halenut, Nuttal tree. Nut-bush, Nuitre, Wood- 
nut, (varieties known as Full-beards, Cob-nuts, Cosford 
and Downton Filberts, Barcelona Nuts); Ger. Plasel; Fr. 
Noisetier. Seeds of all species yield hazel-nut oil. Spicidce 
from involucre of (b) used like those of Mucuna. 

680. CORYPHA, L. Talipot Palm. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, ''tall". Fan-leaved Palms. About 7 species, 
tropical Asia. 

a. C. ninbraculifera L. Ceylon and India. Talipot Palm (Tali- 
put, Talipat), Basket Palm, Shreetalum, Smeetalum. Leaves 
used for umbrellas, us a substitute for paper, etc. 

581. COSCINIUM, Colebr. Columbo-wood. Menispeniiaceae. 

Syn. Menispermum, in part. Shrubs. About 4 species, 
tropical Asia. 

a. C. feuestratiim (Gaertn. ) Colebr. (M. fenestratum Gaertn.). 
Ceylon. Columbo-wood, False Calumba. Wood, bark and root, 
bitter tonic. 

682. COSMOS, Cav. (Cosmus, Cosmea). Compositae. 

From Greek, "ornament". Ornamental herbs. About 20 
species, Mexico and adjacent region; 3 in U. S. 

583. COTINUS, Adans. Smoke-tree. Anacardiaceae. 

Greek name of the Oleaster. Syn. Rhus, in part. Shrubs 
or small trees. One species of Europe and Asia, one of America. 

a. C. cotiiioides (Nutt. ) Brit. (R. cotinoides Nutt. 1838, C. Ameri- 

canus Nutt. 1849.). American Smoke-tree, Wild Smoke-tree, 
Chittam-wood, Yellow-wood. Also other synonyms from the 
following. 

b. C. Cotiims (L. )Karst. (R. CotinusL., C. coriaria Duham). 

Europe and Asia. Venice Sumac (Sumach), Venetian Sumac, 
Smoke-tree, Smoke-plant, False Fringe-tree, Purple Fringe, 
Wig-tree, Feather-tree, Aaron's- beard. Wood, called young 
Fustic and Zante-wood, yields a yellow dye. 

584. COTONEASTER, Medic. Fire Thorn. Pomaceae. 
From Latin, "star quince". Syn. Crataegus, Mespilus, in 

part. Ornamental shrubs or small trees. About 20 species, 
Old World. 

a. C. Pyracantha (L. ) Spach. (Crataegus Pyracantha Medic. 
(Kew), M. Pyracantha L. ). Evergreen Thorn, Fire Thorn, 
Pyracanth, Christ's Thorn*, Egyptian Thorn*. 

586. c6tULA, L. - Cotula. - Compositae. 

Diminutive of cota, classical name of a composite plant. 
Herbs. About 40 species, widely distributed; 2 in U. S. 



120 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

686. COTYLEDON, L. Navelwort. Crassulaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of a plant with "cup-like" leaves. 
Syn. Umbilicus. Herbs or shrubs. About 75 species, Old 
World and N. America; 15 in U. S. 

a. C. Umbilicus L. (C. urabilicata Lam., U. pendulinus DC). 
Europe. J^avelwort, Pennywort, Penny-leaves, Penny-pies, 
Penny-plates, Wall Pennywort, Cups-and-saucers, Hipwort, 
Kidneywort, Milk-tlie-cows, Pancakes; Ger. Nabelkraut; Fr. 
Cotylet, Nombril de Venus. Leaves mucilaginous, vulnerary. 

687. COURSETIA, DC. Coursetia. Papilionaceae. 
Trees or shrubs. About 10 species, warmer regions of Amer- 
ica; 2 iu U. S. 

688. COVILLEA, Vail. Creosote bush. Zygophyllaceae. 

Syn. Larrea, Cav. Evergreen heavy-scented shrubs. 
About 5 species, mostly of S. America; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. divaricata ( Cav. ) Vail ( L. Mexicana Moric. ). Southern 

Colorado to California and Mexico. Creosote bush, Tar-weed. 

P/a/i^ alterative, antisyphilitic. One source of lac. See Croton 
aromaticus. 

689. COWANIA, Don. - Cowania. - Rosaceae. 
Named for Mr. Cowan, explorer in Mexico and Peru. 

Shrubs. About 3 species, Mexico and southwestern U. S. 

690. CRACCA, L. 1753. Goat's Rue, etc. Papilionaceae. 

Latin name of a Vetch. Syn. Tephrosia, Pers. 1807; Galega 
in part. Herbs, sometimes shrubby. About 120 species, warm 
and tropical regions; 14 in U. S. 

a. C. Apolinea (Delile) Lyons (T. Apolinea Link. (Kew), G. 

Apolinea Delile). Southern Europe. Egyptian Indigo. 
Leaves an adulterant of senna, also a source of indigo. 

b. C. piscatoria (Sol. ) Lyons (G. piscatoria Sol., G. littoralis 

Forst., T. purpurea Pers. (Kew), T. piscatoria Hilleb., T. 
leptostachya DC). Fish-poison, Auhuhu, Hola (Hawaii). 
Tropical regions generally. Plant has narcotic properties; used 
medicinally in India and to stupefy fish in Islands of Pacidc. 

c. C. toxical* ia (Pers) Lyons (T. toxicaria Pers.). Africa, nat. 

in West Indies. Fish-poison. Properties of (b). 

wd. C. Vircinidna L. 1753 (Galega Virginiana L. 1763, Tephrosia 
Virginiana Pers. ). Southern New England to Florida and 
west to Minnesota and northern Mexico. Cat-gut, Hoary Pea, 
Goat's Rue, Devil' s-shoestrings, Wild Sweet Pea, Turkey Pea, 
Rabbit Pea; Ger., Fr. Tephrosie. Leaver and root, laxative, 
tonic, vermifuge. 

691. CRASSINA, Scepiu, 1758. Zinnia. Coinpo8itae. 

Named from Paul Crassus, Italian botanist, 16th century. 
Syn. Zinuia, L. 1759. Herbs, some species shrubby. About 
12 species, N. America; 5 in \J. S. [The garden Zinnia is 
C. ^legaiis (Jacq. ) Lyons, of Mexico.] 



SCIENTIFIC a:;d popular. 121 

692. CRATAEGUS, L. Hawthorn. Pomaceae. 
Greek name of a kind of thorn having ''tough' ' wood. Syn. 

Mespilus, in part. Thorny shrubs or small trees. About 50 
species, north temperate zone, Mexico and S. America; 23 in 
U. S. 

•a. C. Oxjacdntlia L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. English 
Hawthorn (Playthorn, Hathorn), Haw-tree, Hedge-thorn, 
White or May Thorn, May-bush, May Quick-set, Wick, 
Wickens; var. praecox is the Glastonbury Thorn; Ger. Hage- 
dorn; Fr. Aub^pine. I^ruit called haws, whence the name 
Hawthorn. 

Of American species, the more noteworthy are (b) C. aes- 
tivalis (Walt. ) T. and Gr., May Haw, Apple Haw of southern 
states {fruit used for jellies); ( c) C. eoiccineaL., Scarlet Thorn 
or Hawthorn, White or Ked Thorn'^; (d) C. cordata (Mill.) 
Ait. (M. cordata Mill., C. populifolia Walt.), Washington 
Thorn, American Hedge-thorn; (e) C. Crusg'alli L., Cockspur 
Thorn, Newcastle Thorn, Pin Thorn; (f) C. tomentosaL., Pear 
Thorn, Black Thorn, Common or White Thorn, Pear Haw; 
(g) C. uuiflora Moench (C. parvifolia Ait. ), Dwarf Thorn, 
suited for low hedges. Fruit of several species called red haws, 
occasionally thorn-plums or thorn-apples. 

693. CRATAEVA, L. 1759. Garlic Pear. Capparidaceae. 

Named for Crataevus, ancient Greek herbalist. Syn. Tapia, 
Adans, 1763. Shrubs or trees. About 18 species, tropical 
regions. 

a. C. gyndndra L. Jamaica. Garlic Pear. Bark of root epispas- 
tic. 

694. CREPIS, L. - Hawk's-beard. - Ciehoriaceae. 

From Greek, ''sandal". Herbs resembling Hieracium. 
About 180 species, northern hemisphere; 23 in U. S. 

696. CRESCENTIA, L. Calabash tree. Bignoniaceae. 

Shrubs or trees. About 15 species, tropical America; 1 in 
U. S. 

a^ C. Cujete L. (C. acuminata H. B. K., C. angustifolia Willd. 
C. Cujute Auct. ). Tropical America. Calabash tree. Fruit 
calabash-like. 

696. CRESSi, L. - Cressa. - Coiivolvulaceae. 

From Greek, "Cretan". Low perennial herbs with small 
flowers. Two known species, widely difiused, both in U. S. 

697. CRINUM, L. - Lily*. - Amaryllidaceae. 

Greek name of a Lily. Ornamental bulbous plants with lily- 
like blossoms. About 60 species, warmer regions Old and New 
World; 1 in U. S. 

\698. CRISTALELLA, Nutt. Cristatella^ Capparidaceae. 

Latin dim. of cristata, ''crested". Viscid herbs. Two 
species, both of south-central U. S. 



122 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS' 

699. CRITHMUM, L. - Samphire. - Umbelliferae. 

A succulent herb. One species, Old AVorld. 

a. C. maritimum L. Coasts of Europe. Samphire (Sampere,. 
Semper, originally Sampler from the French, Saint Pierre, i. e. 
St. Peter; the Latin name was Petrus, meaning a rock i)lant, 
with no reference to the Apostle Peter), Oamphire, Crest-ma- 
rine, Pasper. Peter's Cress, Rock-semper, Sea Fennel. Leaves 
used for pickles, etc. 

600. CKOCIDItM, Hook. Crocidium. Compositae. 

From Greek, "woolly, alluding to axils of leaves. Small 
winter-annual with golden yellow flowers. One species, north- 
ern California and northward. 

601. CROCUS, L. - - Safiron. - - Iridacf ae. 

The ancient Greek name. Ornamental herbs with tuberous 
roots. About 70 species, Mediterranean region to central Asia. 

a. C. sativus L. (C. officinalis Martyn). Western Asia, cult, in 
southern Europe. Saflron, Autumnal Crocus, Spanish Saf- 
fron. Saffron raised in Pennsylvania is locally known as Amer- 
ican Saffron, a name elsewhere applied to Carthamus, q. v. 
Stigmaa; Crocuf, U. S. P., Br., Stigmata Croci, Saffron; Ger. 
Fr. Safran ( Codex ); Sp. Azafran; aromatic, diaphoretic, em- 
menagogue. (b. ) C. serotiinis Salisb. (C. odorus Bivona) 
of southern Europe also yields Satiron. 

602. CROOMIA, Torr. Croomia. Roxburghiaceae. 

Herbs. Two species, one of Japan, one of Florida. 

603. CROSSOPTERYX, Fenzl. Crossopteryx. Rubiaceae. 
From Greek, "tassel wing". Trees with bitter bark. One or 

two species, Africa. 

a. C. febrifusra Benth. (C. Kotschyana Fenz. ). Tropical Africa. 
Bark febrifuge, containing a bitter alkaloid. 

604. CKOSSOSOMA, Nutt. Crossosoma. Ramiiiculaceae. 

Sub-shrubs. Two known species, California. 

605. CROTALARIA, L. Eattle-box. Papilioiiaceae. 

From Greek, "rattle" (pod. ) Herbs, sometimes shrubby. 
About 250 species, mostly tropical; 9 in U. S. 

a. C. jiincea L. Southern Asia, nat. in Australia, etc. Yields a 
strong tibre called Bengal, Bombay, Madras or Sunn hemp. 
A valuable fodder plant. Several other species yield useful 
fibres, notably (b) C. Biirllia Hamilton of Afghanistan, and 
(c) C. retusa L., East-Indies, nat. in Brazil. 

d. C. sagittalis L. Eastern U. S. to Mexico. Rattle-box, Wild 
Pea, Loco- weed*. See Astragalus (c) and '^p), also Spiesia. 

606. CR6tO>% L. - Croton. - Eiiphorbiaceae. 

Greek name of Ricinus, both words meaning a "tick". Syn. 
Aleurites, Clutia, Tigliuin, in part. Herbs or shrubs. About 
600 species, warm and temperate regions; 25 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 123 

a. C. arouiatieus L. (A. laccifera Willd. C. lacciferus L. ). 

India. Lac tree. One of the trees yielding shellac, a resinous 
exuckite caused by the puncture of an insect; Lac (Seed-luc, 
grain-lac, stick-lac, etc.); Lacca, Kesina lacca; Ger. Lack, 
Gummilack; Fr. Laque, Gomme lacque; Sp. Goma laca. See 
Butea, Covillea, Erythrina, Ficus and Schleichera. 

b. C. Eluteria (L. ) Bennett (Clutia Eluteria L. ). Bahamas. 

Sweetwood tree. Bark; Cascanlla, U. S. P., Br., Cortex 
cascarillae, Cort. eluteriae v. thuris; Ger. Kaskarillrinde, Ka^- 
karille; Fr. Cascarille officinale (Codex), Ghacrille, Ecorce 
Eleutherienne; 8p. Cascarilla; stimulant tonic. [The bark of 
(c) C. Cascarilla (L.) Bennett (Clutia Cascarilla L. ) may 
be sometimes sold as Cascarilla bark. ] 

d. C. Maldmbo Karst. Venezuela. Source of Malambo bark. 

Properties of (b). 

e. C. monotliogynus Michx, Southern U. S. and Mexico. 

Prairie Tea. 

f. C. niveus Jacq. (C. Pseudo-China Schlecht. ). Mexico. Source 

of Copalchi bark; bitter, nervine, antiperiodic. 

g. C. pavana Hamilton. [Perhaps not distinct from (h)]. Seeds, 

Tilly-seed^, i^urgative. 

h. C. Tiglinm L. (T. officinale Klotsch). East Indies. Croton- 
oil {ilant. Seeds Molucca grains, Croton seeds; Semen tiglii v. 
crotonis, Grana tiglii; Ger. Granatin, Purgirkorner; Fr. Cro- 
ton tiglium, Graine de Tilly ou des Moiuques (Codex), Petits 
pignons d' Inde; Sp. Grana tiglio; purgative. Source of 
Cleum Tiglii, U. S. P., Oleum Crotonis, Br., P. G; Croton oil; 
Ger. Crotonol, Granadillol. 

607. CRUSEA, Cham. & Sch. (not Rich.). Crusea. Rubiaceae. 
Named for Prof. W. Cruse of Koenigsburg. Herbs. About 

10 species, mostly of Mexico and Central America; 3 in U. S. 

608. CRYPTANTHE, Lehm. 1832. Cryptanthe. Boraginaceae. 

From Greek, "hidden flower". Syn. Krynitzkia, F. & M. 
1841. Low annuals. About 50 species, America; 46 in U. S. 

609. CRYPTOCARYA, R. Br. (Cryptocaria). Lauraceae. 
From Greek, "hidden nut". Trees. About 45 species, 

tropical regions. 

a. C. moschata Nees. & Mart. Brazil. Brazilian Nutmeg tree.. 
Fruit aromatic, resembling true nutmeg. 

610. CRYPTOGRAMMA, R. Br. Eock Brake. Polypodiaceae. 

From Greek, "hidden writing", alluding to the ccmctaled 
sporangia. Small ferns. Two species, one in boreal Europe 
and Asia, one in northern U. S. 

611. CUBEBA, Raf. - Cubeb. - Piperaceae. 

From vernacular, Persia or India. Syn. Piper (Kew), in< 
part. About 20 species, tropical Asia and Africa. 



124 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. Cubeba (L. f. ) Lyons (P. Cubeba L. f., C. officinalis Miq. ). 
Java and adjacent Islands. Cubeb plant, Cubeb Pepper. Un- 
ripe fruit; CulDeloa. U. S. P., Cubebae fructus, Br., Baccae 
cubebae, Piper caudatum; Cubeb, Cubebs, Tailed Pepper, Java 
Pepper; Ger. Kubeben, Schwindelkorner, SchwanzpfefFer; Fr. 
Cubebe, Poivre a queue (Codex); Sp. Cubebas; stimulant, 
expectorant, diuretic, balsamic. 

Other species yielding very similar fruits are (b) C. Lowong 
Miq. (Piper Lowong Bl. ); (c) C. Wallichii Miq. (Piper 
ribesoides Wallich) and (d) C. crassipes Miq. ( Piper crassipes 
Korthals). The fruit of ( e ) C. caniiia Miq. (Piper caninum 
Bl. ) is smaller; that of (f) C. Cliisii Miq. (Piper Clusii C. DC. ) 
of western Africa resembles Cubeb in appearance but contains 
piperine instead of cubebin; called African Black Pepper, Cu- 
beb Pepper, Ashantee or Guinea Pepper, Guinea or African 
Cubeb. 

«12. CUBELIUM, Eaf. 1824. Green Violet. Tiolaceae. 

From Greek mythological character, Cybele. Syn. Solea, 
Spreng. 1813 [not Spreng. 1800]. Herb with inconspicuous 
flowers. A single species, Canada and northeastern U. S. 

613. CT^CUMIS, L. Cucumber, Melon. Ciicurbitaceae. 

Latin name of Cucumber, whence also the English word Cu- 
cumber. Syn. Melo, Bryonia, in part. Herbaceous vines. 
About 30 species, chiefly of tropical Asia and Africa. 

a. C. M^lo L. (M. vulgaris Cogn., M. sativus Sagaret. ). Central 

Asia, now universally cult. Melon, Musk-melon (i. e. Muscat 
Melon), Cantaloupe (Cantaleup), Nutmeg Melon, Abdalavi 
(Egypt), Conomon (Japan). Var. flexuosus L. is the Serpent 
Melon or Snake Cucumber; var. Diidaim L. (C. odoratissimus 
Moench), Vegetable Pomegranate. Queen Anne's Pocket Melon, 
Smelly-million || ; var. Cllito Morr. is Vegetable Orange, Lemon 
or Apple, Vine Peach. Fruit esculent. Seeds (cold seeds) 
emollient. See 614 (d). 

b. C. myriocarpus Naud. S. Africa. Cacur. Pulp of fruit eme- 

tic, cathartic, resembling colocynth. 

c. C. sativus L. Central and southern Asia, now universally cult. 

Cucumber, Gherkin, Gerkin (the young fruit or a small-fruited 
variety); Ger. Gurke; Fr. Concombre (Codex); Sp. Cohombro, 
Juice of fruit, also seeds (cold seeds), emollient. See 614 (d). 

d. C. trigonus Rottb. (B. callosa Roxb. ). India, Fruit hitter, 

purgative. Seeds anthelmintic. 

614. CUCURBITA, L. Pumpkin, etc. Cucurbitaceae. 

Ancient Latin name of Gourd, whence also the English 
word Gourd. Syn. Cucumis, in part. Herbaceous vines. 
About 10 species; 6 in U. S. 

a. C. foetidissima H. B. K. (C. perennis A. Gray, Cucumis 
perennis James). Nebraska to Texas, Mexico and California. 
Missouri Gourd, Calabazilla, Wild Pumpkin, Chili Cojote. 



SCIENTIFIC AXD POPULAR. 125' 

b. C. mdxima Duchesne. Tropical Asia, widely cult. Squash, 
(formerly Squanter-squash, from Indian Askutasquash), Vine- 
applell, Winter Squash, Turban Squash, Large Gourd or Pom- 
pion of England, \'egetable-raarrow. Varieties are the Hubbard, 
Boston Marrow, etc. Fr. Courge potiron (Codex). Fruit 
esculent. 

c C, mosclidta Duchesne. Tropical Asia, widely cult. Crook- 
neck Squash; China, Cushaw or Canada Crook-neck, Winter 
Crook-neck Squash. Fruit esculent. 

d. C. Pepo L. North America, widely cult. Pumpkin (of Amer- 
ica), Pompion. The type is the common Field or Yellow 
Pumpkin. Among the varieties are the Scallop Squashes, 
the Summer Crook-neck or Warty Squashes and some of the 
ornamental Gourds. Fruit generally esculent, although of 
coarse fibre. Se^ch; Pepo, U. S. P., Semen peponis, Semina 
cucurbitse, Pumpkin seeds, Ger. Klirbissamen, Kiirbiskorner, 
Graumontsamen; Fr. Semences de potirons; taenicide, emollient 
(One of the four "cold seeds", the others beinp those of melon, 
cucumber and gourd). 

616. CUMINUM, L. Cumin. Uuibelliferae. 

The ancient Greek name. Herb with aromatic fruit. One 
species. 

a. C. Cyminum L. (C. odorum Salisb. ). Northern Africa, cult. 
in southern Europe, etc. Cumin (Cummin), Sweet Cumin. 
Fruit, Fructus cumini (cymini). Semen cumini; Ger. Hafer- 
kiimmel, Kramkiimmel, Mutterkiimmel, Pfefferkuramel, Rom- 
ischer Klimmel; Fr. Cumin (Codex); Sp. Comino; carminative, 
resembling caraway. 

616. CUSILA, L. - Stone-mint, etc. - Labiatae. 
The Latin name of an Origanum. Syra. Hedyosmos, Satu- 

reia, in part. Herbs or low ahrubs. About 15 species, all 
American; 1 in U. S. 

a. C. origanoides (L. ) Britton (S. origanoides L. 1753, Cunila 
Mariana L. 1759, H. origanoides Kze. ). New York to Ohio 
and south to Florida. American Dittany, Stone Mint, Sweet 
Horse-mint, Mountain Dittany, Wild Basil, High Pennyroyal, 
Maryland Cunila. Herb diaphoretic. 

617. CUPRESSUS, L, - Cypress. - Pinaceae. 
The ancient Greek name, whence the English word Cypress. 

Evergreen tr^es. About 12 species, temperate regions, Europe,. 
Asia and North America; 5 in U. S. 

a. C. macrocdrpa Hartweg. California. Monterey Cypress. 

b. C. semp^rvirens L. Persia and the Levant. Cypress tree, 

Oriental or European Cypress. 

618. CtJRCAS, Adans. Purging-nut. Eiiphorbiaceae. 

Syn. Jatropha, in part. Herbs or shrubs, tropical America, 



1^6 PLAXT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. C. piirgaiiS Adans. (C. Adansonii Endl., Jatropha Curcas L. ). 
W est Indies and S. America. Purging-nut tree. Seeds; Cur- 
cas, Semen rieini majoris, Sem. curcadis, Sem. ficus infernalis, 
Nuces catharticae americanse; Physic-nut, Barbados-nut, 
Purging-nut; Ger. Schwarze Brechnusse, Grosse Purgirntisse, 
Grosse Kicinussamen. Seeds and oil expressed therefrom 
powerfully cathartic, ieares gala ctagogue. (b) C. multi- 
iidiis (L. ) Endl. (Jatropha multilida L. ), South America, 
has similar properties. 

619. CURCUMA, L. - Turmeric. Marantaceae. 

From Arabic name of Saffron. Syn. Amomum, in part. 
Herbaceous plants from fleshy rhizomes. About 35 species, 
warmer regions of Old World to Oceanica. 
'a. C. ang'iistifolia Poxb. East Indies. Rhizomes of this and 
some other species yield East Indian Arrow-root, Tikor. See 
Maranta. 

It). C. aromiitica Salisb. (C. Zedoaria Koxb. ). East Indies. 
Pound Zedoarv; Fr. Z^doarie ronde (Codex). Properties of 

(e). 

<. C. longa L. (A. Curcuma Jacq. ; includes C. rotunda L. ), 
India, cult, in many tropical countries. Turmeric plant. 
Indian Saffron, Huldee (India). Bhizome, Rhizoma (Radix) 
curcumae; Turmeric (i. e. terra merita). Curcuma; Ger. Kur- 
kuma, Gilbwurzel, Gelber Ingwer, Gelbsuchtwurzel; Fr. Cur- 
cuma long et rond (Codex); aromatic, condiment; yields n 
yellow dye. (d) C. viridiflora. Roxb. also yields turmeric. 

-e. C. Zedoaria Rose. (A, Zedoaria Willd., C. Zf^rumbet Roxb., 
A. Zerumbet Koenig). East Indies. Zedoary. Rhizome; 
Zedoaria, Rhizoma (Radix) zedoariae; Ger. Zarnabac, Zitt- 
werwurzel, Langer Zitiwer, Giftheil; Fr. Zedoaire longue. 
Pungent, closely resembling ginger in properties and use. 

"620. CtJSCUTA, L. - Dodder. - Cuscutaceae. 

Latin from the Arabic name. Leafless white or yellow 
parasitic vines. About 100 species; 25 in U. S. 

;a. C. Epilinuin Wei he. Europe, nat. in U. S. Flax Dodder 
(Dother), Flax-drop, Flax-vine. Names applied to the various 
species are Beggar-weed, Bind, Hale-, Hell- or Hairy- bind. 
Hell-weed, Hail- weed, Hair-weed, Devil' s-guts, Fordboh, Love- 
vine, Podder, Scald-weed, Scold, Strangle-tare, Strangle-weed. 

*b. C. Epithymum Murr. (C. Trifolii Bab.). Europe, adv. in 
U. S. Thyme Dodder, Clover Dodder, Lesser or Lucerne 
Dodder. (The Dodders generally are named from their host- 
plants, as Smartweed Dodder, Hazel Dodder, etc. 

'621. CUSPARIA, Humb. 1814. Angostura. Rutaceae. 

Syn. Bonplandia, Willd. 1802 not Cav. 1800, Angostura, 
R. & S. 1819; Galipea, in part. Shrubs or small trees. About 
30 species, tropical America. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 127 

a. C. Angostura (Rich.) Lyons (B. Angostura Eich, G. Cusparia 
St. Hil., G. febrifuga Bail. G. officinalis Hancock, C. febrifiiga 
Humb. (Kew), B. trifoliata Willd. ) . Northern S. America. 
Bark Cuspariae cortex, Br. Angustura, Cortex angusturae; 
Angostura or Angustura bark, Carony bark; Ger. Angustura- 
rinde; Fr. Angusture vraie (Codex); bitter, tonic, stomachic. 

622. (^YATHEA, Sm. Tree-fern. Polypodiaeeae. 

From Greek, "cup", alluding to the indusium. Syn. Poly- 
podiumf, in part. Arborescent ferns. About 25 species, 
natives of tropical regions. 

a. C. meduUaris (Forst. ) Swz. (P. medullare Forst. ). New- 
Zealand. Medullary substance of caudex edible. 

623. CYCAS, L. Fern Palm, Sago Palm*. Cycadaceae. 

Greek name of a Palm. Palm-like plants. About 20 species, 
tropical Australia, Asia and Polynesia. 

a. C. circinalis L. Malabar. Malabar Sago Palm or Fern Palm, 
Madu-nut. Trunk yields sago, as in the true Sago Palms, 
(b) C. revoliita Thunb. of Japan and other species also yield 
Sago. Both species are cult, as house plants. 

624. CYCLADENIA, Benth. Cycladenia. Apocynaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'ring gland". Low perennial herbs. One or 
two species, California. i 

625. CYCLAMEN, L. Cyclamen, Sow-bread. Primulaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Stemless perennials from tuberous 
rhizomes. About 12 species, Mediterranean region to central 
Asia. 

a. C. Eiiropaeuni L. Southern Europe. Sow-bread, Swine-bread, 
Ground-bread, Bleeding-nun; Ger. Erdscheibe, Erdbrod, 
Schweinbrod; Fr. Pain de porceau, Arthanite; Sp. Pan de 
puerco. Tuber drastic cathartic, emetic. 

«26. CYCLOLOMA, Moq. Tumble weed. Chenopodiaceae. 

From Greek, "circle border", alluding to calyx. A pigweed- 
like herb (Winged Pigweed^). One species, U. S. 

627. CYCL6pIA, Vent. Bush Tea. Papilionaceae. 

Named for the Cyclops of mythology. Shrubs. About 10 



a. C. galeoides DC, (b) C. latifolia DC, (c) C. sessilifl6ra 

Eckl. & Zeyh., (d) C. siibternata Vog. (C intermedia E. 
Meyen, C V^ogelii Harv. ) and other species, yield the Bush tea 
of S. Africa, African Tea; Ger. Honigthee, Birsrhee, Capthee, 
Buschthee, used as a beverage; expectorant, diaphoretic. 

628. CYD6NIA, Mill. 1752. Quince. Pomaceae. 

Latin name, from Cydonia, a town in Crete. Syn. Pyrus, 
Sorbus, in part. Slirubs or small trees. Europe and Asia. 

a. C. Cydonia (L) Lyons (P. Cydonia L. (Kew), C. vulgaris 
Pers., C. Europaea Savi. S. Cydonia Cranz). Asia and 
Europe, widely cult. Quince tree. Probably the golden ap- 



128 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

pies of the Hesperides; Ge<r. Quittenbaum; Fr. Cognassier, 
Fruit; Fructus (Poma) cydoniae; Ger. Quitten; Fr. Going (Co- 
dex ) ; Sp. Membrillo, Portuguese Marraelo, whence our word 
marmalade; esculent, astringent. Seeds; Cydonium, Semen cy- 
doniae, Quince seed; Ger. Quittensamen, Quittenkorner; Fr. 
Semences (Pepins) de coing; mucilaginous, demulcent. [The 
ornamental Japanese Quince is (b) C Japoiiica (Thunb. ) 
Pers.] 

629. CYMBALARIA, Medic. Kenil worth Ivy. Scrophiilariaeeae. 

From Greek, "cymbal". Syn. Antirrhinum, Linaria, in 
part. Creeping or spreading herbs. About 10 species, Old 
World. 

a. C. Cymbalaria (L. ) Wettst. (H. Cymbalaria L., L. Cymba- 
laria Mill. ). Europe, adv. in U. S. Kenilworth Ivy, Coli- 
seum Ivy, Ivy-leaved Toad-flax, Wandering Jew, Ivy-weed, 
Aaron' s-beard, Mother-of-thousands, Oxford-weed, Pedlar' s- 
basket, Pennywort, Climbing or Roving Sailor, Rabbits. 

630. CYNANCHUM, L. 1753. Swallowwort*. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "dog-strangling". Syn. Vincetoxicum, Moench 
1791 (not Walt. 1788), Asclepias, in part. Mostly perennial 
vines. About 100 species, Old and New Worlds; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. acutuin L. (C. Monspeliacum L. ). Europe and Asia. 

French or Montpelier Scammony, from the milk sap of this 
plant, has been used in place of true scammony. 

b. C. Yiiicetoxiciim (L. ) Pers. (Y. officinale Moench (Kew), A. 

Vincetoxicum Ij. ). Europe. Swallowwort, White Swallow- 
wort, German Contrayerva, Tarae-poison; Ger. Schwalbenwurz, 
Giftwende, Giftwurz, Gottesgabwurz; Fr. Asclepiade, Dompte- 
venin (Codex), Hirundinaire. JRoot, Rad. vincetoxici v. 
hirundinariae v. asclepiadis; emetic, cathartic, diuretic, 
sudorific. 

631. CYNARA, L. - Artichoke. - Compositae. 

The classical name. Thistle-like herbs. About 8 species, 
Mediterranean region. 

a. C. Cardiiuciilus L. Southern Europe, and widely cult. Car- 

doon. Blanched leaf stalks esculent. Floicers used in France to 
coagulate milk. 

b. (D. Scolymus L. Southern Europe, northern Africa, and widely 

cult. Artichoke, Bur Artichoke. Fleshy scales of flower heads 
edible when freed from the bristles or * 'choke". The "chard" 
or blanched central leafstalk is also eaten. Artichoke is re- 
puted a blood purifier, diuretic and cholagogue. 

632. CYN6CT0NUM, J. G. Gmel. 1791. Loganiaceae. 

From Greek, "dog slaying". Syn. Mitreola R. Br. 1810;. 
Ophiorhiza, in part. Herbs. About 5 species; 1 in U. S. 

633. CY]V0GL6sSUM, L. Hound' s-tongue. Boragrinaceae. 

From Greek, "dog 's-tongue" . Herbs with bur-like fruits. 
About 75 species; 5 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 129 

a. C. officinale L. Europe, widely nat. in U. S. Hound' s-tongue, 

Gypsy-flower, Dog' s-tongue. Dog-bur, Canadian Bur, Sheep- 
lice, Tory -weed, Eose-noble; Ger, Hundszunge, Venusfinger; 
Fr, Cynoglosse (Codex), Langue de chien. Root and herb 
sedative, lenitive, expectorant. 

b. C. Vir^nicum L. Canada to Florida and Kansas. Wild 

Comfrey, Dog-bur. 

634. CYNOSCIADIUM, DC. Cynosciadium. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "dog celery". Small annuals. Two species, 
both of southern U. S. 

635. CYPERUS, L. Galingale, Cypress-grass. Cyperaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Pycreus, Papyrus, in part. 
Sedges with umbellate or capitate inflorescence. About 650 
species; 77 in U. S. 

a. C. articiilatlis L. Tropical regions. Adrue, Guinea Rush. 

Rhizome anti-emetic, carminative. 

b. C. escvilentus L. A widely distributed species, sometimes a 

troublesome weed. Nut-grass. Tubers, Earth-nut, Earth or 
Ground Almond, Rush-nut, Chufa; Fr. Souchet comestible, 
Amandes de terre; edible, rich in oil of agreeable flavor for 
salad oil; roasted, a substitute for coffee. The American (c) 
C. phymatodes Muhl. is referred by some to this species, but 
its tubers are very small. 

d. C. longiis L. (C. officinalis T. Nees. ) Europe. English 
Galingale (Galangal), Sweet Cyperus. Rhizome, Cypress-root, 
tonic, stomachic, [(e) C. odoratus L. (Pycreus polystachys 
Beauv. ) of India has similar properties in a more marked de- 
gree.] 

f. C. Papyrus L. (Papyrus antiquorum Willd. ). Northeastern 
Africa to Syria. Papyrus Sedge, Papyrus, Bullrush of Egypt. 
Anciently known as Biblus, whence our word Bible. Formerly 
used as we now use paper, that word being derived from Papy- 
rus. [Similar but much smaller is the Umbrella plant 
(g) C. alternifolius L., a common house plant] 

h. C. vagindtiis R. Br. (C. textilis F. Muell.). Australia and S. 
Africa. A valuable flbre plant, used for making ropes> mats, 
etc. ^ In China (i) C. tegetum Roxb. and in Hawaii (j) C. 
laevigratus L. , Ehuawa, is cultivated for the same uses . 

636. CYPRIPEDIUM, h. Ladies -slipper. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "Venus' buskin". Perennial herbs with showy 
flowers. About 40 species, temperate and tropical regions; 11 
inU. S. 

a. C. aeaule Ait. Canada and northeastern U. S. Stemless 
Ladies' -slipper, Pink or Purple Ladies' -slipper, Camel's-foot, 
Whip-poor-will's-shoe. Other names applied indiscriminately 
to our native species, except (b), are Moccasin-flower, Indian- 
moccasin, American or Wild Valerian, Nerve-root, Noah's-ark, 
Indian-shoe, Squirrel-shoes, Venus'-shoe, Ducks, Old-goose,. 
Two-lips. 



130 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. C. arietimim K. Br. Canada and northeastern U. S. Kam's- 

head Ladies' -slipper, Ram's-head. 

c. C, cdndidiim Willd. New York to Minnesota and Missouri. 

Small White Ladies'-slipper. 

d. C. hirsutiim Mill. (C. pubescens Willd. ) . Nova Scotia south 

to Alabama and west to Nebraska and Missouri. X^How 
Ladies'-slipper, Yellow Moccasin-flower, Venus' -shoe, Venus' - 
cup, Yellow Indian-shoe, American Valerian, Nerve-root, 
Male Nervine, Yellow Noak's-ark, Yellows, Monkey-flower, 
Umbil-root, Yellow Umbil (Limbic or LTrabel); Ger. Gelb- 
frauenshuhwurz; Fr. Cvpripede jaune, Valeriane americaine. 
Rhizome and rootlets (of this and the following species); Cypri- 
pedium, U. S, P., Rhizoma cypripedii, Ladies'-slipper; anti- 
spasmodic, nervine. 

e. C. parviflorum Salisb. British America to Georgia, Missouri 

and Oregon. Small Yellow Ladies'-slipper. Synonyms and 
properties of (d), the two species being closely similar. 

f. C. retinae Walt. (C. spectabile Salisb., C. album Ait.). Nova 

Scotia to Georgia and Minnesota. Showy Ladies'-slipper, 
Female Nervine, Pink Moccasin-flower. 

637. CYRILLA, Gard. Leatherwood, etc. Cyrillaceae. 

Named for D. Cyrillo, Italian physician. Shrubs or small 
trees. Two species, southern U. S. and trojDical America. 

a. C. racemiflora Walt. Southeastern U. S. Southern Leather- 
wood, Burn-wood, Ironwood, He-Huckleberry, White or Red 
Titi. 

638. CYRT0P6dIUM, R. Br. Cyrtopodium. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "curved foot" . Fleshy-stemmed orchids, very 
showy. About 28 species, tropical America; 2 in U. S. 

639. CYRTORHYNCHA, Nutt. Buttercup. Raiiunculaceae. 

From Greek, "curved beak". Syn. Ranunculus, in part. 
Herb resembling Ranunculus. One species, central U. S. 

640. CYST6pTERIS, Bernh. Brittle Fern. Polypodiaeeae. 

From Greek, "bladder fern" , referring to inflated indusium. 
Rock ferns. About 5 species; 3 in U. S. 

a. C. fragiiis (L. ) Bernh. (P. fragile L. ). Cosmopolitan. Brit- 
tle Fern, Bottle Fern, White-oak Fern. 

641. CYTISUS, L. - Broom. - Papilioiiaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of a leguminous plant. Syn. Genista, 
Laburnum, Sarothamnus, Spartiuni, in part. Shrubs, often 
spiny. About 45 species. Old World. 

a. C. Laburnum L. ( L. anagyroides Medic. (Kew), L. vulgare 
Presl. ). Southern Europe. Laburnum, Bean-trefoil, Golden- 
chain, Golden-shower, He-Broom, False Ebonv, Ebony of the 
Alps; Ger. Goldregen, Bohnenbaum ; Fr. FauxEbenier, Cytise. 
Seeds sedative, soporiflc, narcoto-acrid, aperient. 



SCIENTIFIC AXD POPrLAR. 131 

h. C. Scoparius (L. ) Link. (Spar. Scoparium L., Sar. Scoparins 
Koch, G. Scoparia Lam. ). Northern Asia, Europe, adv. in 
U. S. Broom; Green, Scotch or Irish Broom, Hag- weed, 
Bannal, Besom; Ger. Besenkraut, Besenginster, Pfriemenkraut; 
Fr. Genet a balais. Tops; Scoparius. U. S. P., Scoparii cacu- 
n)ina, Br. ; sedative, diuretic. In Germany the flowers also, 
Flores genistae, Fl. spartii scoparii, are used. 

^42. DALIBARDA, L. - Dewdrop. - Rosaceae. 
Named for T. F. Dalibard, French botanist, 18th Century. 
A downy tufted herb. One species, northeastern U. S. and 
Canada. 

643. DAMAS6nIUM, Juss. Damasonium. Alismaceae. 

Syn. Actinocarpus, in part. Aquatic herbs. About 4 spe- 
cies; 1 in U. S. 

044. DAPHNE, L. Spurge Laurel. Thymeliaceae. 

Ancient Greek name, from the Nymph Daphne. Evergreen 
shrubs. About 40 species, Europe and Asia. 

a. D. Grliidiiim L. Southern Europe. Spurge Flax, Mezereon; 

Fr. Garou, Sainbois (Codex). See (c). 

b. D. Laiireola L. Central Europe. Spurge Laurel, Dwarf Bay, 

Copse or Wood Laurel, Lady Laurel, Fox-poison, Mezereon, 
Sturdy Lowries. See (c). 

c. D. Mezereuin L. Northern Asia and Europe, adv. in U. S. 

IVIezereon, Mysterious plant J, Dwarf Bay, Daffadowndilly*, 
Magell, Paradise plant, Spurge Flax, Spurge Olive, Wild 
Pepper; Ger. Kellerhals, Seidelbast; Fr. Mezereon, Bois gentil 
(Codex); Sp. Macereon, Torviso. Bark of all three species; 
Mezsreon. U. S. P., Mezerei cortex, Br., Cort. thymelefe v. 
coccognidii; acrid, irritant, alterative. Fruit, German Pepper, 
has been used to adulterate black pepper. 

«45. DAPHNOPSIS, Mart. & Zucc. Daphnopsis. Thymeliaceae. 

From Greek, '*Daphne-like". Syn. Daphne, in part. 
Shrubs. About 15 species, tropical America. 

■a. D. salicifolia Meissn. (Daphne salicifolia Kunth. ). Mexico. 
Leaves epispastic. 

046. DASYLIRION, Zucc. Dasylirion. Liliaceae. 

From Greek, "dense (flowered) lily". Plants Avith woody 

stem. About 19 species, Mexico and adjacent regions; 2 in 

U , b. 

^47. DASYSTOMA, Raf. False Foxglove. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Greek, "dense (bearded) mouth". Syn. Gerardia, 
Ehinanthus, in part. Rather robust herbs with showy yellow 
flowers. Six species, all of eastern N. America; 5 in U. S. 

ii. D. Pedicularia (L. ) Benth. (G. Pedicularia L. ). Canada and 
eastern L. S. Fern-leaved False Foxglove, Bushy Gerardia, 
Lousewort, American Foxglove, Fever-weed. 



132 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b, D. Tirgiiiicus (L. ) Brit. (E. Virginicus L., G. quercifolia 
Pursh, D. quercifolia Benth. ). Eastern U. S. Smooth or 
Oak-leaved False Foxglove, Golden Oak. 

64:8. DATiSCA, L. - Datisca. - Datiscaceae. 

Syn. Tricerastes, Presl. Annual herbs. Two known species, 
one in Asia, one in California. 

649. DATtJRA, L. Thorn-apple, etc. Solanaceae. 

From Ternacular, Hindustan (?). Syn. Brugmansia, in part. 
Kobust herbs with showy flowers, some tropical species shrubs. 
About 20 species; 6 in U. S. including those naturalized. 

a. D. arborea L. ( B. arborea Steud. ) . Tropical America, cult. 

for ornament in California. Brugmansia, Floribunda, Flori- 
pondaj. 

b. D. Stramonium L. Asia, now a cosmopolitan weed. Stramon- 

ium, Thorn-apple, Jamestown-weed, Jimson-weed, James- 
town Lily, Devil's-apple, Devil's-trumpet, Mad-apple, Apple 
of Peru, Stink-weed, Stink, Fire-weed, Dewtry; Ger. Stechap- 
fel, Dornapfel; Fr. Stramoine, Pomme epineuse (Codex); Sp. 
Estramonio, Toloache. Leaves; Stramonii folia, U. S. P., Br., 
Herba stramonii, Herba daturae. Seeds; Stramonii semeilr 
U. S. P., Br., Semina stramonii v. daturae; sedative anodyne, 
deliriant. 

c. D. Tatnla L. [probably only a variety of (b)]. South America, 

nat. in U. S. Purple Thorn-apple, Purple Stramonium. 
Very similar to the last and having identical properties. Seve- 
ral other species are used as narcotics, notably (d) 1). fastuosa 
L. (D. alba Nees) of India; (e) D. Metel L., Africa and 
southern Asia, and (f) D. sanguinea Ruiz et Pav. of Peru, 
from the seeds of which an intoxicating drink is prepared. 

650. DAUBENTONIA, DC. Daubentonia. Papilionaceae. 

Named for M. Daubenton, French botanist. Syn. Sesbania, 
in part. Small shrubs with quadrangular pods. About 4 spe- 
cies, sub-tropical America; 1 in U. S. 

651. DAIJCUS, L. - Carrot. - UmbeUiferae. 

The ancient Greek name. Annual or biennial herbs with 
dissected compound leaves. About 25 species; 1 in U. S. 

a. D. Carota L. Northern Asia and Europe, widely nat. and cult. 
Carrot. The wild plant is called Wild Carrot, Bee's-nest or 
Bird's-nest plant. Devil' s-plague, Dawke, Fiddle, Hill-trot, 
Lace-flower, Mirrot, Eantipole; Ger. Mohre, Gelbe Etibe; Fr. 
Carotte ( Codex ) ; Sp. Zannahoria. Fruit of wild plant, Fruc- 
tus carotae v. dauci, diuretic, emmenagogue. Moot vulnerary, 
esculent. 

652. DECODON, J. P.Gmel. (Decadon). Lythraceae. 

From Greek, * 'ten toothed" , of the calyx. Syn. Nessaea^ 
Lythrum, in part. Aquatic herb. One species. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 133 

a. D. verticillatus (L. )E11. (L. verticillatumL., N. verticillataH. 
B. K. ). Eastern tJ. S. and Canada. Swamp Loose-strife, 
Swamp Willow-herb, Wild Oleander, Peat-weed, Slink-weed. 

653. DECUMARIA, L. Decumaria. Saxifragaceae. 

From Latin, ''ten parted". Woody climber. One species, 
southeastern IT. S. 

654. DEINANDRA, Greene. Deinandra. Compositae. 

From Greek, "terrible man". Syn. Hemizonia, in part. 
Herbs. Six known species, southwestern U. S. 

655. DELABECHEA, Lindl. Bottle tree. Sterculiaceae. 

Named for Sir*H. T. De la Beche, geologist, 19th Century. 
Syn, Sterculia, in part. An Australian tree with trunk bulged 
in barrel form. One species; (a) D. riipestris Lindl. (S. 
rupestris Benth. ), Australia. 

656. DELPHINIUM, L. Larkspur. Ranunculaceae. 

Latin "dolphin-like", of the flower. Syn. Staphisagria, 
in part. Erect herbs with showy blue, red or Avhite flowers. 
About 60 species, north temperate zone; 46 in U. S. 

a. D. Ajacis L. Southern Europe and cult, in gardens. The com- 

mon Larkspur of country gardens. Properties of (c). 

b. D. Carolinidiuim Walt. (D. azureum Michx. ). Prairies of 

Central U. S. Azure, Blue, Carolina or Prairie Larkspur. 

c. D. Consolida L. Central Europe, cult, in gardens and adv. in 

U. S. Field Larkspur, Knight' s-spur. Lark- heel, Lark's-claw, 
Staggerweed, King's Consound; Ger. Rettersporn, Lerchen- 
klaue, Hornkiim nel; Fr. Pied d'alouette Leaves, flowers 
and seeds; Herba, Flores, Semen consolidae (regalis), v. 
calcitrippae; acrid, irritant, emeto-cathartic, alterative. [The 
seeds were official as Delphinium, L^ S. P. , 1870. ] 

d. I). Staphisagria L. (S. macrocarpa Spach., D. oflScinale 

W^enderoth). Mediterranean basin. Lousewort. Seeds; Staph- 
isagria, U. S. P., Staphisagriae semina, Br., Sem. staphidis 
agriae, Sem. pedicularis; Stavesacre seed; Ger. Stephanskorner, 
Stafadriansamen, Lausekoraer, Lausepfeffer, Battenpfeffer; Fr. 
Staphisaigre (Codex); Sp. Estafisagria, Albarraz; used as a 
parasiticide. 

€. D. trolliifoliiim A. Gr. California. Cow-poison. 

f. D. iirceolatum Jacq. (D. exaltatum Ait. ). Pennsylvania to Ala- 
bama, west to Nebraska, also cult, in gardens. Tall Larkspur. 
This and our other numerous species have properties of (c). 

657. DENDRIUM, Desv. 1813. Sand Myrtle. Ericaceae, 
From Greek, "treelike". Syn. Leiophyllum Pers. 1805, 

not Erhr. 1780. Shrubs. Two known species, eastern U. S. 

658. DENDROMECON, Benth. Tree Poppy. Papavcraceae. 

From Greek, ' 'tree poppy' ' . Shrubby plants. Two species, 
California. 



134 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

659. DENDr6pHYLAX, Keichb. Dendrophylax. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "tree guard". Leafless epiphytes. Two spe- 
cies, West Indies; 1 in U. S. 

660. DENTARIA, L. Toothvvort, Pepper-root. Cniciferae. 

From Latin, ''toothed", of the rootstocks. Syn. Cardamine 
(Kew), in part. Perennial herbs from scaly or toothed root- 
stocks. About 16 species, all of U. S. 

a. D. (liphylla Michx. (C. diphylla Wood). Canada and north- 

eastern U. S. Two-leaved Toothwort or Tooth-root, Pepper- 
root, Crinkle-root, Trickle. Pi,oot of this and other species,, 
antiscorbutic, resembling horseradish. 

b. D. laciuiata Muhl. Canada and eastern U. S. Cut-leaved 

Toothwort or Pepper-root, Crow-toe, Crow-foot*. 

661. DERINGA, Adans. 1763. Honewort. Umbelliferae. 

Syn. Cryptotaenia, DC. 1829. Perennial herb. One species, 
eastern U. S. 

662. DIAM6rPHA, Nutt. Diamorpha. Crassulaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'doubly anomalous' ' . Low herb. One species^ 
southeastern U. S. 

663. DIANTHERA, L. Water-willow, Acantliaceae. 

From Greek, "doubly anthered". Herbs. About 100 spe- 
cies, mostly tropical America; 5 in L^. S. 

664. DIANTHUS, L. Pink, Carnation, etc. Carjophyllaceae. 

Greek, "the flower of Zeus." Syn, Tunica, in part. Herbs, 
mostly perennial. About 200 species. Old World, 1 in boreal 
America. Several species cult, in gardens, notably, (a) 
1). Caryophyllus L., Carnation, Carnation or Clove Gilliflower, 
Clove Pink, Picotee, Grenadine, etc., (b) D. barbatus L.,, 
Sweet William, Bunch Pink, French Pink, Blooming-down ,^ 
London-pride, London-tuft, Snowflake, Sweet-John, Tolmeiner; 
(c) D. prolifer L. [T. prolifera Scop. (Kew)], Childing or 
Proliferous Pink; (d) D, pliimariiis L., Common Pink' of old 
gardens. Grass Pink. 

665. DIAPEDIUM, Konig. 1806. Diapedium. Acanthaceae. 

From Greek, "over plains" (?). Syn. Dicliptera (Kew), 
Juss.1807; Justicia, in part. Herbs. About 60 species, warmer 
regions; 4 in U. S. 

666. DIAPENSIA, L. Diapensia. Diapeiisiaceae. 

Evergreen sub-shrubs. Two species, one of Himalayas^ 
one circumpolar (northern U. S. ). 

667. DICHAET6pH0RA, Gray. Dichaetophora. Compositae. 
From Greek, "bearing two bristles". Syn. Boltonia, in part. 

A Daisy-like winter annual. One species, Texas. 

668. DICHONDRA, Forst. Dichondra. Convolvulaceae. 

From Greek, "two kerneled". Syn. Sibthorpia, in part. 
Round-leaved prostrate or creeping herbs. About 5 species, 
warm regions, 2 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 135 

669. DICKS(3nIA, L'Her. Dicksonia- Polypodiaceae, 

Named for James Dickson, English botanist, d, 1822, Syn. 
Balantium, in part. Large Ferns, tropical species often arbor- 
escent. About 50 species; 1 in U. S. 

a. D. chrysotricha Moore (B. chrysotrichum Hassk. ). Java. 
CapiUanj chaff from base of stipes is Paku-kidang or Pakoe- 
kidang, used in surgery as a styptic, see Alsophila, and Cibotium. 

670. DIC6RIA, T. & Gr. Dicoria. Compositae. 

From Greek, "two bugs", alluding to appearance of akenes. 
Herbs. Two known species, Arizona to California. 



DICRA^OCARPUS, Gray. Dicranocarpus. Compositae. 

From Greek, ' 'pitchfork fruit' '. An inconspicuous annual 
?rb. One species, Texas. 

672. DICRALUUS, Hook. f. Dicraurus. Amarauthaceae. 

Herb. One species, Texas. 

678. DICTAMNUS, L. - Dittany. - Rutaceae. 

The classical name from Mt. Dicte. Strong-scented herb 
with showy flowers. One species. 

a. D. albus L. (D. Fraxinella Pers. ). Europe. White Fraxinella, 
European or Bastard Dittany, Dittander, Garden Ginger. 
Moot; Kad. dictamni albae. Bad. fraxinellae; Ger. Weisse Dip- 
tamwurzel, Escherwurzel, Aeschenwurzel, Spechtwurzel; anti- 
spasmodic, diuretic. 

674. DICIPELLIUM, Nees. Clove-bark tree. Lauraceae. 
From Greek, "two goblets". Syn. Persea, Licaria, in part. 

Aromatic tree. One species. 

a. D. caryophyllatum Xees. (P. caryophyllata Mart.. L. Guian- 
ensis Aubl., apparently the oldest name.). Brazil. Clove 
Bark tree; Ger. Cravobaum, Nelkenzimmtbaum. Bark; Clove- 
bark, Clove Cinnamon, Cassia caryophyllata. Cortex caryophyl- 
lati; resembles cinnamon. The wood, called rose- wood, yields 
oil of Licaria or of Lign-aloes, used in perfumery. See also 
Aquilaria. 

675. DIBIPLIS, Eaf. Water Purslane. Lythraceae. 

From Greek, "twice double". Aquatic or "amphibious" 
herb. One species, U. S. Closely related to the Old World 
genus Peplis. 

676. DIERVILLA,Moench. Bush Honey-suckle. Caprifoliaoeae. 
Named for Dr. Dierville of Canada. Syn. Lonicera, in part. 

Shrubs, related to Weigela. Three species; all of U. S. 

a. D. Diervilla (L.) MacM. (L. DiervillaL., D. trifida Moench., 
D. Canadensis Willd. ) . Canada and northeastern U. S. Bush 
Honey-suckle, Gravel-weed, Life-of-man. Boot, Uaves and twiys, 
diuretic, astringent, alterative. 

677. DIGrrALIS, L. Foxglove. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Latin, (glove) "finger". Robust herbs with showy 
flowers in racemes. About 20 species, Europe and Asia. 



136 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. D. purpurea L. (D. tomentosa Link & Hoffm. ). Europe, cult, 
in gardens and adv. in U. S. Purple Foxglove, Foxglove, 
(originally Folk's-glove), Thimbles, Fairy-cap, Fairy-tingers, 
Fairy-thimbles, Fairy-bells, Dog's-finger, Finger-flower, Ladies'- 
glove, Lady-tingers, Ladies '-thimble. Pop-dock, Flap-dock, 
Flop-dock, Lion"s-mouth, Eabbit's-flower, Cottagers, Throat- 
wort, Scotch Mercury; Her. Fingerhut; Fr. Digitale (Codex), 
Digitale Pourpree, Grande Digitale; Sp. Dedalera. Leaves; 
Digitalis, U. S. P., Digitalis Folia, Br., Folia digitalis, P. G., 
Herba digitalis; cardiac sedative, diuretic. 

678. Dl6CLEA, H. B. K. Dioclea. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "troublesome". Shrubs or climbers. About 
25 species, mostly of tropical America, two in Asia; 1 in U. S. 

679. DIONAEA, Ellis. Venus' Flytrap. Sarraceniaceae. 

Dedicated to Dione of Greek mythology. Herb with sen- 
sitive foliage. One species, found only in southern U. S. 

a. D. niuscipula Ellis (D. sensitiva Salisb. ). Pine barrens of N. 
and S. Carolina. Venus' Flytrap; Ger. Venus die Fliegen- 
fangerin; Fr. Attrappe-niouche. An insectivorous plant. 

680. DIOSCOREA, L. - Yam. - Dioscoreaceae. 

Named for ancient Greek naturalist Dioscorides. Twining 
vines from thick rootstocks. About 160 species, mostly tropi- 
cal; 1 in U. S. 

Among the species cultivated for their esculent fleshy root- 
stocks are (a) D, aculeata L., India to Oceanica, the Kaawi 
Yam; (b) D. alata L., India and South Sea Islands, the Uvi 
Yam, White Negro Yam( weighing sometimes 100 pounds) ;(c) 
1). glabra Roxb. (D. Batatas, Decaisne), India and China, 
the Chinese Yam; (d) D. Japonica Thunb., Japan, where it 
is much cultivated; (e) 1). sativa L., widely distributed; Com- 
mon Y'^am, inferior to the above. 

f. D. Yillosa L. Ontario to Florida and west to Texas and Minne- 
sota. Wild Yam, Colic-root, Rheumatism-root, Devil' s-bones. 
Rhizome diaphoretic, expectorant, uterine tonic. [The con- 
torted root-stocks known as False Wild Y''am, according to 
King's Dispensatory (1899) are from D, villosa var. glabra]. 

681. DIOSPYKOS, L. Ebony, Date Plum. Ebenaceae. 
From Greek, ' 'Zeus' wheat' ' , so named by Pliny. Trees or 

shrubs. About 160 species, especially of Asia; 2 in U. S. 

a. D. Ebenuin Koenig. Ceylon. Ebony. This species yields the 

best ebony, but the wood of many other species, in India, 
Africa, Mauritius and Madagascar, is almost equally hard and 
black. 

b. 1). Kaki L. f. China And Japan. Japanese Persimmon or 

Date Plum. The best native fruit of Japan. 

c. D. Lotus L. Eastern Asia. Common Date Plum, Lotus tree. 

Fruit edible but small. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 137 

V'd. D. obtusifolia Willd, Mexico. Zapote prieto, Zapote negro; 
Bark and leaves astringent, tonic. 

e. D. Virginiana L. Khode Island to Florida and west to Texas 
and Kansas. Common Persimmon (Parsimon), Seeded Plum, 
Winter Plum, Possum-wood, Lotus-tree, Jove's-fruit, North 
American Ebony; Ger. Amerikanische Dattelpfiaume; Fr. 
Plaqueminier de Virginie. Fruit, Virginian Date-plum|, 
esculent. Unripe fruit a powerful astringent. In India (f ) D. 
Embryopteris Pers., called Uaub. is also used as an astringent. 

682. DIPHOLIS, DC. .Bully-tree*. Sapotaceae. 

From Greek, "double scale". Syn. Bumelia, in part. 
Shrubs or trees. About 3 species, West Indies; 1 in S. Florida. 

683. DIPHYLLEIA, Michx. Umbrella-leaf. Berberidaceae. 

From Greek, "double leaf. Herbs resembling Podo- 
phyllum, with cymose flowers. Two species, one of Japan, 
one of soutlieastern U. S. 

684. DIPLACUS, Nutt. Diplacus. Serophiilariaceae. 

Syn. Mimulus, in part. Glutinous evergreen sub-shrubs 
with solitary showy flowers, New World; 10 in U. S. 

686. DIPLOTAXIS, DC. Kocket, Crossweed. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, "double ranked", of the seeds. Syn. Sisym- 
brium, Brassica, in part. Herbs resembling Mustard. About 
30 species. Old W^orld; 2 adv. in U. S. 

a. D. muralis (L. ) DC. (S. murale L. ). Europe, adv. in U. S. 
Sand Kocket, Cross-weed, Flix-weed. 

686. DIPSACUS, L. . Teasel. . Dipsaceae. 

The Greek name, "thirst plant". Kobust herbs with flowers 
in dense spinv heads. About 15 species. Old World; 2 nat. in 
U. S. 

a. D. Fulloniim L. Europe; adv. in U. S. Probably only a 

variety of (b). Fuller's Teasel, Fuller's Thistle, FuUer's-weed, 
Draper's Teasel, Clothier's-brush, with other synonyms of (b). 
Heads used to raise a "nap" in cloth. 

b. D. sy^vestris Mill. (D. Fullonum L. in part). Europe and 

northern Asia, nat. in U. S. Teasel; Wild, Common or Card 
Teasel, Card Thistle, Indian Thistle, Church-brooms, Gypsy- 
combs, Hutton-weed, Prickly-bark, Pricky-bark, Shepherd' s- 
stafi". Tassel, Venus' -bath, Venus'-cup, Wood-brooms. Moot 
diuretic, diaphoretic, stomachic. 

687. DIPTEROCARPUS, Gaertn. Dipterocarpaceae. 

From Greek, "two- winged fruit". Resinous trees with 
leathery leaves. About 45 species, south eastern Asia and East 
Indies. 

a. D, aldtus Roxb., (b) D. incauus Roxb. (D. costatus Gaertn.), 
(c) D. turbin^tus Gaertn. (D. laevis Hamilton), and other 
species of India and the East Indies, yield the oleoresin called 
Gurjun balsam or Wood oil, Balsamum ptcrocarpi, Balsamum 
Gurjun (s. gurjunicum), resembling copaiba, especially useful 
in treating leprosy. 



138 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

688. DIPTERYX, Schreb. 1791. Tonka Bean. Papilioiiaceae.. 

From Greek, "two winged". Syn. Coumarouna Aubl. 1775,, 
in part. Trees. About 10 species, tropical America. 

a. D. odordta Willd. (Coumarouna odorata Aublet). Guiana. 

Seeds; Semen tonco, Faba tonco; Tonka-bean, Tonga-:}: or 
Tonquin-J bean, Coumarouraa-bean, Snuff-bean; Ger. Tonka- 
bohneu; Fr. Tonka [Feve] (Codex); Sp. Haba tonka; rich in 
couraarin, used for flavoring and in perfumery. 

b. D. oppositifolia Willd. (Coumarouna oppositifolia Aublet). 

Cayenne. English Tonka Bean. Seeds smaller and less frag- 
rant than those of (a). 

689. DIRCA, L. Leatherwood. Thymeliaoeae. 

Name from a fountain in Thebes. Shrubs with fibrous bark. 
Two species, both of U. S. 

a. D. pahistris L. Ontario to Florida and west to Minnesota. 
Leather- wood. Leather-bush, Moose-wood, Swamp- wood, Leav-- 
er-wood. Lever-wood, American ]\Iezereon, Rope-bark, Wickup, 
Wicopy. Bark irritant, emetic. 

690. DISPORUM, Salisb. 1812. Disporum. Couyallariaeeae. 

From Greek, ''two ovuled". Syn. Prosartes, Don 1840; 
Streptopus, in part. Perennial herbs. About. 15 species, N. 
America and Asia; 8 in V. S. , mostly western. 

691. DISTASIS, DC. - Distasis. - Compositae. 

Svn. Chaetopappa, in part. Herb. One species, southwest- 
ern U. S. 

692. DITAXIS, Vahl. Ditaxis. Eupliorbiaeeae. 

From Greek, "two ranked", of the stamens. Syn. Aphora, 
Argyrothamnia, in part. Perennial herbs. About 20 species, 
temperate and tropical regions; 9 in U. S. 

698. DODECATHEON, L. Shooting-star, etc. Primiilaceae. 

From Greek, "twelve gods". An old Greek plant-name. 
Scapose perennial herbs. About 18 species, N. America and 
northeastern Asia; 15 in L^. S., mostly western. 

a. D. Meadia L. Pennsylvania to Georgia and west to Texas and 
Manitoba. Shooting-star, American Cowslip, Mosquito-bells, 
Pride of Ohio, .Indian-chief, Johnny- jump. Rooster-heads. 

694. DODONAEA, L. Dodonaea. Sapindaceae. 

Trees or shrubs. About 45 species, tropical regions, es- 
pecially of Australia; 1 in U. S. 

695. DOELLINGERIA, Nees. White Aster. Compositae. 

Named for Th. Dollinger, botanical explorer. Syn. Diplo- 
pappus. Aster, in part. Perennial herbs resembling Aster. 
Four species, all of U. S. 

696. DONDIA, Adans. 1763. Bliie, Sea-Blite. Chenopodiaceae. 

Named for J. Dondi, Italian naturalist, 17th Century. Syn. 
Suaeda, Forsk. 1775; Salsola, Chenopodium, in part. Thick- 
leaved herbs or low shrubs. About 60 species, widely distri- 
buted; 11 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 139 

697. DOREMA, D. Don. Ammoniac plant. Umbelliferae. 

From Cxreek, *'gift". Syn. Peucedanum, in part. Herbs. 
About 5 species, west-central Asia. 

a. D. Ammoiiiaeum Don. (P. Ammoniacum H. Br.). Persia. 

Gum-7^esi)tous exudate of this and perhaps other species; Am- 
moniacum, U. S. P., Br.; Gummi-resina ammoniacum, Gum 
Ammoniac; Ger. Ammoniak-gummi; Fr. Gomme ammoniaque 
(Codex); stimulant, expectorant, antispasmodic, rubefacient. 

b. D. Aiiclieri Bois. Western Persia. Zuh of the Kurds, Yields 

also gum ammoniac. [From (c) 1), robiistum Loftus, a 
different gum is produced]. 

698. DORSTENIA, L. Contrayerva. Artocarpaceae. 

Named for T. Dorsten, German botanist, d. 1552. Herbs. 
About 40 species, tropical America. 

a. D. Brasilieiisis Lam. West Indies, Central America, south to 
Peru; (b) 1). Contrayerva L. Brazil. Boot of both is known 
as Contrayerva (i. e. antidotal remedy); Ger. Bezoarwurzel, 
Giftwurzel; Fr. Contrayerve; stimulant tonic, antidote to snake 
poison; (c) D. Drakena L., (d) 1). Cayapia Veil. (D. 
opifera Mart. ) and (e) 1). tubicJiia R. & P., yield similar 
roots. 

699. DORYPHORA, Endl. Sassafras tree. Moiiimiaceae. 

From Greek, "spice bearing". Syn. Doratophora, Lem. 
An aromatic tree. One species, Australia. See Atherosperma. 

a. D. Sassafras Endl. Australia. Sassafras tree. Leaves and 
6a?7>; have anise- like odor, carminative. 

700. pOUGLASIA, Lindl. Douglasia. Primiilaceae. 

Named for David Douglas, botanical explorer. Herbs. 
About 5 species, one in Europe; 4 in northwestern U. S. 

701. DOVYALIS, E. Meyer. Kei Apple. Bixaceae. 
Syn. Aberia, in part. Shrubs or trees. About 10 species, 

southern and western Africa. 

a. D. Caffra (Harv. & Sond.) Lyons (Aberia Caffra Harv. & Sond. ). 
Southern Africa. Kei Apple, Kai Apple. Fruit acid, used 
for pickles and preserves. 

702. DRABA, L. Whitlow-grass, Nailwort. Crueiferae. 

The Greek name of a Lepidium. Tufted herbs. About 150 
species, north temperate and arctic regions and S. America; 4ii 
in U. S. See Erophila. 

708. DRACAENA, L. (Drakaina). Dragon tree. Liliaceae. 
Shrubby or arborescent plants. Syn. Draco, in part. About 
50 species, warmer regions. Old World. 

a. D. Draco L. (Draco dragonalis Crantz). Canary Islands. 
Dragon Tree. Exudate is a, variety of Dragon's-blood, [(b) 
D. Ombet Kotschy, of Socotra, yields a similar product, brought 
to Arabia uuder the name of Katir.] 



140 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

704. DRACOCEPHALUM, L. Dragon head. Labiatae. 
From Greek, * 'dragon-head". Perennial herbs. About 35 

species, northern hemisphere; 1 in U. S. 

705. DRAPERIA, Torr. Draperia. Hydrophyllaeeae. 

Named for Prof. John William Draper of Nevr York. Syn. 
Nama, in part. Low perennial herb. One species, California. 

706. DRIMYS, Forst.^ Winter's-bark. Magiioliaceae. 

Syn. Tasmannia, Wintera, in part. Trees. About 12 species, 
S. America and Australasia. 

a. D. Winteri Forst. HVintera aromatica Murray). The species is 
now regarded as including D. Mexicana Sesse, D. Chilensis 
DC. and D. Granatensis L. f. South America. Win- 
ter's Bark, Magellan Canella, Winter's Cinnamon, Pep- 
per-tree*. Bark', Cortex winteranus, Cort. magellanicus v. 
antiscorbuticus; Ger. Echte Winterrinde, Winterszimmt; F. 
Ecorce de Winter (Codex), Canella de Magellan; Sp. Corteza 
Winterana; aromatic, stimulant. [One variety of Coto bark 
has been traced to D. Granatensis, which is the variety official 
as Winter s bark in the French Codex. The Australian (b) 
D. axillaris Forst. and (c) D, aromatica (R. Br.) F. Muell. 
(T. aromatica R. Br., D. lanceolata Baill. ) have spicy barks. 
The fruit of the latter is used like pepper.] 

707. DROSERA, L. - Sundew. - Droseraceae. 

From Greek, "dewey". Insectivorous bog herbs. About 
110 species, especially abundant in Australia; 7 in U. S. 

a. D. rotiiiidifolia L. Europe, Asia and N. America, south to 
Florida and California. Round leaved Sundew, Common Sun- 
dew, Dew-plant*, Eye-bright*, Lustwort, Moor-grass, Moor- 
wort, Red-rot, Rosa-solis, Ros-sojis, Youthwort; Ger. Sonnen- 
thau, Edler Wiederthon, Sinnthau, Yungfernbliithe; Fr. 
Rosee du Soleil. Plant, Herba rorellae, H. droserae v. roris 
solis; expectorant, diuretic. [(b)l). loiigifolia L. (D. Anglica 
Huds. ), Europe and U. S., Long-leaved Sundew, has been also 
employed. ] 

708. DRYAS, L. Mountain Avens. Rosaceae. 
From Latin, * Vood-nymph" . Low alpine or arctic sub- 
shrubs. Three species, circumpolar, (U. S.j. [(a)D. octope- 
tala L. is sometimes called AVood Betony.] 

709. DRYMARIA, Willd. Drymaria. Caryopliyllaceae. 

Herbs. About 35 species, mostly of warmer regions of New 
World; 6 in U. S. 

710. DRYOBALANOPS, Gaertn. - Dipteroearpaceae. 

From Greek, "tree", "acorn" and "appearance". A stately 
tree. One species, East Indies. 

a. D. aromatica Gaertn. (D. Camphora Coleb. ). Sumatra and 
Borneo. Source of Sumatra or Borneo Camphor, also of the 
Borneo oil of Camphor. 



L^ 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 141 

711. DRYOPETALON, Gray. (Dryopetalum). Cruciferae. 
Herb. One species, New Mexico. 

712. DRY6pTERIS, Adans. 1763. Shield Fern. Polypodiaceae. 

From Greek, ''oak fern", alluding to forest habitat. Syn. 
Aspidium Swz. 1800; Polystichum, Nephrodium, Acrostichumf,. 
Polypodiumf, in part. About 350 species; 27 in U. S. 

a. D. acrostichoides (Michx.) Kze. (N. acrostichoides Michx., 
Asp. acrostichoides Swz.). Canada and eastern U. S. Christ- 
mas Fern, Holly Fern. 

y^.B, Filix-Mas (L.) Schott (Polypodium Filix-Mas, L.,Asp. 
Filix-Mas, Swz., Polystichum Filix-Mas, Koth. ). Almost cos- 
mopolitan (northern U. S. ). Male Fern, Male Shield-fern, 
Basket Fern, Bear's-paw root. Knotty Brake, Sweet Brake; 
Ger. Wurmfarn, Waldfarn, Johanniswurzel; Fr. Fougere male 
(Codex); Sp.Helecho macho. Rhizome of this and of (c); 
Aspidium, U. S. P., Filix-Mas, Br., Rhizoma filicis, Ead. 
filicis (maris) ; anthelmintic, taenicide. 

c. D. niarginalis (L. ) A. Gray (Polypodium marginale L., Asp. 

marginale Swz. , IST. marginale Michx.). British America, 
south to Alabama and Arkansas. Evergreen Wood-fern, Mar- 
ginal-fruited Shield- fern^. Properties of (b). 

d. D. spinulosa (Retz. ) Kze. (Polypodium spinulosum Retz.,. 

Asp. spinulosum Swz.). Northern Europe, Asia and N. Ame- 
rica. Common Wood-fern. 

e. D. Thelypteris (L.) A. Gray (Acros. Thelypteris L., Asp. 

Thelypteris Swz. ). Europe, Asia and N. America (eastern 
U. S. ). Marsh Shield-fern, Fragrant Meadow-fern, Quill Fern,. 
Female Fern*; Marsh, Meadow or Swamp Fern. 

713. DRYPETES, Vahl. Drypetes. Euphorbiaceae. 

Syn. Xylosma, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 8 species, 
warmer regions of New World; 3 in U. S. 

a. D. crocea Poit. (X. nitidum Gray). West Indies to Florida 
and S. America. Guiana Plum, White- woodr. 

714. DUBOiSIA, R. Br. Pituri, etc. Solanaceae. 

Named for F. N. A. Dubois, French botanist, d. 1824. 
Shrubs. About 3 species, Australia and adjacent islands. 

a. D. Hopwoodii F. Muell. Australia. Pituri ( Pitury, Pitchuri, 

Pedgery, Bedgery). Leaves contain an alkaloid, piturirje, 
different in action from duboisine. 

b. 1). myoporoides R. Br. Eastern Australia and New Caledonia. 

Corkwood Elm, Orungurabie, Ngmoo, Duboisia. Leaves con- 
tain a mydriatic alkaloid, duboisine (hyoscyamine. ) 

715. DUCHESNEA, J. E. Sm. Mock Strawberry. Rosaceae. 
Named for A. N. Duchesne, French botanist. Syn. Fragariar 

in part. Perennial herbs resembling Fragaria but with insipid 
fruit. Two species, southern Asia; 1 nat. in U. S. , (a) D. 
Indica (Andr. ) Focke, called also Indian or Yellow Straw- 
berry. 



142 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

716. DULACIA, Veil. 1825. Muira-puama. Olacaceae. 
Syn. Liriosma, Poepp & Endl. 1842. Shrubs and small 
trees. About 12 species, S. America. 

a. D, ovata (Miers) Lyons (Liriosma ovata Miers. ). Brazil. 
Muira-puama. A tree with fragrant wood. Root aphrodisiac. 

717. DUPATYA, Veil. 1825. Pipewort. Eriocaulaceae. 

Named for M. Dupaty. Syn. Paepalanthus, Mart. 1830. 
Herbs. About 215 species, mostlv of tropical America; 1 in 

U. S. 

718. DURANTA, L. - Duranta. - Yerbenaceae. 

Named for Castor Durantes, botanical writer of 16th Century. 
Herbs, often thorny. About 8 species, mostly of America; 1 
in U. S. 

719. DURIO, Adans. - Durian. - Sterculiaceae. 

From the vernacular name. Trees. About 7 species, Kast 
Indies. 

a. D. zibethinns Murr. (D. stercoraceus Noronha). East Indies. 
Durian, Fruit esculent, delicious in flavor but of intolerable 
odor. 

720. DYS6dIA, Cav. (Dyssodia). Fetid Marigold. Coiiiposilae. 

From Greek, "ill smelling". Syn. Tagetes, Boebera, in 
part. Strong-smelling herbs with small flower-heads. About 
15 species, mostly of Mexico; 3 in U. S. 

u. D. papposa (Vent.) A. S. Hitchcock (T. papposa Vent., B. 
chrysanthemoides Willd. ). Ohio to Nebraska, south to 
Mexico. Prairie-dog weed. Fetid Marigold, False Dog-fennel. 

721. EASTWO^DIA, Brandegee. Eastwoodia. Coiupositae. 
Herbs. One species in U. S. 

722. EATONELLA, Gray. Eatonella. Compositae. 

Named for Prof. D. C. Eaton, American botanist. Floccose 
woolly annual. One species, California. 

723. ECASTAPHYLLUM, P.Br. Ecastaphyllum Papilionaceae. 

Shrubs. About 7 species, Africa and tropical America; 1 in 
U. S. 

724. ECB ALLIUM, A. Rich. (Ecbalium). Cuciirbitaceae. 

From Greek, "squirting". Syn. Momordica, in part. 
Herbaceous vine. One species. 

ii. E. Elaterium (L. ) A. Rich. (M. Elaterium L., E. officinale 
Nees, E. agreste Reich., E. cordifolium Moench). Southern 
Europe. Squirting Cucumber, Wild Balsam-apple, Wild Cu- 
cumber; Ger. Eselsgurke, Springgurke, Eselskiirbiss, Spritz- 
gurke; Fr. Concombre sauvage (Codex) Concombre purgatif 
d' ane; Sp. Coharabrilla amargo. Fruit; Ecballii fructus, Br., 
Cucumis asininus, v. agrestis; Purgative, source of Elaterinum, 
U. S. P., Br., Elaterin, a crystallizable neutral principle. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 143 

726. ECHINOCACTUS, Link & Otto. Echinocactus. Cactaceae. 
From Greek, "hedgehog Cactus". About 200 species, warm 
drj regions of Xew World; 25 in U. S. 

726. ECHINOCEREUS, Engelm. Echinocereus. Cactaceae. 
From Greek, "hedgehog Cereus''. About 45 species, warm 

and dry regions of New World; 29 in U. S. 

727. ECHIN6dORUS, Eich. Bur-head. Alismaceae. 

Syn. Sagittaria, Alisma, in part. Aquatic or marsh herbs. 
About 15 species, mostly American; 3 in U. S. 

728. ECHIN6pANAX, Dec. & PI. Devil's-club. Araliaeeae. 

From Greek, "hedgehog Panax". Syn. Fatsia, in part. 
A prickly shrub. One species, northwestern U. S. 

729. ECHINOPEPON, Xaud. Echinopepon. Cuciirbitaceae. 

From Greek, "hedgehog Melon". Syn. Echinocystis, in 
part. Herbaceous vines, warmer regions N. America; 2 in 
U. S. 

730. ECHITES, P. Br. Savannah-flower, etc. Apocynaceae. 

Syn. Prestonia, in part. Shrubby climbers, many ornamen- 
tal. About 100 species, tropical America; 4 in U. S. 

a. E. acuminata R. & Pa v. S. America. Cundurango de platano. 

Bark alterative. 

b. E. hirsuta R. & Pa v. [Prestonia hirsuta Muell (Kew)]. 

South America. Cundurango de paloma. Bark alterative. 

731. ECHIUM, L. Viper's Bugloss, etc. Boraarinaceae. 

From Greek, "viper". Hairy herbs with rather showy blue 
flowers. About 30 species. Old World. 

a. E. viilgare L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Viper's Buglos?, 
Blue-weed, Blue Thistle, Blue-devils, Blue-stem, Blue Cat's- 
tail, Viper' s-grass, Vipers-herb, Snake-flower, Adderswort; 
Ger. Xatterkopf ; Fr. Viperine. Plant diuretic, expectorant. 

732. ECLIFTA, L. - Eclipta. - Compositae. 

From Greek, "wanting" (a pappus). Syn. Verbesina, in 
part. Inconspicuous herbs with small heads of whitish flowers. 
About 5 species, tropical; 1 nat. in U. S. 

733. EDWINIA, Heller. Edwinia. Saxifragaceae. 

Syn. Jamesia, T. & Gr. Low shrub. One species in south- 
central U. S. 

734. EHRETIA, L. - Ehretia. - Boragiiiaceae. 

Named for G. D. Ehret, botanical painter, 18th Century. 
Trees or shrubs. About 50 species, mostly tropical; 1 in U. S. 

735. ELAEAGKUS, L. Silver-berry. Elaeagrnaceae. 

From Greek, "sacred olive" . Shrubs or trees. About 20 
species, Europe, Asia, Australia and N. America; 1 in U. S. 

a. E. argeiitea Pursh. British America, south to Minnesota and 
Utah. Silver-berry. Fruit edible, (b) E. liortensis Bibers., 
Southern Europe to China, Trebizonde Date, and (c) E. 
iinibelliitus Thunb., Japan, yield also edible fruit. 



144 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

736. ELAEIS, Jacq. - Oil Palm. - Sabalaceae. 

Greek name of Olive tree. Low palms. About 6 species, 
mostly of S. America, one African. 

a. E. Giiineensis Jacq. Western Africa, cult, in Brazil. Oil 
Palm, African Oil-palm. Fruit, source of palm oil, largely used 
for making soap. 

737. ELAPH(3MYCES, Fries. Hart's Truffle. Tiiberaceae. 

From Greek, "hart fungus". Syn. Lycoperdonf, Sclero- 
derma, in part. Underground fungi, resembling pufi-balls. 

a. E. ceryinum ( L. ) Lyons ( L. cervinum L. , S. cervinum Pers. , 
E. gran ulatus Fries). Europe. Hart's Truffle, Hart's-balls, 
Deer-balls, Rut-of-harts, Lycoperdon nuts, Puff-ballj; Ger. 
Hirschbrunst, Hii-sch truffle ; Fr. TrufFede cerf. Fungus, Fun- 
gus (Boletus) cervinus, formerly reputed aphrodisiac. 

738. ELAPHRIUM, Jacq. Mexican Elemi. Burseraceae. 

Syn. Bursera (Kew), in part. Trees or shrubs, tropical 
America. 

a. E. elemiferum Royle(B. elemifera J. Hook. ). Mexico. Resin- 
ous exudate, Mexican Copal, Mexican Elemi. See Canarium. 

739. ELATINE, L. Waterwort, Mud Purslane. Elatinaceae. 

Greek plant name, meaning "fir like". Small herbs with 
minute flowers. About 9 species, temperate and warm regions; 
4 in U. S. 

740. ELATINOiDES,Wettst.l891.Toad-flax.Scrophulariaceae, 
From Greek, "resembling Elatine". Syn. Elatine, Moench 

1794, not L. 1753; Antirrhinum, Linaria, in part. Annual 
herbs. About 25 species, Old World. 

a. E. Elatine (L.) Wettst. (A. Elatine L., L. Elatine Mill.). 

Asia and Europe, nat. in U. S. Sharp-pointed Fluellin or 
Toad-flax, Canker-root, Cancerwort. 

b. E. spuria (L. ) Wettst. (A. spuriutn L., L. spuria Mill.). 

Eound-leaved Toad-flax, Cancerwort, Female Fluellin. 

741. ELEPHAXTOPUS, L. Elephant' s-foot. Compositae. 

From Greek, "elephant' s-foot" or "ivory foot". Perennial 
herbs. About 15 species; 3 in U. S. 

a. E. tomentosiis L. Southeastern U. S. Tobacco- weed, Devil' s- 
grandmother. 

742. ELETTARIA, Maton 1811. Cardamom. Zingiberaceae. 

Syn. Cardamomum Salisb. 1812 (Noronha, 1790); Amomum, 
Alpinia, Matonia, Reanalmia, in part. Herbs from a thick 
rhizome. About 10 species, East Indies, especially Java. 

a. E. repeus (Sonn. )Baill. (Am. repens Sonnerat, E. Cardamomum, 
Maton, (Kew), Alp. Cardamomum Roxb. Am. Cardamomum 
White, not Am. Cardamon L., M. Cardamomum Smith, R. 
Cardamomum Roscoe). Hindustan. Fruit; Cardamomum, 
LT. S. P., Cardamomi semina Br. , Fructus (semen) cardamomi 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 145 

(minoris), Cardamom seed, Cardamom-fruits, commercially di- 
vided into "shorts", "short-longs", "mediums" and "longs",' 
also distinguished as Malabar, Aleppy and Madras cardamoms; 
Gcr. Kardamom, Kleiner Kardamom; Fr. Cardamome du 
Malabar, [petit et moyen] (Codex); Sp. Cardamomo menor; 
aromatic, carminative, [(b) E. major Smith, Ceylon, perhaps 
only a variety of (a), yields the Ceylon or long cardamoms; Fr. 
Cardamome de Ceylan, Grand Cardamome (Codex)]. See 
Amomum. 

743. ELLi6tTIA, Muhl. Elliottia. Ericaceae. 
Named for Stephen Elliott, American botanist. Shrubs. 

Three known species, eastern Asia and N. America; 1 in south- 
eastern U. S. 

744. EMBELIA, Burm. 1768. Embelia. Myrsinaceae. 

Syn. Ribesioides, L. 1744, Samara, L. 1771, not Sw. 1788. 
Shrubs. About 20 species, tropical Asia and Africa. 

a. E. Ribes Burm. (S. Eibes, Benth &Hook. ). India. Embelia. 
Fruit highly aromatic, alterative, anthelmintic, adulterant of 
black pepper. 

745. EMMENANTHE, Benth. Emmenanthe. Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'abiding flower' ' . Annual herbs with yellow 
or^yellowish flowers. About 7 species, California and Nevada. 

746. EM6rYA, Torr. Emory a. Loganiaceae. 

Named for Gen. W. H. Emory (Mexican Boundary Survey). 
Shrubs with fragrant flowers. One species, Texas. 

747. iEmPETRUM, L. Crow-berry. Empetraceae. 

From Greek, ' 'rock plant' ' . Sub-shrubs. Two species, one 
in high northern latitudes, the other of S. America; 1 in U. S. 

a. E. nigrum L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, south 
to New England, Michigan and California. Black Crow-berry, 
Heath-berry, Heath, Black-berried Heath, Monox Heather, 
Crake-berry, Curlew-berry, Crow-pea, Wire Ling. Berries 
edible, used for dyeing. 

748. ENCELIA, Adans. - Encelia. - Compositae. 
Named for Christopher Encel. Herbs or undershrubs with 

rather showy yellow flowers. About 25 species, Mexico and 
adjacent regions; 11 in U. S. 

749. ENCEPHALARTOS, Lehm. Kafir-bread. Cycadaceae. 

From Greek, "bread pith". Palm-like plants with short 
cylindrical or spherical trunks. About 20 species. South 
Africa. 

a. E. Ciiflfer Miq. (E. Cycadis Sweet). South Africa. Hottentot 
Breadfruit, Kafir Bread. Farinaceous pith esculent. 

750. ENGELMANNIA, T. & Gr. Engelmannia. Compositae. 

Named for Dr. Geo. Engelmann, botanist, St. Louis. Peren- 
nial herb. One species, southern U. S. and Mexico. 



146 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

751. ENTADA, Adans. 1763. Sea Bean. Mimosaceae. 

Syn. Gigalobium P. Br. 1756; Mimosa, in part. Shrubby 
climbers. About 12 species, mostly of Africa and tropical 
Americfi 

a. E. scandens (L. ) Benth. (M. scandensL. ). East and West 
Indies. Sea Bean, Gogo (Philippines), Gandoo (Java), Faba 
marina. Plant acrid, containing saponin. 

762. EPHEDRA, L. « Joint Fir. - Gnetaceae. 

From Greek, ''upon a seat". Shrubs, almost leafless. 
About 25 species, temperate regions; 7 in U. S. 

a. E. antisyphilitica C. A. Meyer. Joint Fir, Mountain Rush, 
Shrubby Horsetail. The 6mncAes of this and other species of 
the western U. S. knoAvn as Teamster's Tea. Astringent, 
antisyphilitic. [From a Japanese species, perhaps (b) E. 
inonosperina S. G. Gmel. (E. monostachya Turcz. ), is procur- 
ed a mydriatic alkaloid ephedrine.'] , 

753. EPIDENDRUM, L. Tree-orchis. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "upon a tree", i. e. epiphytic. Epiphytes 
with a tuberous or creeping rhizome. More than 300 species, 
chiefly of S. America; 8 in U. S. 

754. EPIGAEA, L. Trailing Arbutus. Ericaceae. 
From Greek, "trailing" . Evergreen prostrate shrubs. Two 

species, one in Japan, one in U. S. 

a. E. repeiiS L. Florida to Michigan and northward. Trailing 
Arbutus, Gravel-plant, May-flower, Shad-flower, Ground 
Laurel, Mountain Pink, Winter Pink, Crocus (N, Carolina). 
Leaves astringent, diuretic, like those of Uva Ursi. 

755. EPIL6bIUM, L. Willow-herb. Onagraceae. 

From Greek, "upon a pod". Herbs, sometimes shrubby. 
About 65 species, especially of temperate zones; 40 in U. S. 

a, E. llirsiituni L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Great or Hairy Willow- 

herb, Codlins-and-cream (so called from its acidulous odor). 
Fiddle-grass, Apple-pie, Cherry-pie, Gooseberry-pie. 

b. E. paliistre L. Europe, Asia and N. America. Marsh or 

Swamp Willow-herb, Wickup. See Chamaenerion. 

756. EPIPACTIS, Adans. Heleborine. Orchidaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Serapias, in part. Herbs 
with leafy stem and racemose flowers. About 10 species; 2 in 
U. S. 

a. E. viridiflora (HofFm.) Eeichb. (S. viridiflora HofTm. E. 
Helleborine Gray, not L. ). Europe, and in eastern U. S. 
(rare). Helleborine, Bastard Hellebore, names given also to 
the European (b) E. lateriflora L., which this resembles. 

757. EPIPREMNUM, Schott. (Tonga). Araceae. 
Syn. Rhaphidophora, in part. Shrubby climbers with aerial 

roots. About 8 species. East Indies to Polynesia. 



SCIENTIFIO AND POPULAR. 147 

«. E. mirilbile Schott. (R Vitiensis Schott. ). Fiji Islandt. Said 
to be one of the constituents of the Fiji drug called Tonga. 

758. EQUISETUM, L. Horsetail, etc. Equisetaceae. 

Ancient Latin name, "horse bristle", or ''equal bristled". 
Plants of a primitive type. About 25 species; 14 in U. S. 

a. E. arvense L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, south 
to Virginia and California. Field Plorsetail, Bottle-brush, 
Cat's-tail, Horse-pipe; Ger. Kleiner Schachtelhalm, Zinnkraut, 
Scheuerkraut, Dubock, Pferdschwanz, Plant, H. equiseti 
(minoris), diuretic. 

h. E. hyemiile L. Europe, Asia and N. America, including U. S. 
Common Scouring-rush. The following names apply to this 
and other rough species; Dutch Rush, Gun-bright, Horse-pipe, 
Pewterwort, Polishing Rush, Rough Horsetail, Shave-grass; 
Ger. Tischlerschachtelhalm, Polir-schachtelhalm. Stems, H. 
equeseti majoris, diuretic. ,j 

€. E. paliistre L. Europe and northern N. America, south to New- 
York and Arizona. IMarsh Horsetail, Cat- whistles. Marsh 
Reed, Paddock-prpes, Snake-pipes Toad-pipes, Tad-pipes, the 
latter names also applied to other species. 

759. ERANTHIS, SaKsb. Winter Aconite. Rammciilaceae. 

From Greek, "flower of spring" . Syn. Cammarum, Helle- 
borus, in part. Herbs from tuberous rootstocks. About 5 
species, Europe and Asia. 

a. E. hyeinalis ( L. ) Salisb. (H. hyemalis L., C. hyemale (L.) 
Greene, Heller's catalogue). Europe, cult, and adv. in U. S. 
Winter Aconite, Winter Hellebore, Christmas-flower, Wolf's- 
bane. 

7(iO. ERECHTITES, Raf. Fire- weed. Compositae. 

Ancient Greek name of groundsel, "rending". Syn. Senecio, 
in part. Herbs. About 12 species, America and Australasia; 
1 in U. S. 

a. E. liieracifolia (L.) Raf. (S. hieracifolius L. ). British Amer- 
ica to Nebraska, Louisiana and Mexico, also S. America. 
Fire-weed, Pilewort. Herb, emollient, astringent. 

761. EREMIASTRUM, Gray. Eremiastrum. Compositae. 

From Greek, "desert Aster". Small winter annuals. Two 
species, Arizona to California. 

762. EREMINULA, Greene. Ererainula. Compositae. 

Syn. Dimeresia, Gray. Herb. One species in Oregon. 

763. EREM0CARPU8, Benth. Eremocarpus. Eiipliorbiaceae. 

From Greek, '-solitary fruited". Rank-smelling herb. One 
species, California. 

a, E. seti^eriis Benth. California. Ginger-leaf. Plant, carmina- 
tive, febrifuge. 



148 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

764. EREMOCARYA, Greene. Eremocarya. Boraginaceae^ 

From Greek, "desert nut". Syn. Krynitzkia, in part. 
Herbs. Two species in Avestern U. S. 

765. ERICA, L. - Heath, Heather. - Ericaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Small shrabs. About 400 species, 
Old World, especially S. Africa. 

a. E. arborea L. Mediterranean region. Tree Heath. Wood 

used for brier-root pipes. 

b. E. cinerea L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Scotch Heath or Heather, 

Bell Ling, Carline Heather, Cat- Heather, Crow Ling, Black 
Heath, She-Heather. 

c. E. Tetralix L. Europe. Small Heath, Father-of-heath; Bell, 

Besom or Broom Heath, Honey-bottle, Carlin or Ringe Heather. 

766. ERICAMERIA, Gray. Ericameria. Compositae. 

Syn. Aplopappus, in part. Evergreen undershrubs with 
heath-like foliage and yellow flowers. About 10 species, south- 
western U. S. 

767. ERIGENIA, Nutt. Harbinger-of-spring. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, * 'spring born' '. Syn. Sison, in part. Peren- 
nial herb. One species, U. S. 

a. E. biilbosa (Michx. ) Nutt. (S. bulbosum Michx. ). Canada and 
northeastern U. S. Harbinger-of-spring, Pepper-and-salt, 
Turkey-pea*. 

768. ERIGERON, L. - Erigeron. - Compositae. 

From Greek, "early old". Syn. Asterf, Doronicumf, in 
part. Herbs. AboutlSOspecies, most abundant in New World; 
more than 100 in U. S. 

a. E. anmms (L. ) Pers. (A. a^nnuus L. ). Canada to Virginia and 

Missouri. Sweet Scabious ( U. S. ), Daisy- Fleabane, Lace-button. 

b. E. PhiladelphiciiS L. Throughout North America. Philadel- 

phia Fleabane, Sweet Scabious* Skevish, Daisy-Fleabane, 
Daisy*. 

c. E. pulchellus Michx. (E. bellidifolius Muhl. ). Ontario to 

JFlorida and west to Minnesota. Robin's Plantain, Poor 
Robin's Plantain, Robert's Plantain, Rose- Betty, Blue Spring- 
Daisy. 

d. E. piimiliis Nutt. Utah to Nebraska and northward. Low 

Erigeron, Daisy (of western plains). 

e. E . ramosus ( Walt. ) B. S. P. ( D. ramosum W^alt., E. strigosus 

Muhl. ). Canada to Florida and Texas. Common Daisy-Flea- 
bane. 

769. ERIOBOTRYA, Lind. Loquat. Pomaceae. 
Syn. Photinia, Mespilus, in part. Shrubs or trees. About 

10 species, southern and eastern Asia. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 149 

a. E. Japonica (Thunb. ) Lind. (M. Japonica Thunb., P. Eriobot- 
ryaJ. Hook.). China and Japan. Loquat (China), Luk-. 
wati, Dukwat, Loquat Plum, Japan Plum (southern U. S. ), 
Japanese Medlar, Biwa (Bywa, Pipa), Kuskuhe (Japan). 
Fruit esculent. 

770. ERIOCARPUM, Nutt. Eriocarpum. Compositae. 

From Greek, * 'woolly fruit". Syn. Aplopappus and Amel- 
lus, in part. Herbs and shrubs. About 10 species, all Amer- 
ican; 9 in U. S. 

771. ERIOCAT^LON, L. Pipewort. Eiiocaiilaceae. 

From Greek, "woolly stem". Syn. Nasmythia, in part. 
Aquatic or bog herbs with heads of minute flowers. About 110 
species, tropical and warm regions; 5 in U. S. 

772. ERIODICTYON, Benth. (Eriodyction). Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "woolly net". Syn. Wigandia, in part. Bal- 
samic shrubs. Three species, California to Arizona. 

a. E. Californicum (H. & A.) Greene (W. Californica H. & A., 
E. glutinosum Benth.). Califoraia to northern Mexico. 
Yerba Santa, Consumptive' s-weed. Bear's- weed. Mountain 
Balm, Gum plant. Tar-weed*. Leaves; Eriodictyon, U. S. P.; 
expectorant; maslvs bitterness of quinine. 

773. ERI<3(^0NUM, Michx. Eriogonum. Polygoiiaceae. 

From Greek, "wool joint". Herbs, some sufFruticose. 
About 200 species, western N. America; 167 in U. S. The 
name Wild Buckwheat is given to some species. 

774. ERI6pH0RUM, L. Cotton-grass. Cyperaceae. 

From Greek, "wool bearing". Bog sedges, the flower-heads 
conspicious with the bristles forming the perianth. About 15 
species, north temperate zone; 10 in U. S. 

a. E. vagi nat urn L. Xorthern Europe, Asia and X. America. 
Sheathed Cotton-grass§, Canna-down, Cat-locks, Cat's-tails, 
Davy-whiteyeads, Hare's-tail, Kush or Cotton-grass. Other 
names not confined to this species, are Cotton Rush, Draw- Ling, 
Flors-seave, Moor-pawm (i. e. palm), Mo,-s-crop, Pull-Ling. 

775. EROPHYLLUM, Lag. Erophyllum. Compositae, 

From Greek, "woolly leaf". Mostly floccose herbs, some 
shrubby. About 20 species, southwestern U. S. and Mexico. 

776. ERITHALIS, L. - Erithalis. - Rubiaceae. 

Ancient Greek plant-name. Shrubs. About 5 species, West 
Indies; 1 in Florida. 

777. ER6dIUM, L'Her. Stork's-bill, etc. Geraniaceae. 

From Greek, "heron". Syn. Geranium, in part. Herbs. 
About 60 species, widely distributed; 3 native in U. S. 

a. E. Ciciitarium (L.) L'Her. (G. Cicutarium L. ). Europe and 
Asia, widely nat. in U. S. Common Stork's-bill, Hemlock 
Stork's-bill or Heron' s-bill. Pin Clover, Pin-weed, Pin-grass, 
Pine-needle, Pink-needle, Powk-needle, Stick-pile, Alfllaria 
[Alfilarilla, Filaree] (California). P/a/j< astringent, diuretic. 



150 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. E. moschdtum Willd. Europe, adv. inU. S. Musky Heron' s- 
bill, Covey, Sweet Covey, Muscovy Musk, Ground-needle, 
Pick-needle, Pink-needle. Plant diaphoretic. 

778. ER6pHILA, DC. 1821. Whitlow-grass. Cmciferae. 
From Greek, "spring loving", Syn. Gansblum, Adans. 

1763; Draba, in part. Herbs. About 6 species, Europe to 
Asia Minor. 

a. E. verDa (L. ) E. Meyer (D. verna L., E. Draba Schimp. & 
Spen., E. vulgaris DC). Europe, nat. in U. S. Vernal 
Whitlow-grass, Faverel, Nailwort, Shad-flower, White-blow. 

779. EUNODEA, Swz. - Ernodea. - Rubiaceae. 

From Greek, "sprouting" or "branching". Procumbent 
shrub. One species, Florida. 

780. ERTELA, Adans. 1763. Ertela. Rutaceae. 
Syn. Monnieria L. 1759, Moniera Loefl. 1758 (notMonniera 

or Moniera, B. Juss. 1756), Aubletia, Pich. 1807. Herbs. 
About 2 species, S. America; (a) E. trifolia (L. ) Lyons 
(Monnieria trifolia L., A. trifolia Eich. ). One of the Brazil- 
ian plants known as Jaborandi. 

781. ERYNGIUM, L. Eryngo, Briery Thistle, etc. Umbelliferae. 

Ancient Greek name of a thistle-like plant. Herbs with 
prickly leaves. About 150 species, widely distributed; 27 in 
U. S. 

a. E. aquaticiim L. ( E. yucc?efolium Michx. ) . Xew Jersey to Flo- 

rida and Texas. Water Eryngo, Rattlesnake' s-master. Button 
Snakeroot, Corn Snakeroot, Rattlesnake Flag, Rattlesnake- 
weed. Root acrid-aromatic, diaphoretic, expectorant, emetic. 
[Other species are credited with similar properties.] 

b. E. campestre L. Europe. Field Eryngo, Hundred-headed 

Thistle, Fever- weed; Ger. Mannstreu, Brachdistel, Krausdis- 
tel; Fr. Chardon, Roland, Panicaut (Codex). i^ooi diuretic. 

c. E. maritimuni L. Europe. Sea Holly, Sea Hulver, Sea 

Eryngo. Fleshy roots formerly candied, aromatic, expectorant, 
diuretic. 

782. ERYSIMUM, L. Erysimum, etc. Cmciferae. 
Greek name of hedge-mustard. Syn. Cheiranthus (adopted 

in Heller's catalogue). Herbs. About 100 species, north tem- 
perate zone, especially Old World; 18 in U. S. 

a. E. asperumDC. ( E. lanceolatum Pursh, E. Arkansanum Nutt., 

C. Arkansanus (Nutt. ) Greene). Ohio to Texas and northwest 
to Pacific Coast. Western Wallflower, Yellow Phlox, Orange 
Mustard, Prairie Rocket. 

b. E. cheiranthoides L. Europe and British America, south to 

Pennsylvania. Treacle Mustard, Worraseed Mustard, Treacle 
Wormseed, Tarrify. Plant anthelmintic, stomachic. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 151 

783. ERYTHRAEA, Neck. Centaury. Gentianaceae. 

From Greek, ''red", the color of the flowers in some species. 
Syn. Gentiana. Cicendia, Schultesia, in part. Bitter herbs. 
About 50 species; 10 indig. in U. S., mostly in the west. - 

a. E. Ceniaiiriiim (L. )Pers. (G. Centaurium L. ). Europe, adv. 

in U. S. Lesser Centaury, European Centaury (Sanctuary:}:), 
Bitter-herb, Bloodwort, Christ' s-ladder, Feltrike, Feverfew*, 
Earth-gall, Mountain Flax; Ger. Tausendguldenkraut, Bother 
Aurin; Fr. Petite Centauree (Codex); Sp. Centaura menor. 
Herb; H. centaurii (minoris); bitter tonic. 

b. E. Cliileiisis Pers., (c) E. stncta Schlecht, (d) E. Joriillensis 

Kunth [S. stenophylla Mart. (Kew)] and perhaps other species 
of S. America and Mexico are called Canchalagua; properties 
of (a). 

784. ERYTHRINA, L. Coral tree. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "red" the color of the seeds. Trees or shrubs 
with showy crimson or scarlet blossoms and red seeds. About 
45 species, tropical or sub-tropical; 2 in U. S. 

a. E. Corallodendroii L. Brazil. Coral-tree. Bark anodyne, 

expectorant. Leaves diuretic, laxative. 

b. E. Muliingu Mart. Brazil. Bark hypnotic, anodyne. 

785. ERYTHR6nIUM, L. Adder' s-tongue, etc. Liliaeeae. 
Greek name of a plant having ''red" flowei-s. Two-leaved 

herbs from a corm. About 14 species, mostly of IST. America; 
13 in U. S. 

a. E. albidiim Nutt. Ontario to Tennessee and Texas. "White 

Adder' s-tongue. Spring Lily. To this and other species are 
applied many of the synonyms under (b). 

b. E. Amerioanum Ker. (E. angustatum Raf., E. bracteatum 

Bigel. ). Canada and eastern U, S. Yellow or Common Ad- 
der's-tongue, Adder' s-leaf, Adder's Violet, Dog's-tooth Violet, 
Deer s-tongue, Lamb' s-tongue, Battlesnake's Violet, Scrofula- 
root, Trout Lily, Trout-flower, Yellow-bells, Yellow Lily, 
Yellow Snake-leaf, Yellow'Snowdrop. Plant reputed altera- 
tive, emetic. 

786. ERYTHROPHLOELM, Afzel. Sassy-bark. Mimosaceae. 

Syn. Fillaea, in part. Trees. About 5 species, tropical 
Africa, Asia and Australia. 

a. E. Giiineense Don. (E. ordale Bolle, E. judiciale Procter, F. 
. suaveolens Guil. et Perrot. ). Central and west Africa. Red 
Water-tree. Bark, Sass}'-bark, Saucy-bark, Mancona-bark; 
Ger. Manconarinde; Fr. Ecorce de Mangone. Li^sed in Africa 
as an ordeal- and arrow-poison; narcotic, emeto-cathartic, dia- 
phoretic, febrifuge. 

787. ERYTHr6xYL0N, L. Coca. Erythroxylaceae. 

From Greek, "red wood". Shrubs and trees. • About 70 
species, tropical America, a few in Africa and Asia. 



152 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. E. Coca Lam. Peru, Bolivia, etc. Coca, Cuca, Hayo, Ipado, 
Spadic. ( Principal varieties, Huanaco from Bolivia and Truxillo 
from Peru, the latter derived from E. Coca var. Spruceanum 
Burck.). Leaves: Coca, U. S. P., Erythroxylon, U. S. 1880; 
Cocae Folia, Br., Fol. erythroxyli (cocse. ); Ger. Cocablatter; 
Fr. Coca (Codex), Feuilles de Coca; Local anaesthetic, stimu- 
lant, nervine. Source of cocaine. 

788. ESCHSCH6LTZIA, Cham. California Poppy .Papa veraceae. 

Named for T. F. van Eschscholtz, German naturalist, d, 
1831. Highly ornamental herbs with dissected leaves and yel- 
low flowers. About 20 species, California. 

789. ESENBECKIA, H. B. K. Brazilian Angostura. Rutaceae. 
Syn. Evodia, in part. Trees. About 17 species, tropical 

regions, New World. 

a. E. febrifiiga Juss. (Evodia febrifuga St. Hil. ). Brazil. Bra- 
zilian Angostura. Bark bitter tonic; contains, besides esen- 
beckine, an alkaloid (quinovine) analagous to quinine, found 
also in some cinchona barks. 

790. EUCALYPTUS, L' Her. Gum tree. Myrtaceaft. 
From Greek, 'Svell veiled". Trees with thick leathery 

leaves. About 150 species, Australia and neighboring islands, 
many furnishing very hard, tough and durable timber. 

a. E. amygdaliiia Labill. Southeast Australia. Brown Pepper- 

mint-tree, White Peppermint-tree, Giant Gum-tree, Swamp 
Gum-tree, Australian Mountain Ash. [The tallest of trees, un- 
less it be the giant Sequoias of California. One has been xneasur- 
ed which was 471 ft. high. Yields more volatile oil than any 
other species, but containing no eucalyptol. ] 

b. E. coryuocalyx F. Muell. South Australia. Sugar Gum-tree. 

Foliage sweetish, browsed on by cattle and sheep. 

c. E. globulus Labill. Victoria and Tasmania. Blue Gum-tree 

(incorrectly written Blue-gum tree); Ger. Vielchenbaum. 

Leaves] Eucalyptus, U. S. P., Folia eucalypti; Ger. Eucalyptus- 
blatter; Fr. (Feuilles d') Eucalyptus (Codex); antiseptic, as- 
tringent, febrifuge [The tree is much planted in Italy, Al- 
geria and elsewhere to dispel malaria. The volatile oil is official, 
although the yield of oil is much smaller than in (a).] 

d. E. Leucoxylon F. Muell. (E. sideroxylon A. Cunn. ). Victoria, 

etc. Iron bark tree. Bark very rich in kino tannin. Wood 
stronger even than hickory. 

e. E. rostrdta Schlecht. Southern and central Australia. Red- 

gum tree. Exudate] Eucalypti Gummi Br., Australian or 
Botany Bay Kino, called also Ked Gum, astringent, like 
Malabar Kino. Other species yielding kino are (f ) E. corym- 
bosa Sm., Bloodwood tree, (g) E. calophylla K. Br. and (h) 
E. piperita vSm. , Peppermint tree. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 153 

L E. viminalis Labill. Southeast Australia. Manna Gum-tree. 
Exudate Australian Manna, which is also obtained occasionally 
from (j) E. groniocalyx F. Muell., and (k) E. Giinni J. Hook- 
er, Cider tree. 

Other Eucalypts worthy of note are (1) E. corniita Labill., 
Yate tree; (m) E. diversicolor F. Muell., Karri tree; (n) E. 
gomphiocephala DC, Tooart tree; (o) E. longifolia Link., 
■ Woolly-butt tree; (p) E. marg:iiiataSm., Jarrah, Australian 
cr Bastard Mahogany ( timber resists teredo ) ; (q ) E. niicrocorys 
F. Muell., Tallow-wood tree, Stringy-bark tree; (r) E, obliqua 
L'Her., Messmate tree (the Common Stringy-bark tree of Tas- 
mania); (s) E. odorata Behr , Peppermint tree (of south Aus- 
tralia); (t) E. oleosa F. Muell., Mallee tree (very rich in vola- 
tile oil); (u) E. pilularis Sm., Black-butt tree, Mountain 
Ash; (v) E, polyanthema Schauer, Red Box tree, Australian 
Lignum Vitae; (w) E. popiilifolia Hook., Bembil, Shining- 
leaved Box Eucalyptus; (x) E. punctata DC, Leather-jacket, 
Hickory Eucalyptus; (y) E, resinifera Sm., Red or Forest 
Mahogany (erroneously named as source of Australian Kino); 
(z) E, robiista Sm., Swamp or White Maliogany; (aa) E. 
saliibris F. Muell., Gimlet- wood. Fluted Gum-tree; (bb) E. 
Sieberiana F. Muell., (E. virgata, Sieber), 'Mountain Ash, in 
Tasmania called Gum-top or Iron-bark tree; (cc) E. Stnarti- 
aiia F. Muell., Apple-scented Gum-tree; (dd) E. termiiialis F. 
Muell., Blood wood tree (of northern Australia). [Honey pro- 
duced from the flowers of Eucalyptus possesses active medicinal 
properties, antipyretic, antiseptic, etc. ] 

791. EUCEPHALUS, Nutt. Aster. Compositae. 

From Greek, with "fine (flower) heads". Syn. Aster, in 
part. Herbs resembling Aster. About 10 species, all of U. S. 

792. EUCHARiDIUM,Fisch. &Mey. Eucharidium.Onagraceae. 
Annual herbs with red flowers. Two species, California. 

793. EUCHEUMA, Agardh. Agar-Agar. Gelidiaceae. 

Sea weeds allied to Gelidium q. v. About 18 species, warm- 
er seas. 

a. E. gelatinai Agardh, (b) E. spinosum Agardh. Indian Ocean. 
Macassar or Celebes Agar-agar, Jelly plant. The source (in 
part ) of Japanese or Chinese gelatin or isinglass. Used as a 
culture medium by bacteriologists. See Gelidium and Sphaero- 
coccus. 

794:. EUCXIDE, Zucc. - Eucnide. - Loasaceae. 

From Greek, ''nettle sure". Syn. Mentzelia, in part. 
Herbs. Three known species, all of southwestern U. S. 

795. EUCRYPTA, Gray. Eucrypta. Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "well concealed". Syn. Ellisia, in part. 
Herbs. Three species, southwestern U. S. 

796. EUGENIA, Micheli. Clove-tree, etc. Myrtaceae. 
Named for Prince Eugene of Savoy, d. 1736. Syn. Caryo- 

phyllus, Calyptranthes, Syzygium, ]Viyrtus, in part. Trees and 
shrubs. More than 500 species, tropical regions. Old and Xew 
World; 7 in U. S. See Jambos. 



154 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. E. aromatica (L. ) O.Kze, , not Berg. ( Caryophillus aromaticus 
L., M. CaryophuUus Spreng. , M. caryophyllata Thunb. ), 
Molucca Islands, calt. in many tropical countries. Clove-tree; 
Ger. Gewurznelkenbaum ; Fr. Giroflier. Flower buds, Cloves; 
Caryophyllus, U. S. P., Caryophyllum, Br., Caryophylli,P. G., 
Caryophylli aromatici; Ger. Gewlirznelken, Gewiirznagelein; 
Fr. Girofle (Codex), Clous aromatiques; Sp. Clavos de especia; 
carminative, counter-irritant, much used as a condiment. 
Source of oil of cloves. Flower stalks, Clove stalks; Festucae 
(Fusti) caryophyllorum; Ger. Nelkenstiele, Nelkenholz; Fr. 
Griffe de girofle. Fruit, Mother Cloves; Anthophylli; Ger. 
ISlutternelken; Fr. Meres de girofles, Clous matrices. 

(b) E. (heqiien Mol. (E. Chekan DC, M. Cheken Spi;eng. ). 
Chili. Cheken, Chekan, Chequen. Leaves aromatic, as- 
tringent. 

c. E. Jambolana Lam. (S. Jambolanum DC, Cal. Jambolana Willd.). 
East Indies and Oceanica. Fruit esculent. Seeds used in dia- 
betes mellitus. 

Several species of Eugenia produce edible fruits, notably ; (d ) 
E. corilifolia Wight, Ceylon; (e) E. Hallii Berg., Bolivia; (f) 
E. mabaeoides Wight,' Ceylon; (g) E. ^'haiiica Cambes., 
Brazil; (h) E. pyrifomiis Cambes., the Uvalho do Campo of 
Brazil, and ( i ) E. revoliita Wight, Ceylon. 

Species found in Florida and the West Indies are, (j) E. 

bnxifolia (Swz. ) Willd., Spanish Stopper, Gurgeon Stopper; 

(k) E. moiilieola (Swz.) DC, White Stopper, with edible 

• fruit; (1) E. procera (Swz.) Poir., Stopper; (m) E. Garberi 

Sarg., Ked Stopper. 

797. EIJLOBUS, Nutt. - Eulobus. - Ona§:raceae. 

From Greek, ' 'well podded". A slender annual. One spe- 
cies, California. 

798. EIIL6pHIA, E. Br. Eulophia. Orcbidaceae. 

From Greek, "well crested". Epiphytal or terrestrial 
orchids. About 80 species, tropical Asia, America and espe- 
cially southern Africa. 

a. E. campestris Wall., and (b) E. berbacea Lind. Central Asia. 
Tubers were formerly imported as salep. 

799. EtLOPHUS, Nutt. Eulophus. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "well plumed". Perennial herbs from tuberous 
roots. About 5 species, all of U. S., mostly western. 

800. E UN ANUS, Gray. Eunanus. Scrophiilariaceae. 
From Greek, "dwarf". Syn. Mimulus, in part. Low vis- 

c'd or glandular-pubescent annuals. About 26 species, Cali- 
fornia to Utah. 

801. EU6nYMUS, L. (Evonymus). W^ahoo, etc. Celastraceae. 

Ancient Greek name, meaning "honored" or "lucky". 
Shrubs. About 65 species, north temperate zone; 6 in U. S. 

a. E. Aniericainis L. New York to Florida and west to Texas. 
Strawberry bush. Strawberry shrub, Burning-busb, Fish- wood. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 156 

b. E. alropurpiireus Jacq. Ontario and eastern U, S., west to 

Montana. Wahoo (Waahoo, Wauhoo, Whahoo), Burning- 
bush, Bursting-heart, Indian Arrow-wood, Strawberry tree or 
bush, American Spindle-tree, Bitter Asht, Barh of root; 
Enonymus, U. S. P., Cort. euonymi; bitter, tonic, laxative, 
cholagogue. 

c. E. EliropaeiiS L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Spindle-tree, Arrow- 

beam, Butcher' s-prick tree. Cat tree, Gaiter tree, Gatten, Gat- 
teridge. Louse-berry tree; the tough wood called Peg-wood, 
Prick-timber, Prick- wood. Skewer- wood. Dog-wood*, Wit -h- 
wood; Ger. Spillbaum, Spindelbaum, Pfatfenhiitchen; Fr. 
Fusain, Bonnet de pretre. Seeds emetic, purgative, insecticide. 

802. EUPAT6rIUM, L. Thoroughwort, etc. Compositae. 

Greek name of Agrimony, after Mithridates surnamed Eupa- 
tor. Syn. Artemisiaf, Conoclinium, in part. Perennial herbs 
with small flower heads. About 575 species, mostly of warmer 
regions; 46 in U. S. 

a. E. ageratoides L. f. Canada to Georgia and west to Nebraska 

and Louisiana. White Snake-root, AVhite Sanicle, Indian 
Sanicle, Deerwort Boneset, Poolwort, Pool-root, Rich-weed, 
Squaw-weed, Stevia. Boot aromatic, diuretic, vulnerary. 

b. E. aromaticiini L. Massachusetts to Florida, Smaller White 

Snake- root, Wild Hoarhound, Pool-root, Poolwort. Boot aro- 
matic, diuretic, anti-spasmodic. 

c. E. canndbiiiiim L. Europe. Hemp Agrimony, Bastard or 

Dutch Agrimony, Water Agrimony, Bastard Hemp, Hemp- 
weed, Water-Hemp, Raspberries-and-cream, Sweet-smelling 
Trefoil!, Water-maudlin, AndurionJ; Ger. Wasserdost, Ilirsch- 
klee, Wasserhanf. 

d. E. capillifolium (Lam. ) Small (A. capillifolia Lam,, E. foeni- 

culoides Walt. E. foeniculaceum Willd. ). Virginia to Florida 
and West Indies. Dog Fennel, Hog-weed. 

e. E, coelestiiiiim L. (Conoclinium coelestinuniDC. ). New Jersey 

to Florida and Texas. Mist-flower, Blue Boneset. Plant 
anti-spasmodic, expectorant. 

f. E. glntinosum Lam. S.America. One of several plants known 

as Matico or Yerba del soldado (Soldier's herb.) See Piper 
angustifolium. 

g. E. lencolepis T. & G. New Jersey to Florida and Louisiana. 

Justice-weed, White-bracted Thoroughwort. The name 

Justice- weed is applied also to (h) E. hyssopifolium L., Massa- 
chusetts to Texas. 

i. E. perroliatum L. (E. connatum Michx. ). Canada to Florida 
and west to Texas and Nebraska. Boneset, Common Thorough- 
wort, Thorough-stem, Thorough-wax, Thorow-wax or Through- 



156 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

wax (i.e. ''growing through" or perfoliate), Indian Sage, 
Wild Sage, Ague- weed, Cros^wort, Feverwort, Vegetable 
Antimony, Sweating-plant; Ger. Durchwachsdost, Durchwachs- 
ener Wasserdost oder \Vasserhanf;Fr.Eupatoireperfoliee, Herbe 
a fievre, Herbe parfaite; Sp. Eupatorio. Leaves and flowering 
tops, Eupatorium U. S. P., Herbaeupatorii perfoliati; bitter, 
tonic, febrifuge, diaphoretic. 

]. E. piirpiireilin L. (E. trifoliatum L. ). British America, south 
to Florida and Utah. Queen-of-the-meadow, Joe-Pye weed, 
Gravel-root, Indian Gravel-root, King-of-the-meadow, Marsh 
Milk- weed. Motherwort, Nigger- weed, Quill wort*, Purple 
Boneset; Slunkweed, Tall Boneset, Trumpet-weed, i^ooi' diure- 
tic, astringent. Closely related to this is (k) E. maculatiim 
L. Virginia to New York. Spotted Joe-Pye weed. Spotted 
Boneset, Spotted Eyebright. 

1. E. rotundifolium L. Eastern U. S. Wild Hoarhound, Round- 
leaved Thoroughwort. 

m. E. triplinerye Vahl. (E. Aya-pana Vent. ). Brazil. Aya-pana, 
Nyapana; Ger. Heilsamer Wasserdost; Fr. Aya-pana (Codex). 
Leaves diaphoretic, diuretic, antidote to snake-poison. Plant 
rich in tannin. 

n. E. verbenaefoliiim ]\[ichx. (E. pilosum Walt'., E. teucrifolium 
Willd. ). Eastern U. S. Rough Thoroughwort or Boneset, 
Vervain Thoroughwort, Wild Hoarhound. 

803. EUPHORBIA, L. Spurge. Eupliorbiaceae. 

Greek name of an African plant, named for Euphorbos, King 
Juba's phyeician, Syn. Tithymalus, inpart. Herbs or shrubs. 
About 700 species, warmer parts of temperate zones; 118 in 

U. S. 

a. E. corollata L. Canada and eastern U. S. FloVering Spurge, 

Blooming or Large-flowering Spurge, Apple-root, Bowman' s- 
root. Emetic-root, Milk Ipecac, Milkweed*, Milk Purslane or 
Pursley, Snake-milk, Purging-root, White Purslane, Wild 
Hippo (Hipp). Booi of this and of (f); EuphorlDia, U. S. P. 
1880; Emeto-cathartic, diaphoretic, irritant. 

b. E. Cyparissias L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Cypress Spurge, 

Cypress*, Balsam Spurge, Bonaparte' s-crown. Graveyard-weed, 
Irish Moss*, Kiss-me-quick, Quacksalver s Spurge, Tree Moss, 
Welcome-to-our-house. 

c. E. Esiila L. Europe, adv. in U.. S. Leafy Spurge, Faitour* s- 

grass, Tithymal. 

<i. E. Helioscopia L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Sun Spurge, Wart 
Spurge, Wart-weed, Wart-grass, Wartwort, Cat's-milk, Churn- 
staflf, Devil's-milk, Mouse-milk, Mad- woman' s-milk. Wolf's- 
milk, Little-good (Scotland), Saturday' s-pepper. Seven-sisters, 
Sun-weed, Turnsole*. Juice acrid, formerly used to cure warts. 

e. E. heterodoxa Muell. Brazil. Juice, leite d' Alveloz (Alveloz 
milk), acrid, escharotic; applied to cancroids, etc. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 157 

f. E. Ipecacuanha L. Atlantic border of U. S. Ipecac Spurge^ 

American or Carolina Ipecac, Milk or Spurge Ipecac, White 
or Wild Ipecac, Wild Hippo, Black Spurge. See (a). ; 

g. E. Lathyris L. (T. Lathyris Scop. ). Europe, nat. in U. S. 

Caper Spurge, Caper bush. Wild Caper, Catapuce (Chaucer), 
Garden or Myrtle Spurge, Gopher plant, Anti-gopher plant,. 
Mole plant. Mole tree, Springwort, Wolfs-milk; Fr. i^purge 
(Codex). Seeds Sem. cataputiae minoris, Sem. lathy ridis 
majoris, Grana regia majora; Ger. Kleine Springkorner, Kleine 
Purgirkorner; drastic cathartic. Yields an oil resembling 
Croton oil. 

h. E. maculdta L. Throughout most of jS". America. Spotted 
or Blotched Spurge, Black Spurge, Spotted Purslane (Pursley)^ 
Black or Milk Purslane, Milkweed*, Spotted Eyebright. 

i. E. marginata Pursh. Minnesota to Texas. Variegated or 
White-margined Spurge, Mountain-snow, Snow-on-the-moun- 
tain. 

j, E. nutans Lag. (E. hypericifolia A. Gray, not L., E. Preslii 
Guss. ). Large Spotted-spurge, Upright Spotted or Blotched 
Spurge, with other synonyms of (h). 

k.*E. Peplus L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Pretty Spurge, Devil' s- 
milk. Seven-sisters, Wart-weed. 

1. E. pilulifera L. India, Australia and widely distributed in 
tropical countries. Pill-bearing Spurge. Flant reputed a 
specific in asthma. 

m. E. prostrata Ait. Arizona. Prostrate Spurge, Swallowwort,. 
Gallindrinera. Reputed an infallible cure for snake bites. 

n. E. resinifera Berg. Morocco. (tI£??i resm; Euphorbium P. G.^ 
Gummi v. Resina euphorbium; Ger. Euphorbium; Fr. Gomme- 
resine d'Eupnorbe (Codex); Sp. Euforbio; drastic cathartic, 
sternutatory, chiefly used as a counter-irritant. 

804. EUPHRASIA. L. Eyebright. Scropliularlaceae. 

From Greek, ''delight" or "good cheer". Low parasitic 
herbs. About 110 species, temperate and cooler regions; 3 in 
U. S. 

a. E. officinalis L. Europe. Eyebright, Eyewort, Euphrasy ;Ger. 
Augentrost; Fr. Euphraise; Sp. Eufrasia. Plant astringent; 
formerly used in ophthalmia. 

805. EUROTIA, Adans. Eurotia. Chenopodiaceae. 

From Greek, "hoary" or "mouldy". Syn. Diotis, in part. 
Herbs or low shrubs. Two species, one of Euro-Asia, one of 
western N. America, viz. (a) E. lanata (Pursh) Moq., called 
White Sage and Winter-fat. 

806. EURYTAENIA, T. & Gr. (Eurytenia). Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "well filleted". Herb. One species, south- 
western U. S. 



158 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

«07. EUSt6ma, Salisb. Canada-pest. Gentian aceae. 

From Greek, "open mouthed". Syn. Lisianthus, in part. 
Glaucous annual herbs. Two species, southern U. S. and 
Mexico, (a) E. Russellianum (L.) Griseb. is called Canada- 
pest. 

•808. EUTERPE, Gaertn. Assai Palm. Sabalaceae. 

Dedicated to the muse, Euterpe. Slender graceful palms. 
About 20 species, South America. 

a. E. edulis Mart. Brazil. Assai Palm. Fruit esculent, used for 
preparing assaij an important article of food in Parii. 

«09. EUTHAMIA, Nutt. Fragrant Golden-rod. Compositae. 

From Greek, ' 'closely crowded' ' , of the flower-heads. Syn. 
Chrysocoma, Solidago, in part. Perennial herbs with corymb- 
ed heads. Four species, all of U. S. 

a. E. Caroliniana (L. ) Greene. Eastern U. S. Slender Fragrant 

Golden-rod, Quobsque-weed. 

b. E. graminifolia (L. ) Nutt. (S. lanceolata L. ). Canada and 

eastern U. S. Flat-top, Fragrant or Bushy Golden-rod. 

810. EUTREMA, E. Br. - Eutrema. - Cruciferae. 

Perennial herbs. About 10 species, Arctic and Alpine re- 
gions, chiefly of northern hemisphere; 4 in U. S. 

«11. Ev6dIA, - - Evodia. - - Riitaceae. 

Small trees or shrubs. About 30 species, Australia and East 
Indian Islands. See Esenbeckia. 

a. E, riitaecarpa Hook. f. & Thouars. Japan. Unripe fruits and 
stems purgative, emmenagogue. 

S12, ET6lTULUS, L. Evolvulus. Convolnilaceae. 

From Latin, "unrolling". Herbs, erect or diffuse. Aboufe 
85 species, tropical and sub-tropical; 8 in U. S. mostly south- 



818. EXCOECARIA, L. Excoecaria. Euphorbiaceae. 

From Latin, "blinding", alluding to acrid quality of the 
juice. Shrubs or small trees. About 50 species, India and 
tropical America. See Stillingia. 

a, E. Agallocha L. India to Polynesia. Formerly erroneously be- 
lieved to be source of lign aloes. 3Iilk juice, Tiger' s-milk, 
acrid, escharotic. See Aquilaria. 

814. EXIDIUM, Fries. Jew's-ear. Helvellaceae. 

Syn. Peziza, Hirneola, in part. Cup-like saprophytic fungi. 

a. E. Auricula- Jiidae Fries (P. Auricula L., H. Auricula-Judae 
Auct. ). Europe. Jew's-ear Fungus, Jew's-ear, Elder Fungus; 
Ger. Hollunderschwamm, Judasohr. The entire fungus, Fun- 
gus sambuci. Auricula Judae; emollient, formerly reputed 
hydragogue. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 159 

815. EX0G6nII]M, Choisy. Jalap. Convolmlaceae. 

Syn. Ipomoea, Convolvulus, in part. Perennial, more or 
less shrubby twiners. About 15 species, tropical America. 

a. E. Piir^a (Wend.) Lind. (C. Purga Wend., I. Purga Hayne, 
I. Schiedeana Zucc, not Ham., I. Jalapa Schiede & Deppe, 
not L., E. Jalapa BailL, E. dumosum Benth. ). Mexico and 
cult, in India and Jamaica. Jalap, True Jalap. Tubers; 
Jalapa- U. S. P., Br., Tubera jalapae, P. G., Kad. jalapae; 
Ger. Jalapenknollen, Jalape, Jalappenwurzel; Fr, Jalap tube- 
reux ou officinal (Codex); Sp, Jalapa; hydragogue cathartic. 

Several allied species yield purgative tubers, notably (b) E. 
Jalapa (L. ) Hayne (Cony. Jalapa L., not I. Jalapa Pursh) 
of Mexico, and in Brazil roots known as Purga, Batata Pur- 
gante, Jalapinha, Jeticucii and Emburerembo, some of these 
from allied genera. The Mexican Mechoacan root (Kad. 
mechoacanna) is also from an allied plant. See Ipomoea, (1) 
and (n). 

816. EXOSTEMA, Rich. (Exostemma). Puibiaceae. 

From Greek, "with exserted stamens". Syn. Cinchona, in 
part. Trees or shrubs. About 30 species, tropical America; 1 
in U. S. 

a. E. Caribaeum (Jacq. ) R. & S. (C. Caribaea Jacq. ). Florida 
and West Indies. Prince- wood. Seaside Beech. Bark, Cari- 
baean or Caribbee Bark, bitter, febrifuge, emetic. The follow- 
ing West Indian species have similar properties and uses; (b) 
E. brachycarpiiiii P. & Sch., Jamaica Bark, (c) E. floribiin- 
dum P. & Sch., St. Lucia Bark, Caribaean Bark. 

817. EX6tHEA, Macfay. Ink- wood. Sapindaceae. 

From Greek, "expelled". Syn. Hypelate. Melicocca, in 
part. Tree with very hard and heavy wood. One species; (a) 
E. paniculata (Juss. ) Radlk., West Indies to Florida, ink- 
wood. Iron wood. 

818. EYSENhIrDTIA, H. B. K. 1823. Papillouaceae. 

Named for Prof. C. W. Eysenhardt of Konigsberg. Syn. 
Viborquia, Ortega 1798. Shrubs or small trees. Four species, 
southern U. S. and Mexico. 

819. FABIANA, Euiz. & Pav. Pichi. Solanaceae. 

Shrubs. About 15 species, natives of S. America. 

a. F. imbricata R. & Pav. Chili. Pichi, Fabiana. Leafy twigs 
bitter, tonic, terebinthinate diuretic. 

820. FAGONIA, L. Fagonia. Zypph) Uaeeae. 

Herbs. Two or three very variable species, widely distribut- 
ed; 1 in U. S. 

821. FAG0PYRU3I, Gaertn. Buckwheat. Polygonaceje. 

From Greek, "beech-wheat", the grain resembling a beech- 
nut. Buckwheat means also beech-wheat. Syn. Polygonum, 
in part. Herbs, annual or perennial. About 6 species, Europe 
and Asia; 2 nat. in U. S. 



160 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. F. Fagopyrum (L. ) Karst. (Polygonum Fagophyrum L., F. 
esculentum Moench. ). Eastern Europe and western Asia, 
cult, in temperate regions. Buckwheat, Brank, Crap, Indian 
Wheat, Heath Corn, Saracen's Corn; Ger. Buchweizen; Fr. 
Sarrasin, Ble noir. Seeds esculent. Several other sjiecies are 
cultivated for their seeds, notably (b) E. cymosum Meissner, the 
Chinese Perennial Buckwheat, and (c) F. Tatariciim (L. ) 
Gaertn., Tatary (Tartary) Buckwheat, Kough Buckwheat, 
cult, in U. S. 

822. FAGUS, L. - - Beech. - - Fagaceae. 

Classical name, derived from Greek, "to eat" . Trees, some 
of great size. AlDout 10 species, temperate zones; 1 in U. S. 

a. F. Americana Sweet (F. ferruginea Ait. ). Canada to Florida 

and west to Texas and Wisconsin. American Beech, Bed 
Beech, White Beech, Beech-nut tree. Seeds edible. 

b. F. sylvatica L. Europe and northern Asia. European Beecli, 

White Beech. Seeds esculent; yield a fixed oil. Oleum fagi, 
Beech oil; Ger. Buchelol, Bucheckerol; Fr. Huile de faines, 
suitable for liniments, etc. 

823. FALCATA, Gmel. 1796. Hog Pea-nut. Papilionaceae. 

From Latin, "sickle like" referring to the "keel". Syn. 
Amphicarpa, Ell. 1817; Glycine, in part. Twining vines, 
some producing subterranean fruit. About 7 species, eastern 
Asia and N. America; 2 in U. S. 

a. F. coinosa (L. ) Kze. (G. comosa L. 1753, A.Jfmonoica (L, 
1763) Ell. Amphicarpaea monoica Nutt. ). Hog Pea-nut, 
Wild Pea-nut, Pea-vine. 

824. FALLUGIA, Endl. - Fallugia. - Rosaceae, 
Shrub. One species, Mexico and southwestern U. S. 

FATSIA. See:ARALIA, (d). 

825. FENDLERA, Engelm. & Gr. _ Fendlera. Saxifra^ceae. 
Named for the American botanist, Fendler.' Shrubs. Two- 
known species, southwestern U. S. 

826. FER6nIA, Corr. Elephant Apple. Aurantiaceae. 

From name of an old Italian deity. A large tree. One spe- 
cies only, India. 

a. F. elephantum Correa. India. Elephant Apple, Wood Ap- 
ple. Xeairs of anise-like odor, carminative. i'VwiVs edible; tree 
yields Feronia gum, or East Indian gum Arabic. 

827. FERREIREA, Allem. Ferreirea. Papilionaceae. 
Syn. Andira, in part. Tree. One species; (a) F. spectabi- 

lis Allemao (A. spectabilis Saldanha). Brazil. Exudate^ 
Eesina d' angelim pedra, astringent, resembling Kino, 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 161 

828. FERULA, L. Asafetida, etc. Unibelliferae. 

Ancient Latin name of Fennel, meaning a "walking stick". 
Syn. Angelicaf, Euryangium, Xarthex, Scordosraa, Sumbulus, 
in part. Robust herbs. About 80 species, west-central Asia. 

a. F. alliacea Boiss. Northeastern Persia. Source of an inferior 

variety of asafetida. 

b. F. foetida (Bunge) Eegel (S. foetidum Bunge, F, Scordosma 

Bent. & Trim., Assafoetida Boiss., not AVilld., F. Narthex 
Willd., not Boiss.). Turkestan, Bokhara and western 
Afghanistan. Gum resin; Asafetida, Asafoetida, U. S. P., 
Br., Gummi-resina asafoetida, Asafoetida; Uer. Stiukasant, 
Teufelsdreck; Fr. Asa ioetida (Codex) ; has been called cibus 
deorum (food of the gods) and stercus diaboli (devil's dung); 
antispasmodic, carminative, stimulant. Leaves eaten as salad. 

c. F. galbanifiua Bois. & Buhse (including F. erubescens Boiss. 

and F. gummosa Boiss. ) Persia. Gum resin; Galbanum, Br. 
(also P. G. and Codex), Gummi-resina galbanum, Gummi galba- 
num; Ger. Galban, Mutterharz; Sp Galbano; stimulant to mucous 
membranes. (Cther species yield a similar product, notably 
(d) F. rnbricaiilis Boiss. and (e) F. Schair Borszczon). 

f. F. Karthex Boiss. (F. assafcetida Willd., X. a8safo?tida Falc. ). 

Persia to Afghanistan. Source of some of the asafetida from 
Afghanistan. 

g. F. Persica Willd. not Sims or Bunge. Persia. Source of the 

gum resin Sagapenum, resembling Galbanum. 

h. F. Slimbul Hook. f. (E. Sumbul Kauffm. Sum. moschatus 
Reinsch, A. moschata Wiggers). Central Asia. Musk- root, 
Sumbul. Boot; SumlDUl, L. S. P., Sumbul radix, Br.; Ger. 
Sumbul wurzel, Moschuswurzel ; Fr. Racine de Sumbul; anti- 
spasmodic, nervine. 

i. F. Tiiigitaiia L. Northern Africa. Source of African Am- 
moniac, formerly known as Silphium. See Dorema and Thap- 
sia. 

829. FEYILLEA, L. Fevillea. Ciiciirbitaceae. 

Vines climbing by tendrils, with gourd-like fruit. About 6 
species, tropical America. 

a. F. cordifolia L., not Yell. Jamaica. Sequa, Cacoon Antidote. 
Seeds emeto-cathartic. [The oily seeds of a Peruvian species 
known as Abilla are used for candles or torches]. 

830. FICi-RIA, Huds. Pilewort Buttercup. Raminculaceae. 

From Latin, "lig" like, alluding to the root tubercles. Syn. 
Ranunculus, in part. Perennial herbs resembling Ranunculus. 
About 4 species. Old World. 

a. F. Ficaria (L. ) Karst. (R. Ficaria L., F. ranunculoides 
Moenchj. Europe, adv. in U. S. Lesser Celandine, Crain, 
Golden-cup, Golden-guineas, Herb-of-grace, Pilewort, Pile- 
wort Buttercup, Wordsworth's flower; Oer. Feigenranunkel; 
Fr. Petite ch^lidoine. Plant formerly believed to cure hemor- 
rhoids. 



162 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

831. FICLS, Touin. - - Fig. - - Moraceae. 

The ancient Latin name, probably from Hebrew, '^feg". Syn. 
Urostigma, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 650 species, warm 
and tropical regions; 3 in U. S. 

a. F. Carica L. Western Asia, cult, in all sub-tropical and trop- 

ical countries. Fig tree; Ger. Feigenbaum; Fr. Figuier. The 
dried fruit (more correctly the fleshy receptacle with included 
fruits), Ficus, U. S. P., Br. • Fructus caricse, Carica?, Ficus 
passa; Fici; Ger. Feigen; Fr. Figue (Codex); Sp. Higo. The 
Turkey or JSmyrna figs (caricnj pingues) are much larger than 
the Greek or Dalmatian figs (caricse minores); esculent, laxa- 
tive, used for cataplasms, formerly roasted as a substitute for 
coffee. 

b. F. elastica Roxb. (Urostigma elastica Miq. ). East Indies, a 

common shade tree in tropical countries. India-rubber tree. 
The india rubber of commerce is, however, derived chiefly from 
other trees. See Hevea, Manihot, Castilloa and Urceola. 

c. F. iudica L. India. Banyan tree Indian Fig. (The Banyan 

of Lord Howe's Island, which exceeds this in size, is (d) F. 
coliimnaris, Moore & Muell. ) 

e. F. religiosa L. India. Sacred Fig. Pipul tree (Pipal, Pippul, 
Peepul), Bo tree. One of many trees yielding lac; (f) F. 
Benghalensis L. and (g) F. Tsjela Hamilton, as well as F. 
Indica (above), also produce lac. See Croton (a). 

h. F. pedunculata Willd. West Indies to Florida. Jamaica 
Cherry. 

i. F. Sycamoriis L, Mediterranean region. Sycamore tree, Phara- 
oh's Fig, the Fig tree of Scripture. Fruit esculent. 

832. FILAGO, L. Filago, Everlasting. Conipositae. 

From Latin, filura, a "thread". Syn. Evax, Diaperia, in 
part. White-woolly annuals. About 12 species. New and 
Old World; 4 in L^. S. ^ (In Heller's catalogue the species are 
referred to Evax. ) See Gifola. 

883. FILIPENDULA, L. Filipendula. Rosaceae. 

Syn. Spiraea, in part. Suflfrutescent plants, north temperate 
zone; 2 in U. S. Syn. FillyfindillanJ, Lady' s-rufiles. 

834. FLAYERIA, Juss. Flaveria. Compositae. 

From Latin Jktvus, "yellow". Syn. Milleria, in part. 

Herbs with small densely clustered heads. About 7 species, 
warmer regions of America, 4 in \J. S. 

8S5. FLINDERSIA, P. Br. Leopard tree. Melfaceae. 

Syn. Elaeodendronf, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 12 
species, Australia to New Caledonia. 

a. F. maculosa ( Lind. ) F. von Muell. (E. maculosum Lind. ). 
Australia Leopard-tree, Spotted-tree. Gummy exudate resem- 
bles Acacia and is used in a similar wav. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 163 

836. FLOERKIA, Willd. False Mermaid. Liiiinanthaceae. 

Named for H. G, Floerke, German botanist d. 1835. Marsh 
annual. A single species, north America; U. S. throughout. 

837. FLORESTINA, Cass. Florestina. Compositae. 

Probably from a personal name. Syn. Stevia, in part. 
Hoary herbs. Two species, Mexico to Texas; 1 in C". S. 

838. FLOURENSIA, DC. Flourensia. Compositae. 

Named for Dr. M. J. P. Flourens. Shrubby resinous plants. 
About 3 species, Mexico and southwestern U. S. 

839. FOENICULUM, Adans. Fennel. Umbelliferae. 

Latin name, diminutive from /o(?«/o/i, "hay". Syn. Anethum, 
Meum, in part. Biennial or perennial herbs with dissected 
leaves. About 4 species, Old World; 1 adv. in U. S. 

a. F. Foeniciiliim (L. ) Karst. (Anethum Foeniculum L., F. vul- 
gare Gaertn., F. capillaceum Gilib., F. officinale All., Meum 
Fwniculum Spreng. ). Southern Europe and Western Asia, and 
widely cult. Fennel (Finkel, Fingel, Spingel), Large Fennel, 
Giant Fennel, DilF'; Ger. Fenchel; Fr. Fenouii. Fruit; 
Foeniculum, U. S. P., Foeniculi fruclus, Br., Semen fceniculi; 
Fennel-seed, Fennel-fruit. Commercial varieties are Saxon or 
German fennel-seed and the Roman or Italian which is larger 
and comes from the variety known as Sweet Fennel, F. 
diilce DC, Fenouii doux of the Codex; aromatic, carminative, 
stomachic. Source of oil of Fennel. The root also is occasion- 
ally used in Europe. 

840. FOTHERGILLA, Mun. Witch Alder. Hamanielidaeeae. 

Named for Dr. John Fothergill, English naturalist, d. 1780. 
S}Ti. Hamamelis, in part. A small shrub, one species, (a) F. 
Carolina (L. ) Britton, Eastern IT. S., called Witch Alder or 
Dwarf Alder. 

841. FOUQUIERIA, H. B, K. Candlewood. Tamariscaceae. 

Syn. Fouquiera, Spreng. Thorny shrubs or trees. About 
3 species, Mexico and adjacent territory; 1 in V. S. 

842. FRAGARIA, L. - Strawberry. - Rosaceae. 
Latin name, perhaps from * 'fragrance" of the fruit. Peren- 
nial herbs, spreading by runners. About 15 species, north 
temperate zone and S. America; 7 in L^. S. 

a. F. Americdua (Porter) Britton (F. vesca var. Americana Por- 

ter). Canada to New Jersey and west to Oregon, in the woods. 
American Wood Strawberry. Fruit (i. e. fleshy receptacle) of 
this as of all the species esculent. 

b. F. Canadensis Michx. British America, south to New York, in 

fields and meadows. Northern Wild Strawberry, Mountain 
Strawberry. 

c. F. Chilensis Ducliesne. Chili and northward to Oregon. Cnili 

Strawberry, (one of the most prolific species in cultivation). 



164 PLANT XAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. F. Yesca L. (F. vulgaris Erhr. ) Europe, nat. in eastern U. S. 

European Wood Strawberry, Sheep-nose, Sow-tit. The parent 
species of many cultivated varieties; Ger. Erdbeere; Fr. Fraisier 

(Codex). 

e. F. Virginiana Duchesne (F. vesca Walt.). Canada to Florida 

and west to Louisiana, Arizona and S. Dakota. Virginia 
Strawberry, Scarlet Strawberry, Common Field Strawberry. 
Parent species of many cultivated varieties. 

843. FRANKEMA, L. (Franca, Franka). Frankeniaceae. 

Named for Prof. Johann Franke, of Upsala, d. 1661. Syn. 
Franca, Micheli 1763. Heath-like herbs or sub-shrubs. About 
30 species, widely distributed in temperate regions; 3 in U. S. 

a. F. graudifolia Cham. & Schlecht. (Franca grandifolia Esch. ). 
California in salt marshes, Yerba Keuma. Herh astringent. 

844. FRASERA, Walt. American Calumba. Geutiauaceae. 

Named for John Eraser, English botanical collector, d. 1817. 
Robust herbs with flowers in terminal panicles. About 13 spe- 
cies, all of the U. S. , mostly western. 

a. F. Carolinensis Walt. (F. Walteri Michx. ). Canada to 
Georgia and west to Wisconsin. American Columbo, Indian 
Lettuce, Yellow Gentian, Pyramid-plant, Pyramid-flower, 
Ground Centaury, Meadow-pride. Root', Radix Colombo ame- 
ricanw; Ger. Amerikanische Colombo wurzel; Fr. Racine de 
Colombo de Mariette (d' Amerique); bitter tonic resembling 
Calumba. Fresh root emeto-cathartic. 

845. FRAXI>US, L. - - Ash. - - Oleaceae. 

The ancient Latin name. Syn. Ornus, in part. Trees, 
generally with pinnate leaves. About 40 species; 16 in U. S. 
Ger. Esche; Fr. Frene; Sp. Fresco. 

a. F. Americana L. (F. alba Marsh., F. epiptera Michx. , F. Caro- 

liniana Wang., not Mill. ). Canada and eastern U. S. Ame- 
rican White Ash, White Ash, Cane Ash, Ash. Bark of this 
and other species febrifuge; leaves laxative, anti-arthritic. 
Wood tough, elastic. 

b. F. excelsior L. Europe. European Ash; Fr. Frene (Codex). 

Some manna is obtained from this species in southern Europe. 

Bark and leaves used as in (a). 

c. F. nigra Marsh. (F. sambucifolia Lam. ). Canada and north- 

western U. S. Black Ash, Hoop Ash, Swamp or Water Ash, 
Basket Ash. 

d. F. Ornus L. (Ornus Europcea Pers. ). Europe and the Levant. 

Manna Ash, Flowering Ash, European Manna tree. Exudate; 
Manna, U. S. P.; Fr, Manne (Codex); laxative. (The spe- 
cies probably includes F. rotundifolia Lam. ). Additional 
American species are (e) F. Caroliniana Mill. (F. platycarpa 
Michx.), AV'ater Ash, Carolina Ash, Pop or Poppy Ash; (f) 
F. lanceolata Borck (F. viridis Michx. ), Green Ash, Blue 
or Swamp Ash; (g) F. Peunsylvanica Marsh (F. pubescens 
Lam.), Red Ash, Black Ash* and (h) F. quadrangulata 
Michx. ( F. quadrangularis Lodd. ) , Blue Ash. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 165 

846. FREMONTODE>DRON, Coy. Clieirauthodendraceae. 

From Greek, 'Tremont's tree", in honor of Col. Fremont. 
Syn. Fremontia, Torr. 1854 not 1845; Cheiranthodendron, in 
part. Shrub bearing a profusion of yellow flowers. One spe- 
cies, California. 

a. F. Californicvim (Torr.) Coville (Fremontia Californica Tor., 
C. Californicum Baill.). California Slippery Elm. Inner hark 
used for poultices, etc. 

847. FRITILLARIA, L. Guinea-hen flower. LIUaceae. 
From Latin /?nYi//rt.s, a "dice box". Bulbous herbs. About 

50 species, north temperate zone; 9 in U. S. 

a. F. liliaeea Lindl. California. Green Lily. [Cult, in gardens 
are (b) F. imperialis L., Crown-imperial and (c) F. Dielea- 

gris L. of Europe, Guinea-hen flower, Checkered Daffodil, 
Snake' s-head. Weeping- widow, Widow-wail.] 

d. F. yerticillata Willd., not Bieb. nor Wall. (F. Thunbergii 
Miq. ). Siberia. Bai-mo. Seeds anti-rheumatic. 

848. FROELICHIA, Moench. Froelichia. Amaraiithaceae. 

Named for J. A. Froelich, German botanist. Syn. Oplo- 
theca, in part. Woolly or silky herbs. About 12 species, all 
American; 4 in U. S. 

849. FUCUS, L. Seaweed, Kelpware. Fucaceae. 
From the Greek name of "seaweed". Syn. Cystoseira, Hal- 

idrys, Sargassum, in part. Social seaweeds with flat or com- 
pressed forked fronds. 

a. F. natans L. (Sargassum bacciferum Agardh). Atlantic Ocean. 

Gulf weed. 

b. F. vesiculosus L. North Atlantic and north Pacific Oceans. 

Bladder-wrack, Kelpware, Black-tang, Cut-weed, Bladder 
Fucus, Lady- wrack, Sea- wrack. Sea Oak. Tlie entire plant; 
Quercus marinus; Ger. Blasentang, Hockertang, Seeeiche; Fr. 
Varech v^siculeux (Codex); reputed to reduce obesity. (c) 
F. serratus L. and (d) F. siliquosus L. (Cystoseira siliquosa 
Agardh, Halidrys siliquosa Lyngbye) are also used and are 
authorized by the Codex. 

850. FUMARIA, L. - Fumitory. - Papaveraceae. 

Old Latin name, "smoky". Herbs with dissected leaves. 
About 35 species. Old World. 

a. F. officinalis L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Fumitory, Hedge Fumi- 
tory, Earth-smoke|, Beggary, Wax-dolls; Ger. Erdrauch, 
Feldraute;Fr. Fumeterre ( Codex );Sp. Hiel detierra, Pajarilla. 
Fresh juice of the -plant, alterative, discutient. 

851. FtJlSKIA, Spreng. 1817. Day-Lily. Liliaceae. 
Named for H. Funck, German botanist. Syn. Saussurea, 

Salisb. 1807 (without description), Niobe, Salisb, 1812, Hosta, 
Tratt. 1812, not Jacq. 1797. Perennial scapose herbs from 
woody rhizomes. About 6 species, China and Japan; (a) F. 
ovata Spreng. (S. cwrulea Salisb.), Blue Day-lily; (b) F. 
subcordata vSpreng. ( N. cordifolia Salisb., H. Japonica Tratt. ) 
AVhite Day-lily, Plantain Lily. 



166 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

852. FURCRAEA, Vent. 17V)3. Amaryllidaceae. 

Syn. Fourcroya, Spreng 1S17. Plants resembling Agave. 
About 18 species^ tropical America: (a) F. i^igant^a Vent. 
( F. viridis Hemsley ), of Central America resembles Sisal Hemp, 
its leaves yielding a similar fibre. 

858. FUSASUS, E. Br. Quandong nut. Santalaceae. 

Trees or shrubs, natives of S. Africa and Australia. 

a. F. acumiliatlis E. Br. (Santalum Preissianum Miq.). Aus- 
tralia. Quandong-nut, Quandang, Native Peach. Both fruit 
and hernel esculent and highly esteemed. 

854. OAERTNERIA, Med. 1785. Ggertneria. Ambrosiaceae. 

Named for Joseph Gyertner, German botanist, d. 1791. 
Syn. Franseria, Cav. 1793; Ambrosia, in part. Hispid or 
tomentose herbs. About 15 species, America; 12 in U. S. 

855. OAILLARDIA, Foug. Blanket-flower. Compositae. 

Named for M. Gaillard, French botanist. Syn. Agassizia, 
in part. Herbs with large flower lieads, the rays occasionally 
Avanting. About 12 specie", New World; 11 in U. S. and 
Mexico. 

856. GALACTIA, P. Br. Milk Pea. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "milky", alluding to the sap. Herbaceous or 
shrubby plants, generally climbing or prostrate. About 50 
species, warmer regions, especially of America; 14 in U. S., 
mostly southwestern. 

857. OALANTHUS, L. Snowdrop. Amaryllidaceae. 
From Greek, "milk flower". Scapose herbs from a coated 

bulb. Three species, Europe and western Asia. 

a. G. iiivalis L. Europe. Snowdrop, Fair-maids, Fair-maids-of- 
February. 

858. GrALAX, L. Galax, Beetle- weed. Dlapensiaceae. 

From Greek, "milk", but the name seems not appropriate. 
Scapose perennial, with densely racemed small flowers. A 
single species; (a) 0. aphylla L., southern U. S., called also 
Galaxyt and Colt's-foot. 

869. GALEDrPA, Lam. 1786 Kurung. Papiliouaeeae. 

Syn. Pongamia, Vent., 1803; Dalbergia, in |>iiri. A tree. 
One species, tropical Asia to Australia. 

a. (t. Fougam Baeusch (P. glabra Vent., L). arborea Roxb. G. 
Indica Lam., perhaps the oldest name). India to Australia 
and Fiji Islands. Seeds source of Kurung (Kurunj) or Poona 
oil. 

860. GrALEGA, L. Goat's Rue. Papiliouaeeae. 

From Greek, "milk producing". Smooth perennial herbs. 
About 6 species, southern Europe and western Asia. 

a. G. officinalis L. Mediterranean region to central Europe. 
Goat's Rue; Ger. Geisraute, Pestilenzkraut; Fr. Rue de chevre. 
Herb, Herba ruta? caprarije, diaphoretic, antlielmintic, anti- 
spasmodic. 



SCIENTIFIC AXIJ FUl'LLAU. 1()7 

861. GALEOFSIS, L. Hemp Nettle. Labiatae. 
Ancient Greek name, meaning "weasel like". Annual 

herbs. About species, Old World. . 

a. (t. TetrallitL. (G. grandiHora Suter., G. cannabina Willd. ). 

Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Hemp Nettle, Hemp Dead- 
nettle, Bee Nettle, Dog Nettle, Blind Nettle, Flowering Nettle, 
Nettle Hemp, Wild or Bastard Hemp, Glidewort, Ironwort, 
Holy-rope; Ger. Hanfnessel, Hohlzahn; Fr. Chanvre batard, 
Galeopside. Herb tonic, antiperiodic. 

b. (t. ocliroleiica Lam. (G. grandiHora Both., (i. cannabina Pol- 

lich). Europe. Pale-yellow Hemp-nettle. Herb; Herba 
(Summitates) galeopsidis; (ier. Blankenheimer Thee, Lieber'- 
sche Krauter, (Tesnndheitskrauter; a popular remedy (in 
Germany) for coughs, etc. 

862. GALINSOGA, B. & P. (ialinsoga. Coiiipositae. 
Named for M. M. Galinsoga of Madrid. Herbs with small 

flower heads. About •") species, all American; 2 in U. S. 

863. (xALIUM, L. Bedstraw, (leavers, etc. llubiaceae. 

Greek name of (i) which has the property of coagulating 
"milk". Syn. C'ruciata, in part. Herbs often armed, mostly 
with whorled leaves. About 225 species; oO in U. S. Syno- 
nyms are Airif, Geckdor, (iull-grass, Gye, !^tickleback,.Tivers, 
Witherspail. 

a. (x. Aparine L. P^umpe, nat. in U. 8. (leavers (Clivers), 
Cleaverwort, (Toose-grass, (iosling-grass, Gosling- weed, Airif, 
Hairif, Beggar-lice, Bur-head, Catch-weed, Cling-rascal, Cla- 
ver-grass, Clallion, Gravel-grass, (irip. Grip-grass, Love-man, 
Maid's-hair, Pig-tail, Pertimugget, Poor-Robin, Snatch-weed, 
Stick-a-back, Stickle- back, Sweet-hearts, Turkey-grass, Wild 
Hedge-burs, Wild Bosemaryf; ^^er. Klebkraut; Fr. (rrateron, 
Riebel. Herb diuretic, discutient. (Jther rough species like 
(b) (t. asprellum Michx. are also called Cleavers, ( atch-weed, 
etc. 

c. G. circaezaus Michx. Canada and eastern U. S. Wild 

Licorice, Cross Cleavers. Leaves have a sweet taste, as do 
those of (d) (x. laiiceolatuill Torr. of northeastern V. S. and 
Canada. Torrey's Wild Licoiice. 

e. (j. Cruciata Scop. (G. cruciatum Sm., (. hirsuta Fourr. ). 

Europe and northern Asia. Maywort, Golden Crosswort, Gold- 
en Mugwet (Muguet) or Mugweed, Moneywort. 

f. (x. Moiliigro L. (G. album Mill.). P2nrope, nat. in V. S. 

Greater Wild Madder, Great or White Hedge-bedstraw, Babies'- 
breath, Infant' 8-breath, Whip-tongue; (ier. Waldstroh; Fr. 
Caille-lait blanc (Codex). Flovering tops antispasmodic. 

g. (x. tiuctorium L. (G. trifidum var. latifoliura Torr., (i. obtusuin 

Bigel. ). Canada to N. Carolina, west to Arizona. Smaller 
Wild Madder, Dyer's Cleavers. i?oo/ of this as of ( f) yields a 
red dye. 



168 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

h. (x. trifloriim Michx. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, 
south to Alabama and California. Sweet-scented or Fragrant 
Bedstraw. Leaves contain coumarin as in Asperula (b.) 

i. Gr. verum L. (G. luteum L., G. floridum Salisb. ). Europe, 
Asia, nat. in U. S. Yellow Bedstraw, Our-lady's Bedstraw, 
Ladies' or Yellow Cleavers, Bedflower, Brum, Cheese- rennet, 
Runnet, Curd wort, Keeslip, Fleawort, Maid's-hair; Ger. Meger- 
kraut, Liebfrauenstroh, Labkraut; Fr. Caille-lait jaune (Co- 
dex); Sp. Cuajalache. Herb diuretic; coagulates milk. 

864. GALPINSIA, Brit. 1894. Galpinsia. OnagTaceae. 

Anagram of Salpingia. Syn. Salpingia, Raimann 1893, not 
Salpinga DC. ; Oenothera, in part. Perennial herbs, some 
shrubby, with yellow flowers. About 4 species, Mexico and 
adjacent regions; 3 in U. S. 

865. GALVEZIA, Juss. 1789. Galvezia. Scrophulariaceae. 

Syn. Galvesia, J. F. Gmel. 1791, Agassizia, Chav. 1830. 
Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 3 species, New World; 1 in U. S. 

866. GARBERIA, Gray. Garberia. Compositae. 

Named for Dr. A. P. Garber, the rediscoverer. Syn. Liatris, 
Leptoclinium, in part. Shrub with numerous rather small 
flower-heads. One species, Florida. , 

867. .GrARCINIA, L. Mangosteen, etc. Cliisiaceae. 

iS'amed for Laurent Garcin, French botanist, d. 1752. Syn. 
Mangostana, Brindonia, Hebradendron, in part. Trees with 
yellow milk sap. About 40 species, tropical Asia, Africa and 
East Indian Islands. 

a. G. Haiiburii Hook f. var. pedicellata Hanb. perhaps a distinct 

species, (G. pictoriaRoxb.,G. Gutta Wight, G. elliptica Wall. , 
G. Cambogioides Royle, H. Cambogioides Graham), closely re- 
lated to G. Morella Desr. Farther India. Gum resin; 
Camloogia. U. S. P., Br., Gambogia, U. S. P. 1870, Gamboge; 
Gummi-resina guttse v. gutti, Gutta gamba, Cambodia; Ger. 
Gutti, Gummi-gutt; Fr. Gomme-gutte (Codex); Sp. Gomaguta, 
Guta gamba; irritant, hydragogue. 

b. G. indica Choisy (G. purpurea Roxb., B Indica Du Petit-Th. ) . 

India. Seeds used in curries; source of Kokum butter or con- 
crete oil of Mangosteen. 

c. G. Mangostana L. (M. Garcinia Gaertn. ). East Indies, cult. 

in all tropical countries. Mangosteen (Mangostan, Mangos- 
tine). Fruit esculent. Rind of^ fruit, Cort. mangostanse, 
erroneously called Mango fruit; astringent, as is also the bark 
of the tree. 

868. GARDENIA, Ellis. Cape Jasmine. Rubiaceae. 
Named for Alexander Garden of S. Carolina, d. 1791. Trees 

or shrubs. About 60 species, tropical Asia and Africa. 

a. G. campanulata Roxb. India to Burma. Fruit cathartic, 
'anthelmintic; (b) G. edulis F. Muell. is the Australian Bread- 
fruit; (c) G. jasminoides Ellis, (including G. florida L. and 
G. radicans Thunb. ) from China is the well known Cape Jas- 
mine (Jessamine). 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 169 

^869. CrARRYA, Dougl. California Fever-bush. Coriiaceae. 

Evergreen shrubs with coriaceous leaves. About 14 specias, 
warmer regions of New World, 7 in southwestern TJ. S. 

a. 6r. Fremouti Torr. California. California Fever-bush, Skunk- 
bush, Leaves cholagogue, tonic. 

870. OAULTHERIA, L. 1751. (Gualtheria). Ericaceae. 

Named for Dr. Gaulthier of Quebec. vSyn. Brosssea L. 1737. 
Shrubs with evergreen leaves. About 100 species, mostly of 
S. America, a few of N. America and Asia; 4 in U S. 

a. G. hispida E. Br. Australia to New Zealand. Wax-cluster. 

vb. G. prociimbeiis L. (Brossaea procumbens (L. ) O. Kze. ). 
Canada and northeastern U. S. Wintergreen, Creeping or 
Spring Wintergreen, Aromatic or Spicy" Wintergreen, Tea- 
berry, Partridge-berry, Box-berry, Checkerberry, Chicken-berry, 
Spice-berry, Deerberry, Ground-berry, Grouse-berry, Hill- 
berry, Ivy-berry, Kedberry Tea, Canadian Tea, Mountain 
Tea, Chinks, Drunkards, Eed Pollom, Ivory Plum, Kapper- 
dandies; Fr. Gaultherie Couchee ( Codex y. Leaves; Folia 
gaultherise; Ger. Canadischer Thee, Bergthee; Fr. Feuilles 
de gaultherie (de palommier), The du Canada, The de terre- 
neuve; astringent, ^ aromatic; source of Oleum Gaultheriae, 
U. S. P. , Oil of Wintergreen. See Betula lenta. 

•c. G. Sliallon Pui-sh. Northwestern U. S. and British Columbia. 
Shallon, Salal. Fruit esculent as is that of (d) G. Myrsinites 
Hook, of the same region. 

■871. GAtJRA, L. Wild Honeysuckle*. Ouagraceae. 

From Greek, ''superb", although the name is not very well 
applied. Herbs with pink or red flowers. About 18 species, 
N. America; 14 in U. S. 

:872. GAURELLA, Small. Spotted Primrose. Onagraceae. 
Latin, diminutive of Gaura. Syn. Oenothera, in part. Dif- 
fuse perennial herb. One species, Nebraska to is^ew Mexico. 

873. GAYLUSSACIA, H.B.K. 1818. Huckleberry. Yacciuiaceae. 

Named for the French chemist Gay-Lussac. Syn. Adnaria, 
Eaf. 1817?; Vaccinium, in part. Low shrubs, our species 
producing edible fruits. About 40 species, all American ; 7 in 
U. S. The species of the northeastern states are (a) G. 
brachycera ( Michx. ) A. Gr. (V. brachycerum Michx., V. 
buxifolium Salisb., not Hook. f. ), Box Huckleberry (Whortle- 
berry); (b) G. diiinosa (Andr.) T.&Gr. (V. dumosum Andr.), 
Dwarf or Bush Huckleberry; (c) G. froiidosa (L. ) T. & Gr. 
(V. frondosum L. ), Blue-tangle, Tangleberrv, Dangleberry, 
Blue Huckleberry; (d) G. resinosa (Ait. )'T. & Gr. (v! 
resinosum Ait.), Black or High-bush Huckleberry, Blacksnaps, 
Crackers. 

:874. GAY6pHYTUM, A. Juss. Gayophytum. Ona^raceae. 

Slender annual herbs. About 10 species, New World- 6 in 
U. S. 



170 TLA NT ^•AMl:i^ AND SYNONYMS 

87o. UEISSOSPEKMUM, AUem. Dis. Apoc} iiaceae. 

From Greek, 'bordered seed". Trees with hoary-pubescent 
leaves. A.bout 4 species, South America; (a) G. Vellosii Alem. 
(G. laeve Miers) of Brazil is Pao Pareira. />f//-,r bitter, anti- 
periodic. 

876. GELASIXE, Herb. Gelasine. Iridaceae. 
Bulbous herbs. One or two species. New AVorld; 1 in south- 
ern U. S. 

877. GELIDIUM, Lam. Agar-agar. ^ Oelidiaceae. 
Syn. Cornea, Stackh. Seaweeds abounding in gelose. See 

Eucheuma. 

a. (t. coriienin Lam. ( 'oasts oi China. One of severa seaweeds 
from which the Chinese edible bird's nests are made. This 
together Avith (b) Gloiopeltis tcuax J. Agardh, as well as 
species of Eucheuma and Sphaerococcus constitute Agar-agar. 

878., GELSEMir3I, Juss. Yellow Jasmine. Logauiaceae. 

From Italian name of "Jasmine". Syn. Lisianthus, Bigno- 
niat, in part. Twining woody vines with showy yellow flowers. 
Two species, one of eastern Asia, one of U. S. 

a. (t, sempervirens (L.) Ait. f. (B. sempervirens L. , G. nitidum 
Michx.,L. sempervirens Miller, Anonymos sempervirens Walt., 
G. lucidum Poiret). Virginia to Florida, Texas and south to 
( Tuatemala. Yellow Jasmine or Jessamine, Carolina Jessamine, 
Carolina Wild Woodbine, Evening Trumpet-flower; Ger. 
Gelber Jasmin, Jasminbignonie, Immergrline Trompetenblume^ 
Giftjasmin, Gelseinie; Fr. Gelsemium (Codex), Jasmin sau- 
vage; Sp. Gelsemio. Rhizome and roots; Gelsemiuin, V. S. P., 
Gelsemii radix, Br. ; antispasmodic, arterial and nervous seda- 
tive. 

870. GEM3liNGIA, Fabr. 1759. Blackberry Lily. Iridaceae. 
Syn. Belamcanda, Adans., 1763; Pardanthus, Ker. 1805; 
Ixia, in part. Rather robust herb with fruit resembling in 
appearance a blackberry. One species, eastern Asia, nat. in 
U. S. (a) G. Chineusis (L. ) Kze. (Ixia Chinensis L. ); Black- 
berry Lily, Leopard-flower, Dwarf Tiger-lily. 

880. GE^'IPA, L. - Genip tree. - Rubiaeeae. 

Xame from vernacular, West Indies. Trees with succu- 
lent fruit. About 10 species, mostly of tropical America; 1 in 
U. S. 

a. G. Aiiiericdua L. S. America. Genip tree, Genipap (verna- 
cular Genipapo), in Surinam called Marmalade-box. Fruit 
(large as an orange) esculent. The Seven-year Apple from(b) 
G. clusiaefolia Griseb., West Indies to Florida, is not edible. 

881. GENISTA, L. Broom, Whin. Papilionaceae. 

Latin name (from Celtic gcu a *'bush), applied originally to 
Spartium junceum L. From this comes Fr. genet and hence 
Plantagenet (Plante a genet). Shrubs, some thoniy, with 
showy yellow flowers. About 80 species, temperate regions of 
Old World. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 171 

a. a, tiuctoria L. (including G. pubescens L, and G. lucida Kit- 
tel). Europe and northern Asia, nat. in U, iS. Dyer's Broom, 
Dj'e-weed, Green-Aveed, Alleluia, Base Broom, (heen Broom, 
Dyer's Furze, Dyer's Whin, Groonwood, Woad-waxen, Wood- 
Avax, Wood- waxen, Waxen-woad, Widow- wisse, AVudwise; Ger. 
Farberginster, Gilbkraut, Glosen. Herb , H. genistw ( tincto- 
rise), H. cytisogenistse; diuretic, cathartic, formerly used to 
produce the famous Kendal green. 

882. GENTIANA, L. - Gentian. - (ieutiaiiaceae. 

Named for King Gentius of Illyria. Bitter herbs with showy 
blue, purple, yellow or white flowers. About 800 species, 
north temperate and Arctic zones and 8. America; 43 in U. S.; 
Ger, Enzian; Fr. Gentiane; Sp. Genciana, 

a. G. crinita Froel. Ontario to Georgia and west to Iowa and 

Minnesota. Fringed Gentian, Larger Fringed Gentian. 

b. G. liitea L. Southern and central Europe. Yellow (ientian, 

Pale Gentian, Bitter-root, Bitterwort, Felwort. Boot; Q-en- 
tiana, U, S. P., Gentianae radix.. Br., K. gentiana? P. G., E. 
gentians rubrae v. lutese v. majoris; Ger. Enzianwnrzel, 
Bitterwurzel, Pother Enzian; Fr. Gentiane (Codex), Kacine 
de gentiane jaune; bitter, tonic. [The smaller roots also of (c) 
G. Paimonica Scopoli, Austria; (d) G. punctata L., Alps to 
the Balkans, and (e) G. purpurea L., Alps, Carpathian Moun- 
tains and Norway, are collected with those of (t. lutea, and are 
recognized in some of the European pharmacopoeias.] 

f. G. quiuquefolia L. (G. quinqueflora Lam. ). Five flowered 

Gentian, Stift" Gentian, Ague-weed, Gall-weed, Blue < Gentian. 
Plant bitter, tonic. 

g. G. Sapouaria L. (G. Catesbaei Walt., not of Elliott). Ontaria 

to Florida and west to Louisiana and ^Minnesota. SoapAvort 
Gentian; Mai-sh or Eough Gentian, Calathian X'iolet, Harvest- 
bells. (This and other species are used under various names 
such as American Gentian, Blue or Southern Gentian, Samp- 
son Snakeroot for the same uses as the European Gentian . ) 
Other species of indigenous gentians are ( h) G. aciita Michx. 
)erhaps only a variety of the Old World G. Amerella L. ), 
(orthern (jentian, Baldmoney (Bawdmoney), Bastard Gentian: 
(i) G. Audrewsii Griseb. (G. alba Muhl. ), Closed or Blind 
Gentian, Cloistered-heart, Barrel Gentian, Bottle Gentian; (j) 
G. detonsa Rottb. (G. serrata Gunner), Smaller Fringed 
Gentian; (k) G. EUiottii Chapm. (G. Catesbyei Ell., not of 
Walt, G. scaberrima Kusnezow), Elliott's G«-ntian; (1) G. 
flavida A. Gray (G. alba A. Gray 1848 not Muhl. 1818), Yel- 
lowish Gentian; (m) G. Porpliyrio J. F. Gmel. (G. purpurea 
Walt, not L., G. angustifolia Michx.), One-flowered Gentian; 
(n) G. villosa L. (G. ochroleuca Froel.), Striped (Jentian, 
Straw Colored or Marsh Gentian. [There has been nmch con- 
fusion in the nomenclature, scientific as well as popular of on v 
gentians.] 

. GERANIUM, L. Geranium, Cranesbill. Geraiiiaceae. 

From Greek, "crane", alluding to beak of fruit, an ancient 
plant name. Perennial herbs. About 17o species, temperate 
regions; 21 in U. S. 



No 



172 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. G. macula turn L. Canada and eastern U. S. , south to Georgia. 

Cranesbill, Spotted or Wild Cranesbill, Storksbill, Spotted or 
Wild Geranium, Alum-root, Alum-bloom, Chocolate-flower, 
Crowfoot*, Dove-foot, Old-maid' s-night-cap, Shame-face; Ger. 
Fleckstorchschnabel ; Fr, Bec-de-grue tachete, Geranium macule, 
Pied-de-corneille; Sp. Geranio. Bhizame; Qrer&mMm, U. S. P., 
astringent. 

b. Gr. Robertianum L. Canada to New Jersey, west to Missouri 

and Manitoba, also in Europe, Asia and northern Africa. 
Herb Robert, Fox Geranium, Mountain Geranium, Death- 
come-quickly, Dragon's-blood* Red-Eobin, Red-bird, Red- 
bird's-eye, Redshanks, Rock-weed, Sailor' s-knot, vStinking 
Cranesbill, VVren' s-flower, Jenny- wren; Ger. Ruprechtskraut, 
Bockstorchschnabel; Fr. Herbe a Robert. Hei^b astringent, 
discutient, diuretic. 

884. GrERARDIA, L. Gerardia. Scrophulariaceae. 

Named for John Gerarde, author of the Herbal, d. 1612. 
Herbaceous or suffruticose plants with showy flowers. About 
40 species, New World; 20 in U. S. See also Dasystoma. 

885. GEUM, L. - Avens. - Rosaeeae. 
The ancient Latin name. Syn. Stylipus, in part. Perennial 

herbs with yellow, white, rarely purple flowers. About 40 
species, mostly in north temperate zone; 17 in U. S. 

a. (x. ciliatiim Pursh (G. triflorum Pursh.). British America and 

northern U. S. Long-plumed Purple Avens, Johnny-smoker, 
Prairie-smoke. 

b. G. rivale L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, south to 

Pennsylvania and Colorado. Water Avens, Purple or Droop- 
ing Avens, Evans-root, Chocolate- root, Indian Chocolate, Cure- 
all, Maidenhair*, Throat-root, i^^t^ome and j-oo^/e^s; Rad. cary- 
ophyllatse aquaticte, Rad. benedictfe sylvestris; Ger. Sumpf- 
nelkenwurzel, Wasserbenediktenwurzel; Fr. Racine de benoite 
aquatique; astringent, tonic, stomachic. 

■c. G. strictiim Ait. (G. Canadense Murr., not Jacq. ). British 
America, south to New Jersey and Arizona. Yellow Avens, 
Yellow Bennet. Black-bur (local U. S.). 

■d. G. iirbaniimL. (G. caryophyllatum Pers. ). Europe. European 
Avens (Avance, Evans), Bennet, Herb Bennet or Bennett, 
Blessed herb, Clove-root, City Avens, Yellow or Wood Avens, 
Goldy-harefoot, London-basket, Star-of-the-earth ; Ger. Nelken- 
wurz, Benedictenwurz; Fr. Benoite (Codex). Bhizome; Rad. 
(Rhizoma) car}'ophyllat?e, Rad. gei. Properties of (b). 

e. G. Virginiaiiiim L. Canada and northeastern U. S. Rough 
Avens White Avens, Red-root, Throat-root, Chocolate-root, 
(this name applied to other species having a similarly colored 
root), American Bennet. These names apply equally, except 
the first to (f) G. Canadense Jacq. (G. album Gmel. (Kew), 
G. Carolinianum AValt. ) , which is properly American White 
Avens. Properties of ( b ) . 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 17S 

886. GIFOLA, Cass. Cotton Kose, etc. Compositae, 

Anagram of Filago. Syn. Filago, Gnaphalium, in part. 
AVhite-woolly herbs, resembling Filago. About 10 species, 
warm and temperate regions; 5 in U. S. [Heller catalogues 
the species as Filago. ] 

a. (x. Oerinanica (L. ) Dumort (Filago Germanica L. ). Europe, 
nat. in U. S. Cotton Kose, Chafe- weed. Cudweed, Childing Cud- 
weed, Down-weed, Herb Christopher*, Hoarwort, Owl's-crown; 
formerly called Herba impia. Plant reputed vulnerary. 

887. GIGARTINA, Stackh. Sea Moss. Oigariiiieae. 

Syn. SphiBrococcus, Mastocarpus, in part. Seaweeds re- 
lated to Chondrus. About 50 species, widely distributed. 

a. (x. mamillosa Greville (S. mamillosus Argardh, M. mamillosus 
Kutzing). Coasts of north Atlantic. Irish Moss, in part. 
Plant; Chonclrus, U. S. P., in part. See Chondrus crispus. 

888. GILIA, K. & P. . Gilia. - Polemoiiiaceae. 

Named for Philip Gil, Spanish botanist. Syn. Cantua, 
Collomia, in part. Herbs, some ornamental. About 75 spe- 
cies, New World; 63 in U. S. 

889. OINKGO, L. 1771. Maidenhair tree. Taxaceae. 
Vernacular Japanese name. Syn. Salisburia, Sm. 1797. 

A tree with leaves resembling frondlets of an Adiantum. 

a. Gf. biloba L. (S. adiantifolia Sm. ). China and Japan, and 

often planted as a shade tree. Gingko tree, (Ginkgo, Gingo), 
Maidenhair tree; Chinese name Yin-hing (i. e. Silver Apri- 
cot). »Seec?s, called by the Chinese Pa-koo, almond-like, esculent 
yield a fixed oil. 

890. GITH6pSIS, Xutt. Githopsis. Canipamilaceae. 

Inconspicuous annuals. Two species, both of California. 

891. OLADIOLUS, L. Sword-lily. Iridaceae. 
From Latin, dim. of gladius, a * 'sword". Herbs from fleshy 

corms. About 90 species, Africa and the Mediterranean region. 

a.G. edulis Burchell. South Africa. Corms edible, tasting like 
chestnuts when roasted. 

b. G. paliistris Gaudin (G. Boucheanus Schlecht. ). Sword-lily, 

Round Ramson, Round Mandrake, Corn Flag; Ger. Runder 
AUermannsbarnisch, Siegmarswurz. Corms, Bulbi victorialis 
rotundi, Bulbi gladioli; vulnerary. 

892. (xLAl^CIUM, Juss. Horned Poppy. Papaveraceae. 

Name from Greek, alluding to ''glaucous" foliage. Syn. 
Chelidonium, in part. Glaucous herbs with yellow latex. 
About 6 species, mostly of Mediterranean region. 

a. G. Grlaiiciiim (L. ) Karst. ( Chelidonium Glaucium L., G. flavum 
Crantz (Kew), G. luteum Scop. ). Southern Europe, adv. in 
U. S. Yellow Horned Poppy, Y^ellow Sea Poppy, Horn Poppy, 
Bruise- root. Bruise wort, Spatmore, Squatmore, Sea Celandine; 
Ger. Hornmohn; Fr. Pavot cornu. Fresh plant or juice of 
plant purgative, hydragogue; (b) G. coriiiciildtiim Curtius 
has similar properties. 



174 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

803. OLAUX, L. vSea Milkwort, etc. Primulaceae. 

The ancient name of Milk-vetch, meaning "sea green". 
Small bnt rather pretty herbs of salt marshes. Two species, one 
of north temperate zone, one of S. America. 

a. (x. maritima L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. Sea 
Milkwort, Black Saltwort, Sea Trifoly; Ger. Milchkraut; Fr. 
Glance. 

894. GLECH^MA, L. - Ground Ivy. - Labiatae. 
Ancient Greelc name of a Labiate plant. Syn Nepeta, in 
part. Creeping herbs. About 6 species. Old World. 

a. G. hederacea L. (Nepeta Glechoma Benth., N. hederacea B. S. 
P.). Europe, widely nat. in U. S. Ground Ivy, Field Balm, 
Gill-over-the-ground, Alehoof or Tanhoof ( so called from use 
in brewing), Cat's-foot, Cat's-paw, Creeping-Charlie, Crow- 
victuals, Gill-ale, Gill-go-by-the-ground, Gill- run. Hay-hove, 
Hay-maids, Hedge-maids, Hove, Kobm-run-away, Eobin-run- 
in-the-hedge; Ger. Gundelreben; Fr. Lierre terrestre (Codex). 
Herb formerly reputed stimulant tonic, etc. 

^S()o. GLEDITSIA, L. 1742. (Gleditschia). Caesalpinaceae. 
Named for J. D. Gleditsch, German botanist, d. 1786. Syn. 
Melilobus, Mitch. 1748. Thorny trees. About 5 species, N. 
America and Asia; 2 in U. S. 

a. G. aqudtica Marsh. (G. monosperma Walt. (Kew), G. Caro- 

linensis Lam.). Indiana and southward, west to Missouri. 
Water Locust, Swamp Locust. 

b. G. triacanthos L. (G. spinosa Marsh. G. brachycarpa, Pursh., 

G. Meliloba Walt., G. heterophylla Raf. ). Michigan to 
Georgia, west to Texas and Kansas. Honey Locust, Sweet 
Locust, Thorn or Black Locust, Honey, Honey-shucks, Sweet- 
bean, Three-thorned Acacia. Pods contain a saccharine pulp. 

>»9(>. GLINUS, Lofl. - Glinus. - Aizoaceae. 

Syn. Mollugo, in part. Herbs, rarely shrubby. About (> 
species; tropical and subtropical regions; 1 in U. S. 

897. GLOBULARIA, L. Globularia. Globular iaceae. 

From Latin, a "little ball" . Herbs or shrubs. About 15 
species, Mediterranean region. 

a. G. Alypiim L. (G. virgata Salisb. ). Southern Europe. Wild 
Senna, European Wild Senna. Leaves used as a substitute for 
true senna. 

898. GLOSSOPETALON, Gray. (Glossopetalum). Sapiudaceae. 

From Greek, "tongue" and "petal". Spiny shrub. One 
species, U. S. and Mexico. 

S9t). GLOTTIDIUM, Benth. Glottidium. Papilioiiaceae. 

From Greek, '* throat-like". Syn. Sesbania, in part. Herbs 
with pinnate leaves. One species in southern U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AXD POPULAR. 17") 

900. (tLYCINE, L. Soy Bean, etc. Papilioiiaceae. 

Sjn. Doliclios, Soja, in part. Herbs, mostly climbing or 
prostrate. About 16 species, tropical Asia, Africa and Aus- 
tralia. 

a. G. hispida Maxim. (S. hispida Moench). China and Japan. 
Soy Bean, Sahuca Beau, White Gram, called in Japan Miso. 
Seeds esculent, used for preparation of Japanese Soy ( Sooja ) ; 
(_b) G. Soja (L. ) S. & Z. (D. Soja L.). is said to' be a dis- 
tinct species, but probably used in the same manner (Mueller). 

901. GLYCOSMA, Xutt. Glycosma. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "sweet smellino;" . Syn. Osmorrhiza, Myrrhis, 
in part. Herbs with anisate odor. Two species, southAvestern 
U. S. 

902. GLYCYRRHIZA, L. 1737 Licorice. Papilioiiaceae. 

The Greek name, meaning ' 'sweet root" . Syn. Liquiritia, 
Medic, 1787. Perennial herbs with sweet roots. About 20 
species, north temperate zone, S. America and Australia; 1 in 

u. s. 

a. G. echiuata L. Southern Europe. Sicilian Licorice, Calabrian 

Licorice. Properties of ( b j . 

b. G. glabra L. (G. officinalis Lepech. L. officinalis Moench., G. 

vulgaris Gueld.). Southern Europe to central Asia. Licorice 
(Liquorice, Lickorice, Lickerice. Licourize). Boot and un- 
derground stun; Glycyrrhiza, U. S. P., Glycyrrhiza? radix Br. 
R. liquiritise, P. G. ; K. glycyrrhiza^ hispanicae; Licorice-root, 
Sweet-root, Sweet-Avood, Spanish Juice-root or Juice- wood; 
Ger. Siissholz, Slissholzwurzel, Lakritzenholz; Fr. Reglisse 
(Codex), Bois de reglisse, Bois doux, Racine douce; Sp. Orozuz, 
Regaliz, Palo dulce; demulcent, has the property of masking 
bitterness of quinine. 

c. G. glandulifera Wald. e^- Kitt. (G. glabra, var. glandulifera 

Regel & Herder). Hungary, Turkey, west to Turkestan. 
Probably only a variety of (b). The source especially of Rus- 
sian licorice-root. 

d. G. lepidota Pursh. British America, south to Iowa and Cali- 

fornia. Wild Licorice, American Licorice. 

903. GLYPTOPLEl RA, Eaton. Glyptopleura. Ciohorlaceae. 

From Greek, "carved rib". Dwarf winter annuals with 
flowers disproportionately large. Two species, deserts of Utah 
and Nevada. 

904. GNAPHALIUM, L. Cudweed, Everlasting, etc. ('oinpositae. 

Old Greek name of a plant, meaning "woolly'". Woolly 
herbs with small flower heads. About 120 species, widely dis- 
trit)uted; 18 in U. .S. vSynonym.s are Chafl-weed, Petty Cot- 
ton; Ger. Katzenpfotchen, Immei-sohon; Fr. Pied de chat. 
Immortelle; Sp. (rordolobo. 



176 PLANT NAMES ANT) SYNONYMS 

a. 0. obtiisifolium L. (G. polvcephalum Michx. ). Canada to 

Florida and west to Texas and Manitoba. Life-everlasting', 
Sweet Balsam, Field or White Balsam, Old-field Balsam, Bal- 
sam-weed, Chafe-weed, Everlasting, Sweet-scented or Fragrant 
Life-everlasting, Feather-weed, Fuzzy-guzzy, Indian-posy 
Moonshine, Poverty-weed, Rabbit Tobacco. Herh aromatic, 
anodyne, antiseptic. 

b. G. sylTaticiini L. Europe, northern Asia and N. America, 

where it is perhaps only naturalized. Wood Cudweed, Golden 
Motherwort, Chafeweed, Owl's-crown. Floicering tops diaphor- 
etic (in hot infusion. ) 

c. G. uliginosuiu L. Europe and northern Asia, nat. (or perhaps 

indigenous) in northern U. S. Low Cudweed, Mouse-ear, 
Dysentery- weed. Marsh Cudweed, Wartwort, Small Life Ever- 
lasting. Herb demulcent, stomachic. 

905. GNAPHALODES, A. Gray. Gnaphalodes. Compositae. 

From Greek, ''resembling Gnaphalium". Syn. Micropus, 
Khyncolepis, in part. Low floccose- woolly annuals. Three 
species in California. 

906. GOCHNATIA, H. B. K. Gochnatia. Compositae. 

Named for F. C. Gochnat of Strasburg. Syn. Moquinia, in 
part. Shrubby plants with coriaceous leaves. About 10 spe- 
cies, New World; 1 in Texas. 

907. GODETIA, Spach. - Godetia. - Onagraceae. 

Syn. Oenothera, in part. Annuals resembling Oenothera, 
but with purple or pink, instead of yellow flowers. About 20' 
species, New World; 16 in U. S. (Pacific border.) 

908. GOMPHOCARPUS, P.Br. Gomphocarpus.Asclepiadaceae. 
From Greek, "club-fruit". Syn. Acerates, iu part. Shj-ubs 

or herbs. About 50 species, mostly of Africa and Arabia; 2 in 
California. 

909. GOMPHRENA, L. (Gomphraena). Amaranthaceae. 

Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 9( species, tropical America, a 
few in Asia and Australia; 5 in U. S. 

910. GOKOLOBUS, Michx. (Gonolobium). Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "angle pod"'. Shrubs and shrubby climbers. 
About 85 species. New World. See Vincetoxicum and Mesa- 
denia. 

a. G. tetragoims DC. Cundurango de paloma of Malacatos. See 
Echites hirsuta. Bark reputed alterative. 

911. G0RD6nIA, Ellis. Loblolly Bay. Theaceae. 
Named for James Gordon, London nurseryman, 18th Cen- 
tury. Syn. Hypericumf, in part. Evergreen trees or shrubs. 
About 16 species, N. America and eastern Asia, 1 in U. S. 

a. G. Lasianthus (L. ) Ellis (Hypericum Lasianthus L. ). Virgi- 
nia to Florida. Loblolly Bay, Tan Bay, Holly Baj, Bay 
Holly, Black Laurel, Swamp Laurel. Bark astringent, used 
for tanning. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 177 

912. GOSSYPIUM, L - Cotton. - Malvaceae, 

Ancient Latin name, of eastern origin. Shrubs or small 

trees. About 15 species, warmer regions of Old and New 
World; 2 cult, in U. S. 

a. G, arboreiim L. India to Arabia. Cotton tree, New Orleans 

Cotton. (G. sanguineum Hassk. of Java is referred by Mueller 
to this species, which does not in fact form a real tree. ) 

b. €r. Barbadense L. (Includes according to Bentley and Trimen 

G. vitifolium Lam., G. Peruvianum Cay., G. punctatum Schum. 
& Thou., G. acuminatum Roxb. and G. religiosum Parlatore, 
not L. ). Tropical America, cult, in southern U. S. Yields 
the Sea Island cotton. 

c. Cr. herb^ceum L. India, much cult, in tropical Asia and south- 

ern Europe. Regarded by Seeman as a variety of (a). Com- 
mon Cotton of the Old World. Nankin Cotton is a variety 
with tawny fibre. Bark of the root of this and of other species; 
Cossypii radicis cortex, U. S. P., Cotton-root bark; Ger. 
Baumwollwurzelrinde; Fr. i^corce de la racine de cotonier; 
emmenagogue, parturifacient. Seeds of the various species, 
Semina gossypii, Sem. bombacis, source of cotton-seed oil, 
Oleum gosjypii semins, U. S. P. Hairs investing the seeds 
constitute Cotton; Gossj'pium Br. (Goss}^ium puriticatum, 
U. S. P.), Bombyx, Pili (Lana s. Lanugo) gossypii, Lana 
gossypina; Fr. Coton (Codex); used for dressing wounds, etc., 
as well as for textile fabrics. _ 

d. (t, hirsiitum L. [G. herbaceum L. (Kew)]. Tropical America, 

cult, in U. S. Yields the Upland or Short-staple cotton. 

e. G. religiosum L. (G. herbaceum L. (Kew), G. Peruvianum 

Cav. ). TmpicalS. America. Source of the Peruvian and 
Brazilian long-staple cotton, called also Kidney cotton. The 
plant forms a small tree. 

913. GOUASIA, Jacq. (Gouana). Chew-stick. Rhamnaceae. 

CUmbing or difilise shrubs. About 50 species, tropical re- 
gions, especially of New AVorld; 1 in U. S. 

a. G. Doiningensis L. West Indies and Brazil. Chew-stick, 
Chaw-stick. Wood stomachic, tonic, used for cleansing the 
teeth. ^arA- aromatic, tonic. 

914. GRATIOLA, L. Hedge Hyssop. Scrophiilariaceae. 

From ancient name gratia Dei of (a). Hairy perennisj 
herbs. About 25 species, temperate and warm regions; 13 in 
U. S. 

a. G. officinalis L. Europe. Hedge Hyssop, Herb-of-grace 
(Gratia Dei); Ger. Gnadenkraut, Gottesgnadenkraut, Wildau- 
rin; Fr. Gratiole (Codex); Sp. Graciola. Flowering herb, H. 
gratiol*, also root, drastic cathartic, anthelmintic. The closely 
related (b) G. \irginiana L. (G. officinalis Michx. not L., G. 
Carolinensis Pers. ), of British America and U. S., is called Wa- 
ter Jes amine; (c) G. aurea Muhl., of Canada and eastern 
U. S., Golden Hedge-Hyssop, is called also Goldenpert. 



178 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

915. ORAYIA, H. & Arn. (Graya). Grayia. Cheuopodiaceae. 

Named for Asa Gray, the distinguished American botanist. 
Undershrubs. Two species, Colorado to California. 

916. GREENELLA, Gray. Greenella. Compositae. 

Named for Rev. Edward Lee Greene, the discoverer. Slen- 
der low winter-annuals. Two species, Arizona. 

917. GREVILLEA, R. Br. Silk Oak, etc. Proteaceae. 

Named for R. K. Greville, English botani8t, d. 1866. In- 
cludes the older genera Lysanthe and Stylurus of Salisbury. 
Trees and shrubs. About 160 species, Australia and New Cale- 
donia. 

a. G. robiista Cunningham. East Australia. Silk Oak, Silk-bark 
Oak, Silky Oak. 

918. ORIN DELIA, Willd. Gum-plant, Tar- weed. Compositae. 

Named for Prof. H. Grindel of Riga, d. 1836. Syn. Donia, 
in part. Herbaceous or suffruticose perennials with rather 
large flower heads (yellow). About 35 species, western N. 
and S. America; 25 in U. S. 

a. G. robiista Nutt. California. Grindelia, Gum-plant. Flower- 

ing tops of this and of (b); Grindelia. U. S. P.; balsamic, anti- 
spasmodic, used for relief of dyspnoeia. 

b. G. squarrosa ( Pursh ) Dunal ( D. squarrosa Pursh). Central 

U. S. to Mexico. Broad leaved Gum-plant; (c) G. g^Iutiiiosa 
Dunal, Mexico, nat. in California, Calancapatle de pueblo 
(Mexico) and (d) G. hirsiitula H. & Am., Pacific coat>t of 
U. S., have properties of (a). 

919. GUAJACUM, L. (Guaiacum). Guaiac. Zygophyllaceae. 
From vernacular. West Indies. Trees with pinnate leaves 

and blue flowers. About 10 species, tropical America; 1 in 
Florida. See Porliera. 

a. G. officinale L. (G. bijugura Stokes). West Indies and northern 
S. America. Guallacan tree and (b) G. Sanctum L. (G. mul- 
tijugum Stokes). West Indies, southern Florida and northern 
S. A'uerica. Heart wood; Guaiaci Lignum. U. S. P., Br., 
Lignum guajaci v. benedictum v. sanctum. Lignum vitse, 
Guaiacum- wood, Guaiac- or Gaiac-wood, Pock-wood; Ger. 
Ouajakholz, Pockholz, Franzosenholz; Fr. Bois de gayac (Co- 
dex); Sp. Guayaco, Palo Santo; alterative, antiarthritic, 
emmenagogue. 

920. GUARDIOLA, L. Guardiola. Compositae. 

Named for a Spanish botanist. Perennial herbs with white 
flowers. Four species, Mexico and bordering territory; 1 in 
U. S. 

921. GUAREA, Allem. 1771. Cocillana. Meliaceae. 
Vernacular name. Cuba. Syn. Syncarpus, in part. Trees 

or shrubs with pinnate leaves. About 70 species, tropical 
America and Africa. 

a. G. Riisbyi ( Brit. ) Rusby (S. Rusbyi Brit. ). Cocillana. Boot 
has properties of Ipecac. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 179 

S22. GUETTARDA, L. Velvet-seed. RuMaceae. 

Shrubs or small trees. About 50 species, tropical America, 
oue of wide distribution; 2 in U. S. (a) (J. elliptica Sw., West 
Indies to Florida, is called Velvet-seed. 

•923. UUILANDINA, L. (Guilandia). Bonduc. Caesalpinaceae. 

Syn. Csesalpinia, in part, some botanists referring all the 
species to that genus. Prickly trailing shrubs. About 5 spe- 
cies, tropical regions. 

A. (x. Boudiic L. (C. Bonduc Koxb., G. glabra Mill.). Florida 
and most tropical coasts. Seeds, Yellow Nicker-nuts or Nickar- 
nuts, Bonduc-nuts (from Arabic, bondog, a necklace), Beazor- 
nuts, Molucca Bean. Properties of (b). 

h. Gr, Bonducella, L. (C. Bonducella Roxb., G. aculeata Salisb. ). 
Tropical shores generally. Seeds, Gray Nicker-nuts, Nicker- 
seeds, Gray Bonduc-nuts or Beazor-nuts; bitter, tonic, febrifuge. 
Source of Nicker-seed oil, used for embrocations. Bark tonic. 

^24. GDILLEMINEA, H. B. K. (Guilleminia). Amaranthaceae. 

Herbs. Three species, perhaps reducible to one; 1 in Texas. 

925. 0UIZ6tIA, Cass. 1827. Til-seed, etc. Compositae. 

Named for the French historian, F. P. G. Guizot, d. 1874. 
Syn. Werrinuwa, Heyne 1814; Verbesina, in part. Herbs re- 
lated to Heliopsis. About 5 species, tropical Africa and Asia. 

■a. G. Abyssinica Cass. (G. oleifera DC, V. sativa Roxb.). India 
and eastern Africa. Ramtil, Niger-seed, Black Til-seed, Oil- 
seed. Seeds yield a bland fixed oil. 

D26. GUTIERREZIA, Lag. Brown-weed. Compositae. 

Named for Gutierrez, a noble family of Spain. Syn. Solidago, 
in part. Herbs or sub-shrubs resembling Golden-rod. About 
20 species. New World; 6 in western U. S. 

927. GYMINDA, Sarg. - Gyminda. . Celastraceae. 

Anagram of Myginda, an allied genus. Shrub. One spe- 
cies in southeastern U. S. 

928. GYMNANTHES, Swz. Gymnanthes. Euphorbiaceae. 

From Greek, "naked flowered". Syn. Excoecaria, in part. 
Shrubs. About 10 species, tropical America, chiefly in West 
Indies; 1 in U. S. 

929. GYMiVEMA, R. Br., not Endl. Gymnema. Asclepiadaceae. 

Syn. Asclepias, in part. Erect or climbing shrubs. About 
30 species, warmer regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. 

a. G. sylvestre R. Br. (A. gerainata Roxb.). Africa and Aus- 
tralia. Root a reputed antidote to snake poison. Leaves when 
chewed destroy for a time the sense of taste. 

1^30. GYMN6CLAI)US, Lam. - - Caesalpinaceae. 

From Greek, "naked branched", i, e. not thorny. Syn. 
Guilandina, in part. Trees with showy white flowers. Two 
species, one of China, one of U. S. 



180 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. Gr. dioica (L. ) Koch (O. Canadensis Lam. (Kew), G. dioica 
L. ). Ontario to Tennessee, west to Indian Territory and 
Nebraska. Kentucky Coffee tree, American Coffee tree, 
Chicot (Canada), Kentucky Mahogany, Nicker or Nickar tree. 
Seeds, Coffee-nurs, American Coffee-beans, formerly used as a 
substitute for coffee. 

931. GYMNOGRAMMA, Desv. Gold Fern, etc. Polypodiaceae. 

From Greek, "naked sori". The genus includes the orna- 
mental Gold and Silver Ferns. About 30 species, especially of 
New World; 2 in U. S. 

932. GYMN0L6mIA, H. B. K. (Gymnoloma). Compositae. 

From Greek, "naked border", alluding to absence of pappus. 
Perennial herbs, some shrubby, resembling Helianthus. About 
25 species, warmer regions of New World; 4 in U. S. 

933. GYMN0SP>:RMA, Less. Gymnosperraa. Compositae. 

From Greek, "naked seed", pappus being absent. Glutin- 
ous shrubby plants. Two species, central N, America; 1 in 

U. S. * 

934. GYNOCARDIA, R. Br. 1819. Chaulmugra. Bixaceae. 
From Greek, "woman heart". Syn. Chalmoogra, Roxb. 

1814, Hydnocarpus, Chilmoria, in part. An ornamental 
dioecious tree. One species. 

a. G. odorata R. Br. (Chal. odorata Roxb. (apparently the older 
name), H. odoratus Lindl., Chil. dodecandra Buch Ham.). 
India to Malacca. Chaulmugra (Chalmoogra). Seeds yield 
Chaulmugra oil, used in cutaneous diseases. 

935. GYPS6pHILA, L. Gypsophyll. Caryopliyllaceae. 

From Greek, "chalk loving". Herbs. About 60 species, 
Old World; 2 nat. in U. S. 

a. G. paniciilata L. Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Tall 

Gypsophyll, Babies'-breath, Mist. 

b. G. Striithinm L. ]Mediterranean region. Levant Soap-root, 

Spanish Soapwort. Root, R. saponarise levanticse v. hispani- 
cae V. segypticae, R. lanariae; Ger. Spanische Seifenwurzel; 
detergent, containing saponin. 

936. GYR6STACHYS, Pers. 1807. Ladies-tresses. Orcliidaceae. 

From Greek, "twisted spike". Syn. Spirauthes, L. C. 
Rich. 1818; Neottia, Limodorum, Ophrys, in part. Terrestrial 
orchids with flowers (often fragrant) more or less spirally 
arranged on the spikes. About 80 species, tropical or temper- 
ate regions; 13 in LT. S. 

a. G. cernua (L.) Kze. (S. cernua L. C. Rich. (Kew), O. cemua 

L. ). Canada and eastern L. S. Noddinj? or Drooping 
Ladies '-tresses. Wild Tuberose, Screw- auger, names not con- 
fined to this species. 

b. G. gracilis (Bigel. ) Kze. (S. gracilis Beck. (Kew), N. gracilis 

Bigel. ). Canada and eastern U. S. Slender Ladies' -tresses. 
Corkscrew plant, Twisted-stalk. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 181 

^37. GYROTHECA, Salisb. 1812. Eed-root. Haemodoraceae. 

From Greek, "round fruit" . Syn. Lachnanthus, Ell. 1816. 
Perennial herb with red fibrous roots. One species, U. S. and 
West Indies. 

a. G. capitata (Walt.) Morong (Anonymos capitata Walt., L. 
tinctoria Ell (Kew), G. tinotoria Salisb.). Swamps. Mas- 
sachusetts to Florida and Cuba. Red-root, Indian or Carolina 
Eed-root, Indian Paint-root, Spirit-weed, Wool-flower. 

^38. HABENARIA, Willd. Orchis*. Orchidaceae. 

From Latin habena, a'^rein" or"strap". Syn. Gymnadenia, 
Platanthera, Orchis, in part. Terrestrial orchids. About 400 
species; 37 in U. S. 

a. H. conopsea Benth. (G. conopsea E. Br.), and (b) H, bifolia 
E. Br. ( P. bifolia Eeich. ) of Europe are among the orchids 
yielding salep, the palmately divided tubers of (a) called Ead. 
palmse-Christi; demulcent, nutrient. See Orchis. 

Showy indigenous species are (c) H. ciliaris (L. ) E. Br., 
Yellow Fringed-orchis; (d) H. graiidiflora (Bigel. ) Torr. 
(H. fimbriata (Wild.) A. Gray), Purple Fringed-orchis, 
Large or Early Purple Fringed-orchis, Tattered-fringe, Meadow 
Pink; (e) H. leiicophaea (Nutt. ) A. Gray, Prairie White or 
Greenish Fringed-orchis; (f) H. peramoena A. Gray, Fringe- 
less or Great Purple-orchis; (g) H, psychodes (L.) A. Gray 
(O. fimbriata Ait. not Willd. ), Smaller Purple Fringed-orchis, 
Pink Fringed-orchis, Flaming Orchis, Soldier' s-plume. Incon- 
spicuous species are (h) H. orbiciilata (Pursh ) Torr., called 
Heal-all* and (i) H. bracteata (Willd.) E. Br., Long-bract- 
ed Orchis or Vegetable Satyr. 

«39. HAEMANTHUS, L. Blood-flower. Amaryllidaceae. 

From Greek, "blood flower". Scapose bulbous plants. 
About 30 species, Africa; called also African Tulip. 

a. H. coccineiis L. (H. coarctatus Jacq., H. latifolius Salisb.). 
vSouthern Africa. Cape Tulip, Salmon-leaved Blood-flower. 
Bulb diuretic, antispasmodic. 

«40. HAEMAT6xYL0N, L. (Haematoxylum). Caesalpinaceae. 

From Greek, "blood wood". Trees of medium size. One 
or two species, tropical America. 

a. H. Campechianiim L. Central America, nat. in West Indies. 
Logwood tree. Henrt-ivood; Logwood, Block- wood, Cam- 
peachy- wood: Ha30matxylon, U. S. P.,Hsematoxyli lignum,Br., 
Lignum campechianura v. cceruleum; Ger. Campescheholz, 
Campecheholz; Blauholz; Fr. Boisde Campeche, Bois d'Inde 
(Codex), Bois de sing; Sp. Palo de Campeche; astringent, 
antiseptic; a valuable dyeing material. 

941. HAGENIA, J. F. Gmel. 1791. Cusso. Rosaceae. 

Named for K. Gottfried Hagen. Syn. Bankesia, Bruce, 1790, 

not Banksia, Forst. 1776; Brayera, Kunth 1824. A dioecious 
tree with pinnate leaves. 



182 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. H. Abyssinica (Bruce) Gmelin (Brayera anthelmintica Kiinth 
(Kew), BankesiaAbyssinica Bruce). Abyssinia. Kousso tree. 
The female inflorescence; Cusso (Cosso, Kusso, Kooso): Oasso, 
IT. S. P., Br.; Flores Koso, P. G., Flores brayerse (anthel- 
minticae); Ger. Kosso, Kusso, Cousso; Fr. Cousso (Codex); 
anthelmintic, taenicide. 

942. Hal6pHILA, Thou. Halophila. Valisneriaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'sea loving' ' . Inconspicuous annuals growing 
in salt marshes. About 5 species, widely distributed; 1 in U. S. 

943. HALYMENIA, Agardb. Dulse. Rhodymeniaeeae. 

From Greek, ' 'sea' ' and ' 'moon' ' or ' 'month' ' . Sy n. Fucus, 
Khodymenia, Sphjerococcus, in part. Seaweeds. About 20 
species, warmer seas. 

a. H. edulis (L.) Agardh (F. edulis L., K edulis Grev., S. 
edulis Ktitz) and (b) H. palmatns (L. ) Agardh (F. palmatus 
L. ) . Shores of Atlantic and Mediterranean. Dulse, Dallish. 
Used for food in Shetland and elsewhere. 

944. HAMAMELIS, L. Witch Hazel. Hamamelidaceae. 

Greek name of a kind of "medlar", flower and fruit being 
"boj-ne together". Shrubs, blossoming in autumn. Three 
known species, 2 of Japan; 1 in U. S. 

a. H. Vir^iniana L. (including many synonyms that are mere 
varieties. ) Nova Scotia to Florida and west to Texas and 
Minnesota. Witch Hazel, Wych-hazel, Snapping Hazel^ 
Striped Alder, Spotted Alder, Winter bloom, Tobacco-wood; 
Ger. Zauberhasel; Fr. Hamamelis. Leaves; Hamamelis, 
U. S. P., Hamamelidis folia Br.; Bark, Hamaraelidis cortex, 
Br. ; astringent, emollient, vulnerary. A distilled extract is 
popularly known as Pond's Extract. 

946. HAMELIA, Jacq. - Hamelia - Rubiaceae. 

Named for M. du Hamel, French botanist. Shrubs of 
tropical America. About 12 species; 1 in U. S. 

946. HANC6rNIA, Gomez. Manga ba. Apocynaceae. 

Small tree or shrub. One species, Brazil; (a) H, speciosa 
Gomez ( H. Gardneri Miers, H. pubescens Nees & Mart. ). 
Yields the Mangabeira rubber. Fruit (Avhen fully ripe) edible, 
called mangaba or mangava. See Hevea. 

947. HAPLOESTHES, Gray. Haploesthes. Coinpositae. 

From Greek, "simple garment" the involucre of few bracts. 
Somewhat shrubby plant of saline regions. One species, Texas 
to Colorado. 

948. HAPL6pHYT0N, DC. Haplophyton. Apocynaceae. 

From Greek, "simple plant", alluding to absence of calycine 
glands. Perennial herb. One species, Arizona to Guatemala 
and Cuba. 

949. HARBOtRIA, C. & R. Harbouria. Umbelliferae. 

Syn. Cicuta, Thaspium, in part. Herb with yellow flowers. 
One species, Colorado. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 183 

960. HARDENBERGIAjBenth. Victorian Lilac. Papiliouaceae. 

Named for Countess Hardenberg, sister of Baron Hugel. 
Woody climbers. Three known species, Australia. 

a. H. monophylla Benth. Australia. Victorian Lilac, Australian 
Sarsaparilla, Spurious or Native Sarsaparilla. Root, a substi- 
tute for Sarsaparilla. 

951. HARPAECARPUS, Nutt Harpsecarpus. Composiiae. 

Syn. Madia, Hemizonella, in part. Herbs, closely related to 
Madia. Three species, western U. S. 

952. HARPAGONELLA, Gray. Harpagonella. Boraginaceae. 

Dim. of Latin harpugo, a "grappling hook". Insignificant 
annual. One species, California lo Arizona. 

953. HARPAGOPHYTUM, DC. Grapple-plant. Pedaliaceae. 

From Greek, "grapjjle plant", the fruits furnished with sharp 
hooks. Syn. Uncaria, in part. Hoary procumbent herbs. 
Four species, Africa; (a) H. prociiuibens DC. (U. procumbens 
Burch. ) is the Grapple plant, Grapnel plant or Wait-a-bit 
Thorn of South Africa. 

954. HARTMANNIA, Spach. Primrose. Onagraceae. 

Named for Emanuf 1 Hartman ol Louisiana. Syn. Oenothera, 
in part. Herbs with diurnal flowers, red, white or purple. 
About 10 species. New World; 3 in U. S. 

955. HARTWRIGHTIA, Gray. Hartwrightia. Compositae. 

Herb. One species in southern U. S. 

956. HASTINGSIA, S. Wats. Hastingsia. Liliaceae. 
Herbs closely related to Schoenolirion. Two species, Cali- 
fornia. 

957. HAZARDIA, Greene. Hazardia. Compositae. 

Syn. Aplopappus, in part. Herbs. Six species in south- 
western U. S. 

958. HECASTOCLEIS, Gray. Hecastocleis. Compositae. 

From Gret'k, "each shut in", each flower having an involu- 
cre of its own. Low shrub with prickly leaves. One species, 
Nevada. 

959. HECHTIA, Klotsch. Hechtia. Bromeliaceae. 

Her OS with spiny-toothed leaves. About 6 species, mostly 
of Mexico; 1 in Texas. 

960. HEDE6MA, Pers. Pennyroyal, etc. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "sweet smelling^'. Syn. Melissa, Cunila, 

Ziziphora, in part. Aromatic herbs. About 15 species. New 
World; 12 in U. S. 

a. H. pulegeoides (L. ) Pers. (M. pulegeoides L. 1753, C. pulegeoi- 
des L. 17t)2, Z. pulegeoides Desf.). Canada to Florida and 
west to Nebraska. Pennyroyal, American or Mock Pennyroyal, 
Squaw Mint, Hck-weed, Stinking Balm; Ger. Amerikanischer 
Polei; Fr. Pouliot Americain. Leaves and tops, Hedeoma, 
U. S. P.; aromatic, carminative, emmenagogue; source of oil of 
Pennyroyal ; also used lo drive away mosquitoes. 



184 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. H. thy moides Gray. (H. piperita Gray, not Benth. ) of Texas 
has properties of (a) but is less disagreeable; (c) H. piperita 
Benth., not A. Gray, of Mexico resembles peppermint and is 
used in the same manner. 

961. HEDERA, L. - Ivy. - Araliaceae. 

The classical Latin name, ' 'clinging' ' . Evergreen climbers. 
Two species, one of Euro- Asia, one of Australia. 

a. H. Helix L. (H. poetica Salisb. ). Europe and Asia, widely 
cult. Ivy (Ivory, Hyven), English Ivy; Barren, Black, Creep- 
ing or Small Ivy, Woodbind, Bindwood ( Scotland ); Ger. Epheu 
(gemeiner), Mauerepheu. Exudate, Ivy gum, Gummi resina 
hederae, Gummi hederse (arboreae), emmenagogue, astringent. 
Berries emeto-cathartic, narcotic. Wood formerly used for 
issue peas. 

962. HEDYSARUM, L. Hedysarum. Papilionaceae. 

The Greek name of a Vetch, "sweet Broom". Perennial 
herbs, some shrubby. About 60 species, north temperate zone 
and northern Africa; 6 in U.S. (a) H. Gangeticum Auct. 
India. Root used like ipecac in dysentery. 

963. HEIMIA, Link. & Otto. Heimia. Lythraceae. 

Named for Dr. Heim, physician, of Berlin. Syn. Nes-sea, 
in part. Shrubs with yellow flowers. Two species, New 
World; 1 in southern U. S. 

a. H. salicif61ia.(H. B. K.; L. &0. (N. salicifolia H. B. K.). 
Texas, Mexico and Argentina. Hanchinol, Abro sol. Leaves 
diaphoretic, anti-syphilitic, insecticide. 

964. HELENIASTRUM, Vaill. Heleniastrum. Coiiipositae. 

From Greek, "star Helenium". Syn. Helenium, in part. 
Herbs with resinous-dotted leaves. Five species, western U. S. 

965. HELENIUM, L. Sneeze-weed. Compositae. 

Greek name of Elecampane. Bitter herbs with large flower 
heads. About 25 species, northern and central America; 16 in 

U. s. ■ 

a. H. autuiimale L. Canada to Florida and west to Arizona and 

British Columbia. Sneeze-weed, Sneezewort, Swamp or False 
Sunflower, Oxeye, Yellow-star. In Mexico called Rosilla de 
puebla. Leaves and flowers errhine, having probably some 
narcotic properties. Other species possess similar properties. 

b. H. tenuifolium Nutt. Virginia to Florida, Texas and Mis- 

souri. Fine-leaved Sneeze- weed. Plant actively poisonous. 

966. HELIANTHELLA, Torr. & Gr. Helianthella. Compositae. 

Latin, diminutive of Helianthus. Syn. Encelia, Geroea, 
Leighia, Lithonia, in part. Perennial herbs with yellow 
flowers. About 15 species, N. A^merica; 12 in U. S. 

a. H. tenuifolia Torr. & Gr. Florida. Helianthella. Boot, ex- 
pectorant, anti-spasmodic, emetic. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR 185 

967. HELIANTHEMUM,Pers. Eock-rose, etc. Cistaceae. 
From Greek, "sun flower", the flowers opening only in sun- 
shine. Syn. Cistus, in part. Woody herbs or low shrubs. 
About 125 species, mostly in warmer regions; 10 in U. S. 

a. H. Canadense (L. ) Michx. (C. Canadensis L. ). Maine to N. 
Carolina and Kentucky and west to Wisconsin. Frostwort, 
Frost-weed, Frost plant. Long-branched Frost-weed, Canadian 
Eock-rose, Sun-rose. Scrofula plant; Ger. Canadisches Sonnen- 
roschen; Fr. Heliantheme du Canada. Herb, astringent, altera- 
tive. 

"b. H. Helianthemiim (L. ) Karst. (C. Helianthemum L., H. vul- 
gareGaert. ). Europe. European Eock-rose, Sol-flower, Sun 
Daisy, Sun-rose. Properties of (a). 

968. HELIANTHUS, L. Sunflower Compositae. 

From Greek, "sun flower", appropriately so named. Annual 
or perennial robust herbs with showy yellow flowers. Aboui 
60 species, New World; 48 in U. S. 

a. H. annuiis L. Mexico, Texas and northward to the Saskatche- 

wan, also cult, in gardens and for its seeds. Sunflower, Com- 
mon or Garden Sunflower, Comb-flower, Gloden, Gold, Larra- 
bell, Wallflower*. Seeds yield a bland fixed oil and are used 
for feeding poultry and stock. Pith for moxas. Growing plant 
anti-malarial. 

b. H. tuberosus L. British America, south to Georgia and Arkan- 

sas, also commonly cult. Jerusalem Artichoke ("Jerusalem" 
is a corruption of Italian girasole meaning sun flower), Earth- 
apple, Canada Potato; Ger. Erdapfel, Erdartischocke; Fr. 
Topinambour. Tubers esculent. Less cultivated in Europe 
than since the introduction of the potato. Several other spe- 
cies have tuberous root-stocks that might be developed by 
cultivation. Thoseof(c)H. giganteiis tuberosus (Bourg.) 
Brit, are sometimes used for food. .^_^ 

969. HELICHRYSUM, VaiU. Immortelle. Compositae. 

r From Greek, "sun gold". Syn. Elichrysum. Herbaceous 
or shrubby plants, the flower heads having scariose colored 
bracts and so "everlasting" . About 275 species, Old World, 
mostly of S. Africa. 

a. H. orientale Gaertn. Crete. Everlasting; Fr. Immortelle 
(the most familiar name) ; Ger. Strohblume. More common in 
our gardens is the Australian (b) H. liicidum Henckel (H. 
bracteatum Willd. ). Other Immortelles of the gardens are (c) 
Helipterum Manglesii F. Muell. (Rhodanthe Manglesii 
Lindl. ) and (d) Ammobium alatum E. Br., both from Aus- 
tralia. 

970. HELICTERES, L. Screw-tree. Sterculiaceae. 

From Greek, "twisted", of the carpels. Trees or shrubs., 
About 40 species, warmer regions of both hemispheres. 



186 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. H. Isora L. Southern India. Screw tree. Fruit, called! 
Twisted-stick, Twisted-horn or Twisty, believed to relieve colic; 
(b) H. Jamaicensis Jacq., in the West Indies^ has the same- 
synonyms and uses. 

971. HELIETTA, Tul. - Helietta. - Rntaceae. 
Named for Louis T. Helie, French physician. Trees or 

shrubs. Aboat 4 species, warmer regions of New World; 1 
in U. S. 

972. HELIOPSIS, Pers. False "■ Sunflower, etc, Conipositae. 

From Greek, "sun like". Eobust herbs with aspect of 
Helianthus. About 10 species, New World; 4 in U. S. ; called 
also Ox-eye. 

973. HELI0TR6pILM, L. Heliotrope, Turnsole.Boraginareae. 
Ancient Greek name of a plant, meaning "sun turning" or 

"sundial". Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 115 species, warmer 
regions of the globe; 14 in U. S. , including some naturalized. 
The fragrant Heliotrope of the gardens is (a) H. Periiviaiiiiiii 
L., one popular name of which is Cherry-pie. 

974. HELLEBORUS, L. Hellebore. Raniiiiculaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Perennial herbs with palmately 
divided leaves. About 12 species, Europe and western Asia. 

a. H. foetidus L. Europe. Bear's-foot, Bastard Bear' s-foot,. 

Barefoot, Fetid or Stinking Hellebore, Garget-root. Hellebor- 
aster. Ox- heal. Setter-grass, Setterwort, Setliswort. Proper- 
ties of (b). 

b. H. niger L. (H. grandiflorus Salisb. ). Europe and cult, in 

gardens. Black Hellebore, Christmas-flower, Christmas Rose, 
Christ' s-herb. Clove-tongue, Felon-grass, New-years Rose; Ger. 
Schwarze Nieswurz, Winterrose, Weinachtswurz, Christ wurz; 
Fr. Hellebore noir (Codex); Sp. Eleboro negro. Rhizome and 
rootlets, Rad. hellebori nigri, Rad. melampodii, gastro-intestinal 
irritant, hydragogue, emmenagogue, powerful depressant. 

c. H. viridis L. Europe, nat. in eastern U, S. Green or Bastard 

Hellebore, Chris- root, Christmas Rose, Peg-root, not to be 
confounded with Veratrum viride q. v. ; Ger. Griine Nieswurz, 
Chriswurz. Properties of (b) but more active. 

975. HEL(3nIAS, L. Swamp Pink, Stud-flower. Melanthaceae. 

From Greek, "marsh loving". Perennial bog herb with 
showy purple flowei-». One species, New York to Virginia. 
See Chamaelirium. 

976. HEMEROCALLIS, L. (Hemerocalis). Day Lily.Liliaceae. 

From Greek, "beautiful for a day". Perennial herbs with 
large lily-like flowei^s. About 5 species, Europe and Asia; 2" 
cult, and adv. in U. S. ; (a) H. flava L , Yellow Day Lily and 
(b) H. fnlva L. the more common Orange Day Lily, Lemon 
Lily, Eve's-thread. 

977. HEMIDESMUS, R. Br. Hemidesraus. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "half 'and "bond". Syn. Asclepias, Peri- 
ploca, in part. Twining plants. Three species, India and 
Moluccas. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 187 

a. H. indicus (L. ) E Br. (P.IndicaL., A. Pseudo-Sarsa Koxb. ) , 
India. Indian Sarsaparilla, Hemidesmus, Xunnari. Root, 
Hemidesmi radix, Br., used like Sar&aparilla. 

978. HEMIETA, Raf. 1836. Hemieva. Saxifragaceae. 

Syn. Suksdorfia, Gray 1880; Saxifraga, in part. Two species 
in U. S. 

979. HEMITOMUS, Gray 1855. Hemitomus. Monotropaceae. 

Syn. Newberrya, Torr, 1867, this name adopted later by Gray 
himself. Brownish scaly plants with flowers in crowded spikes. 
Four species, Pacific coast of U. S. 

980.^ HEMIZ6>IA, DC. Tar-weed. Compositae. 

From Greek, "half girdled", alluding to the ray akenes. 
Heavy-scented, generally viscid herbs, related to Madia. About 
25 species, 12 in California. 

981. HEPATICA, Scop. Liver-leaf. Ranunculacea , 

Ancient Greek name, "liver" plant, from form of leav< ». 
Syn. Anemone (Kew), in part. Sea pose evergreen perennials. 
About 4 species, north temperate zone; 2 in U. S. 

a. H. aciita (Pursh) Brit. (H. triloba var. acuia Pursh, A. acuti- 

loba Laws. (Kew), H. acutiloba DC). Canada to Georgia, 
west to Minnesota. Acute-lobed Liver-leaf, Sharp-lobed Liver- 
leaf, Heart Liver-leaf, with many of the synonyms and with 
properties of (b). 

b. H. Hepatica (L. ) Karst. (A. Hepatica L. (Kew), H. triloba 

Chaix, H. nobilis Moench). Northern Europe, Asia and N. 
America, south to Florida and Missouri. Kidney Liver-leaf, 
Common Liver-leaf, Liverwort* (a name belonging rather to 
Marchantia), Noble Liverwort, Three-leaved or Heart Liver- 
wort, Liver- weed, Golden Trefoil, Herb Trinity, Ivy-fl(.wer, 
Mouse-ears, Spring-beauty*, Squirrel-cup; Ger. Ltberblume, 
Leberkraut, Edel-Leberkraut; Fr. Hepatique. Leaves; Folia 
hepatici (nobilis,) H. hepaticag, H. trifolii aurei; tonic, deob- 
struent. 

982. HERACLEUM, L. Cow Parsnip. Umbelliferae. 

Greek name of a plant, from the Hercuks of myth. Peren- 
nial herbs. About 60 species, northern hemisphere; 1 in U. S. 

a. H. lauatiini Michx. British America south to N. Carolina, 

Utah and California. Cow Parsnip, Masterwort, Madness, 
Madnep, Youihwort. Root ajad seed acrid, used in epilepsy, in 
dyspepsia, etc. 

b. H. sphondyliiim L. (H. Branca-ursina All.). Europe and 

northern Asia. European Cow-parsnip, Bear's-breach*, Hog- 
weed; Ger. Bfirenklaue, Heilkraut; Fr. Berce, Fausse Acanthe. 
Properties of ( a ) . 

983. HERMANMA, L. Hermannia. Sterculiaceae. 

Named for Paul Hermann, Professor of botany at Leyden. 
Undershriibs. About 90 species, tropical regions of both hemi- 
spheres; 2 in U. S. 



188 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

984. HERMIDIUM, S. Wats. Hermidium. Nyctaginaceae. 

Herb. A single species, Nevada. 

985. HERRANIA, Goudot. Herrania. Sterciiliaceae. 

Trees related to Theobroma. About 4 species, warmer re- 
gions of New World. The seeds of (a) H. albiflora Goudot 
and some other species are used in S. America as substitutes for 
Cacao, Cacao Cimarrona, 

^86. HESPERALCEA, Greene. Hesperalcea. Malvaceae. 
From Greek, "western Mallow". Syn. Sidalcea, in part. 
Robust annual. One species, California. 

987. HESPERALOE, Engelm. Hesperaloe. Liliaceae. 
From Greek, "western Aloe". Plant resembling Yucca. 

Two species, southwestern U. S. 

988. HESPERELAEA, Gray. Hesperelsea. Oleaceae. 
From Greek, "western Olive". A small tree. One species, 

Guadalupe Island. 

989. HESPEREVAX, Gray. Hesperevax. Composilae. 

From Greek, "western Evax". Syn. Evax, Psilocarphus, 

Sty Iodine, in part. Floccose- woolly herbs. About 5 spe- 
cies, California. 

990. HESPERIS, L, - Rocket. - Cruciferae. 

Ancient Greek name of ( a) , flower of the ' 'evening' ' . Biennial 
or perennial herbs. About .30 species, Europe and Asia. 

a. H. matronalis L. Europe and Asia, cult, and adv. in U. S. 
Dame's Rocket, Dame's Violet, Garden Rocket, Sweet Rocket, 
Damask Violet, Summer Lilac, Dame's or Queen's Gilliflower; 
Night-scented, Rogue's or Winter Gilliflower. Plant reputed 
diuretic. 

991. HESPEROCALLIS, Gray. Hesperocallis. Liliaceae. 
From Greek, "evening beauty". Scapose herb with large 

flowers in a simple raceme. One species, California. 

992. HESPEROCNIDE, Torr. Hesperocnide. Urticaceae. 

From Greek, "western nettle" . Perennial herbs, related to 
Urtica. Two' species, one in Hawaiian Islands one in California. 

^93. HETERANTHEIIA, R. & Pav. 1794. Pontederiaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'with diverse anthers' ' . Syn. Schollera, Schreb. 
1789, not Roth. 1788; also Leptanthus, Pontederia, Comme- 
linaf, in part. Marsh or aquatic herbs. About 10 species, 2 
of Africa, the rest of America, 4 in U. S. The best known is 
(a) H. diibia (Jacq. ) MacM. (C. dubia Jacq., L. graraineus 
Michx. , H. graminea Vahl. (Kew), S. graminea A. Gray). 
Water Star-grass. (b) H. reniformis R. & P. and (c) H. 
limosa (Sw. ) Willd. are called Mud Plantain. 

t994. HETER0C6d()N, Nutt. Heterocodon. Cainpanulaceae. 

From Greek, "diflTerent bells", alluding to dimorphism of 
corollas. Syn. Campanula, in part. Annual herb. One spe- 
cies, Pacific coast of U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 189» 

995. HETERODRABA, Greene. Heterodraba. Cruciferae^ 

From Greek, a "different Draba". Slender diffuee annuaL 
One species, Pacific coast of U. S. 

996. HETEROGAl^RA, Rothr. Heterogaura. Onagraceae. 

From Greek, a "different Gaura". Annual herb with habit 
of Clarkia. One species, California. 

997. HELEROMELES, Roemer. California Holly. Pomaceae. 
From Greek, a ' different Medlar". Syn. Photinia, Crataegus^ 

Mespilus, in part. A small evergreen tree, bearing ample 
clusters of red berries. One species; (a) H. arblitifolia (H. 
Ait. f. )Roem. (C. arbutifolia Ait. not Poir., P. arbutifolia Lind.. 
(Kew), M. arbutifolia Link., H. Fremontiana Decne. ). 
California Holly, California Christmas-berry, Laurel Hawthorn,, 
Toyon, ToUon. 

998. HETEROSPERMUM, Cav. (Heterosperma). Compositae. 

From Greek, with "dissimilar seeds". Annual herbs with 
small heads of yellow flowers. About 7 species, Mexico to S. 
America; 1 in southern U. S. 

999. HETEROTHECA, Cass. Heterotheca. Compositae. 

From Greek, with "dissimilar cases", alluding to achenes. 
Herbs with rather large flower heads (yellow). About 6 spe- 
cies, Mexico and northward; 2 in U. S. 

1000. HEtCHERA, L. Alum-root, etc. Saxifragaceae. 

Named for Prof. J. H. von Heucher, German botanist, d. 
1747. Perennial herbs, leaves mostly basal. About 20 species, 
N. America; 17 in U. S. mostly southwestern. 

a. H. Americana L. Ontario to Alabama, west to Louisiana and 
Minnesota. Alum-root, Common Alum-root, American Sanicle^ 
Split-rock, Cliff-weed. Root of this and other species astrin- 
gent. The names American Sanicle and Ground Maple apply 
especially to (b) H. yillosa Michx., Virginia to Tennessee. 

1001. HEVEA, Aubl. Brasilian Rubber tree. Euphorbiaceae. 

From vernacular, heve, S. America. Syn. Siphonia, Rich.,, 
also Jatropha, in part. Trees. About 12 species, tropical S. 
America. 

a. H. Ouianeiisis Aublet. (S. Guyanensis Juss., S. elastica Pers., 
J. elastica L. f. ). Source of Para rubber. Prepared milk-juice 
(of this and other species); 1 lastica, U. S. P., India-rubber,. 
Caoutchouc (Caut>chuc), Resina elastica, Gummi elasti'um; 
Ger. Kautschuk, Federharz; Fr. Caoutchouc (Codex); Sp. 
Cahuchu, Goma elastica. Brasilian rubber is obtained also- 
from (b) H, Brasiiiensis Muell. (S. Brasiliensis Kunth. ) and 
from (c) H. discolor Muell. From the seeds of (b) is obtained 
Siringa oil, used for making soap. 

1002. HEXALECTRIS, Raf. Crested Coral-root. Orcliidaceae. 

From Greek, "six «• rested". Syn. Bletia, in part. Teres- 
trial orchid with coralloid roots. One species, N. Carolina to- 
Florida and Mexico. 



190 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1003. HIBISCUS, L. Hibiscu«, Kose Mallow, etc. Malvaceae. 
Ancient Greek name of mallow. Syn. Abelraoschus, in part. 

Herbs, shrubs or small trees with showy flowers. About 180 
species, warm and temperate regions; 17 in U. S. (including 
naturalized species). 

a. H. Abelmoschus L. (H. moschatus Moench). India and 

Egypt, nat. tropical America. Musk Mallow. Seeds Musk- 
seed, Amber-seed, Ambrette; Semen abelmos«hi, Grana mos- 
chata, Semen alce8e«gyptiac?e;Ger, Bisanikorner;Fr. Ambre ta, 
Grains d' ambrette; used in perfumery for their musk-like 
odor. 

b. H. caniiabiniis L. (H. radiatus Cavan. ). Tropical Asia, Africa 

and Australia. Ambaree, Bastard Jute, Brown Indian Hemp. 
Leaves used as a pot herb. Plant cultivated for its jute-like 
fibre. 

•c. H. esciilentus L. (A. esculentus Guil. et. Per.). Tropical Africa 
and widely cult. Okra, Ochro, Gumbo, Okra bandakai. Unripe 
capsules mucilaginous, esculent. 

-d. H. iiiilitaris Cav. (H. Virginicus Walt.). Pennsylvania to 
Florida, west to Louisiana and Minnesota. Halberd-leaved 
Eose-Mallow, Sweating-weed. 

•e. H. Moscheiitos L. Brackish marshes, Massachusetts to Florida 
and Louisiana. Swamp Rose-Mallow, Mallow Rose, Sea Holly- 
hock, Swamp or Water Mallow. 

f. H. R6sa Sinensis L. Tropical Asia and cult, for ornament. 
China Rose, Chinese Rose, Shoe-black plant. Shoe-flower. 
i2oof mucilaginous, used like Althsea. Bark reputed emmena- 
gogue. Flowers yield a black dye. 

:g. H. Sabdariffa L. Tropical Asia and Africa and widely cult. 
Red or Guinea Sorrel, Roselia, Rozelle. In Mexico and Texas 
called Jamaica; Fr. Oseille de Guinee, Ketmie acide. Calyx 
acidulous, mucilaginous, refrigerant, used in jellies, etc. Plant 
yields the roselia fiber. 

h. H. Syriacus, L. Western Asia, cult, and adv. in U. S. 
Shrubby Althsea, Rose of Sharon. 

i. H. Trioniim L. Southern Europe, nat. in eastern U. S. Blad- 
der Ketmia, Flower-of-an-hour, Black-eyed Susan, Devil' s- 
head-in-a-bush. Modesty, Venice Mallow. 

1004. HIC6rIA, Raf. 1808 (Hicorius). Hickory. Jiiglandaceae. 

From vernacular hieori of aborigines, Syn. Carya, Nutt. 
1818; Juglans, in part. Trees, mostly with tough hard Avond 
and oily seeds. About 12 species, N. America; 11 in U. S. 
Old American name Kiskatom, whence Kiskitomas-nut (Kisky- 
Thoraas nut J), no longer in use. 

a. H. alba (L. ) Brit. (J. alba L., J. tomentosa Lam., C. toraentosa 
Nutt., H. maxima Raf. ). Ontario and eastern U. S., west to 
Nebraska. White-heart Hickory (Hiccory, Pohickery,) White 
or Fragrant Hickory, Bull-nut, King-nut, Mocker-nut, Hard- 
bark, Red or Black Hickory. Kernel esculent. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 191 

b. H. aquatica (Michx. f. ) Raf. (J. aquatica Michx. f., C. aquatica 

Nutt. ). Southeastern U. S., west to Texas. Water Hickory, 
Swamp Hickory, Bitter Pecan, Water Bitter-nut. Kernel 
bitter. Wood soft. 

c. H. glabra (^[ill.) Brit. (J. glabra Mill., C. porcina Nutt., H. 

porcina Raf. ). Canada and eastern U. S. , west to Minnesota. 
Pig-nut, Pig-nut Hickory, Bitter-nut, Hog-nut, Broom Hickory; 
Black, Brown, Red or White Hickory. Kernel astringent 
and bitter. 

d. H. laciiiiosa (Michx. f. ) Sarg. (J. laciniosa Michx. f., C. sul- 

cata Nutt., H. sulcata Raf. ). New York to Tennessee, west 
to Indian Territory. Big Shag-bark, Shell-bark Hickory, 
Kinc)^-nut; Big, Thick or Western Hickory, iVwUhick-shelled. 
Ktrnel esculent. 

e. H. inicrocdrpa (Nutt.) Raf. (J. alba var. odorata Marsh., C. 

microcarpa Nutt. , H. glabra var. odorata Sarg. ) . Massachusetts 
to Virginia, west to Missouri. Small-fruited Hickory, Balsam 
Hickory, Little Shag-bark, Small or Little Pig-nut. Nut thin 
shelled. Kernel esculent. 

f. H. minima (Marsh) Brit. (J. alba var. minima Marsh, J. sulcata 

Willd., C. amara Nutt., H. amara Raf. ). Bitter-nut, Bitter 
Pig-nut, Swamp or Bitter Hickory. Kernel very bitter. 

g. H. ovdta (Mill.) Brit. (J. ovata Mill., C. alba Nutt., not J. 

alba L. ). Canada and eastern U. S., west to Minnesota. 
Shag-bark, Shag-bark Hickory, Shell-bark or Scale-bark 
Hickory, White Hickory, Redheart or Upland Hickory, King- 
nut, White or Sweet Walnut. Nut thin shelled. Kernel es- 
culent. 

h. H. Pecan (Marsh.) Britton (J. Pecan Marsh., H. olivseformis 
Raf., C. olivseformis Nutt.). Indiana and Kentucky, west 
to Texas and Iowa. Pecan, Peccan, Illinois-nut, Illinois 
Pecan, Soft-shell Hickory. Seed very sweet, yields a bland, 
pleasant-flavored fixed oil. 

1005. HIERACIUM, L. Hawkweed, Speer-hawk. Cichoriaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of a different plant, meaning ''hawk- 
weed''. Syn. Pilosella, in part. Perennial herbs. About 300 
species, north temperate zone and Andes mountains; 37 in U. S. 
(including some naturalized); Ger. Habichtskraut; Fr. Eper- 
vi^re. 

a. H. aurantiaciim L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Orange or Tawny 

Hawkweed or Hawkbit, Golden Mouse-ear Hawkweed, 
Grim-the-coUier, Devil's Paint-brush, Flora's Paint-brush. 

b. H. Canadense Michx. British America, south to New Jersey 

and Michigan. Canada Hawkweed, High Dandelion. 

«. H. Gronovii L., Hairy Hawkweed and (d) H. scdbrum 

(Michx.), Rough Hawkweed, both of eastern U. S. to Canada, 
are used for relief of toothache. 



192 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

e. H. miironim L. Europe, adv. ih U. vS. Wall Hawkweed, 

French Lungwort, (xolden Lungwort; Ger. Gelbes • Lungen- 
kraut; Fr. Pulmouaire des Francais. Plant bitter, vulnerary. 

f. H. Pilosella L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Mouse-ear Hawkweed, 

Mouse Bloodwort, Ling Gowans, Felon-herb; Ger. Mause- 
ohrchen; Fr, Filoselle, Oreille de souris. Plant bitter, astrin- 
gent. 

g. H. praedltUm Vill. Europe, adv. in U. S. King-devil, a 

troublesome weed. 

h. H. UDibellatiim L. Europe. Ger. Lungenhabichtskraut. 
Plant used in asthma. 

i. H. venosiim L. Canada to Georgia, west to Nebraska and Mani- 
toba. Eattlesnake-weed, Poor Robin's Plantain, Vein-leaf or 
Veiny-leaved Hawkweed or Hawkbit, Snake Plantain, Striped 
Bloodwort, Bloodwort, Early Hawkweed. Plant reputed an 
antidote to snake bites. 

1006. HIPPOCRATEA, L. Hippocratea. Celastraceae. 

Named in honor of Hippocrates, the father of medicine. 
Climbing shrubs. About 30 species, tropical regions especially 
of New World; 1 in U. S. 

1007. HIPPOMANE, L. Manchineel. Euphorbia ceae. 

Ancient Greek ])lant name, from ''horse" and ''madness". 
Syn. Mancinella, Tuss. 1824, Manganilla Adans. 176:^. Tree 
with poisonous milk sap. One species, tropical America. 

a. H. Mancinella L. (M. venenata Tussac, H. Manganilla Jacq. ). 
West Indies, Florida, Panama, Venezuela, etc., Manchineel, 
Manzanillo. Sap a powerful irritaut, a skin poison, emeto- 
cathartic, etc. 

1008. HIPPURIS, L. Mares-tail, etc. Haloragidaceae. 

From Greek, "horse's tail". Aquatic herbs with whorled 
leaves. Three species, temperate and frigid zones; 3 in U. S. 

a. H. vulgaris L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, south 
to Maine, N. Mexico and California. Mare's-tail (originally 
Female Horse-tail), Bottle-brush, Cat's-tail, Joint-weed, Knot- 
grass*, Female Knot-giass, Paddock-pipes, Witches' -milk; 
Ger. Schafthalm ; Fr. Pesse d' eau. 

1009. HOFFMAISSEGGIA, Cav.HofFmanseggia.Caesalpinaceae. 
Named for J. Centurius, Graf. Hoffmansegge. Syn. Pomaria, 

Caesalpinia, in part. Herbs or low shrubs. About 20 species, 
western America and south Atrica; 10 in southwestern U. S. 

1010. HOFMEISTERIA, Walp. Hofmeisteria. Compositae. 

Named for W. Hofmeister, vegetable histologist. Syn. 
Helogyne, Benth. 1844, not Nutt. 1841. Low suffrutescent 
plants. Three species, Arizona to lower California; 1 in south- 
western U. S. 

1011. HOLARRHENA, R. Br. Conessi Bark. Apocynaceae. 

Trees or shrubs. About 10 species, tropical Asia and Africa.. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 193 

a. H. antidyseiiteriea Wall. (Wrightia antidysenterica K. Br.). 
India. Bark, Conessi bark, Tellicherry bark; bitter, tonic, 
febrifuge, antidysenterie. 

1012. HOLLISTERIA, S. Wats, Hollisteria. Polygonaceae. 

White-woolly herbs with stems dichotoraously branched. 
One species, California. 

1013. HOLOCARPHA, Greene. Holocarpha. Compositae. 

From Greek, "entire chafl". Syn. Hemizonia, in part. 
Herb. One species, western U. S. 

1014. HOLODISCUS, Maxim. Holodiscus. Rosaceae. 
Syn. Spiraea, in part. Shrubs with panicles of small white 

flowers. About 3 species, southwestern U. S. 

1015. H0L6STECM, L. Jagged Chickweed. Caryophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "wholly bone," appropriateness not obvious. 
Insignificant herbs. Three species. Old World; 1 nat. in U.S. 

1016. H0L0Z6]VIA, Greene. Holozonia.. Compositae. 

Syn. Lagophylla, in part. Perennial herb with small flower- 
heads. One species, California. 

1017. HOMALOBUS, Nutt. Milk Veteh. Papilionaceae. 

Syn. Astragalus, Kentrophyta, Ervum, in part. Perennial 
herbs. About 6 species, Mexico and adjacent regions; 3 in U.S. 

1018. H06kERA, Salisb. Hookera. Liliaceae. 
Named for Wm. Jackson Hooker, English botanist, d. 1865. 

Syn. Brodisea, in part. Scapose herbs. About 15 species. 
New World; 8 in U. S. 

1019. h6rDEUM, L. - Barley. - Gramiiieae. 

The ancient Latin name, meaning perhaps "bristly". Grass- 
es with flowers in close spikes. About 12 species. Synonyms 
Bear, Bigg, Haules, Hoils, Pillards. 

a. H. viilgdre L. Orient, now widely cultivated in cooler climates. 
To this species may be referred the numerous varieties of 
Barley; Ger. Gerste; Fr. Orge; 1. Two-rowed Barley, H. dfsti- 
chon L., including the Common English Barley, the Golden, 
Italian and Siberian varieties; 2. the Six-rowed Barley, H. 
hexdstichon L., including Scotch, Bear, Red and Square Bar- 
ley; 3. the so-called Four-rowed Barley, H. vulgdre L., in the 
restricted application of that name, including Russian and 
French, Spring, Winter, Black. Naked and Wheat Barley; 4. 
the Dinkel and related Barleys, H. zeocrilou L,, including 
Turkish, Rice, Sprat, Battledore, Fulham and Putney Barley. 
Seeds esculent. Husked seeds, Pearl Barley, Hordeum decorti- 
catum, Br., Hordeum perlatum; Ger. Perlgerste, Perlgraupen; 
Fr. Orge perl^ (Codex); nutrient. Seeds, sprouted and then 
dried constitute malt, used in brewing and in preparation of easily 
digested foods for infants or invalids. 

1020. HORKELIA, Cham. & Sch. Horkelia. Rosaceae. 
Syn. Potentilla (Kew), in part. Perennial herbs resembling 

Potentilla. About 23 species. Pacific Border of U. S. 



194 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1021. HOTT^NIA, L. Featherfoil, etc. Priimilaceae. 

Named for Prof. Peter Hotton of Ley den, d. 1709. Pretty 
aquatic herbs with whorled leaves. Two species, one of Euro- 
Asia, one of eastern U. S. Synonyms, Water-feather, Water 
Gilliflower, Water V'^iolet, Water Yarrow; Ger. Wasserviole; 
Fr. Phime d'eau. 

1022. HOUST^NIA, L. Bluets, Venus' -pride. Rubiaceae. 
Named for Dr. William Houston, English botanist, d. 1733. 

Syn. Oldenlandia, Hedyotis, in part. Low herbs with small 
blue, purple or white flowers. About 25 species, N. America; 

18 in U. S. 

a. H. coerulea L. (Hed. coerulea Hook., O. coerulea A. Gray). 
Nova Scotia to Alabama, west to Michigan. Bluets, Innocence, 
Angel's-eyes, Blue-eyed grass. Bright-eyes, Eye-bright*, Little- 
washerwoman, Nuns, Quaker-bonnets, Quaker-lad it-s, Star-of- 
Bethlehem*, Venus' -pride. Wild Forget-me-not. (b) H. an- 
gustifolia Michx. and (c) H. minor (Michx. ) Brit, are called 
Star Violet. 

1023. HOUTTUYNIA, Thunb. 1784 (Houtouynia). Piperaceae. 

Named for M. Houttuyn, Dutch botanical writer, 18th 
century. Syn. Anemopsis, Hook. 1838, Anemonopsis Pritz., 
not S. & Z. Marsh j)lants. Two species, one of eastern Asia, 
one of California. 

a. H. Californica B. & H. (A. Califomica H. & A., A. Berlanderi 
C. DC). California to Mexico. Yerba Mansa. Root pun- 
gent. 

1024. HOWELLIA, A. Gray. Howellia. Lobeliaceae. 

Named for the discoverers, Joseph and Thomas T. Howell. 
Delicate aquatic or marsh herbs. Two species, Pacific coast of 
U. S. 

1025. h6ya, R. Br. Wax plant. Asclepiadaceae. 

Named for Thomas Hoy, English gardener. Herbaceous 
climbers. About 50 species, tropical Asia to Australia; (a) 
H. cariiosa R. Br. from India is the well known Wax plant, 
cult, for ornament. 

1026. HUDSONIA, L. False Heather, etc. Cistaceae. 
Named for William Hudson, English botanist, d. 1793. 

Heath-like plants, verv showy in bloom. Three species, east- 
ern U. S. 

a. H. ericoides L. Nova Scotia to Virginia. Heath-like Hud- 

8onia§, Field Pine, Poverty-grass. 

b. H. tomentosa Nutt. Canada and northeastern U. S. Woolly 

Hudsonia, False Heather, Beach Heather, Heath, Bear-grass, 
Dog's-dinner, Ground Cedar, Ground Moss, Poverty-grass. 

1027. HtLSEA, T. & Gr. - Hulsea. - Compositne. 

Named for Dr. G. W. Hulse, U. S. Army. Viscid-pubescent 
balsamic herbs. Six species, California to Washington. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 195 

1028. HUMULUS, L. - Hop. Moraceae. 
The Latin name, probably of Teutonic origin. Twining 

perennitils. Two species, north temperate zone; 1 in U. S. 

a. H. Liipulus L. Europe, Asia and N. America, south to 
Georgia and Arizona, also widely cult. Hop vine, Bine, Bur, 
Seeder, anciently known as Lupus salictarius ( Pliny ) . Among 
the varieties are ''White Bine", "Golding" and "Grape". 
Strobiles, Hops; Humulus, U. S. P., Lupuliis, Br., Strobili 
humuli V. lupuli, Coni lupuli; Ger. Hopfen, Hopfenzapfen, 
Hopfenkatzchen; Fr. Cone de houblon (Codex). Glandular 
powder from strobiles, Lupulin, Lupulite; Lupulinum. U. S. P. 
Br., Glandula; lupuli, Lupulina; Ger. Hopfenmehl; Fr. Lupu- 
line (Codex). Bitter, tonic, sedative. 

1029. HURA, L. Sand-box tree. Euphorbiaceae. 

From the vernacularname, S. America. Trees. Two species, 
tropical America. 

a. H. crepitans L. (H. Brasiliensis Willd). West Indies and trop- 
ical America. Sand-box tree. In S. America called Ajuapar 
or Acupa, in Brazil, Assacu or L^ssacu, in Panama, Javilla. 
Fruit when ripe bursts with a loud report, scattering the seeds, 
hence called the Devil's Sand-box and the Monkey's Dinner- 
bell. Seeds, known in Mexico as Habilla (Pepita) de San 
Ignacio, drastic cathartic. The acrid bark (casca de assacu) is 
used medicinally. 

1030. HUTCHINSIA, R. Br. 1812. Hutchinsia. Cruciferae. 

Named for Miss Hutchins, botanist of Bantry, Ireland. Syn. 
Hymenolobus, Nutt. 1838; Lepidium, Capsella, in part. 
Low herbs. About 8 species, northern hemisphere; 1 in \J. S. 

1031. HYDRANGEA, L. Hydrangea. Saxifragaceae. 

From Greek, a "water vessel", alluding to shape of capsule. 
Shrubs or small trees with flowers in corymbs. About 35 spe- 
cies, New World and eastern Asia; 5 in U.S. 

a. H. arborescens L. (H. vulgaris Michx.). New York and 

eastern U. S. Hydrangea (Hydrangia), Wild Hydrangea, 
Seven-bark, Bissum. Bout diuretic, lithontriptic. 

b. H. Thunbergi Siebold. Japan. Leai^s used for tea, called 

"Tea of Heaven". 

1032. HYDRASTIS, Ellis 1759. Golden-seal. Ranunciilaceae. 

From Greek, "water compelling", i. e. hydragogue. Syn. 
Warnera, Mill. 1768. Perennial herbs from a thickened yel- 
low rootstock. Two known species, one of Japan; 1 in U. S. 

a. H, Canadensis L. (W. Canadensis Miller). Ontario to Georgia, 
west to Missouri and Minnesota. Golden-seal, Orange-root, 
Yellow-root, Y"ellow Puccoon, Yellow Indian-paint, Turmeric- 
root, Ohio Curcuma, Indian Turmeric, Ground Kaspberry, Eye- 
root, Eye-balm, Yellow-eye, Jaundice-root, Indian dye; Ger. 
Kanadisches Gelbwurz, Kanadisches Wasserkraut, Gelbes 
Blutkraut; Fr. Racine orange, Sceau d'or; Sp. Raiz amarilla, 



196 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

Sella de oro. Rhizome and rootlets; Hydrastis, U S. P., Hy- 
drastis rhizoraa, Br.; bitter, tonic, alterative. Contains ber- 
berine and hvdrastine, which latter by oxidation yields Hydras- 
tinmeU. S.P. 

1033. HYDROCOTYLE, L. Marsh Pennywort. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "water cup" . Perennial herbs, commonly 
with peltate leaves. About 75 species, widely distributed; 7 in 
U. S. Synonyms, Fairy-table, Shilling-grass; Ger. Wasserna- 
bel. 

Of our indigenous species, the more important are (a) H. 
Americana L., American Marsh Pennywort, Penny-post; (b) 
H. raiiiiiiciiloides L. f. (H. natans T. & Gr.), Floating 
Marsh Pennywort,; (c) H. limbellata L., Umbellate or Many- 
flowerpd Marsh Pennywort, Navelwort, Sheepsbane. Water- 
grass, in Mexico Ombligo de Venus, and (d) H, verticillata 
Thunb. (H. vulgaris L, (Kew), H. interruptaMuhl.), Whorl- 
ed Marsh or Water Pennywort, Penny-grass, Penny-rot. Pro- 
perties of 424 (a), q. v. 

1034. HYDRO PHY^LUM, Water-leaf. Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, * 'water leaf ' . Herbs with coarse foliage and 
rather showy flowers. About 7 species, all of U. S. 

a. H. Yir^inicum L. is sometimes called Bur flower or Brook- 
flower. 

1035. HYGR6pHILA, R. Br. Hygrophila. Acanthaceae. 

From Greek, "moisture loving". Herbs. About 25 species^ 
tropical and sub-tropical; 1 in U. S. 

1036. HYMENAEA, L. 1752, Courbaril. Caesalpinaceae. 

Dedicated to Hymen, the leaves having each a single pair of 
leaflets. Syn. Courbari, Adans. 1763. Trees. About 12 spe- 
cies, tropical America. 

a. H. Courbaril L. Tropical America. South American Locust 
tree, Courbaril, Varnish tree, Algarroba (of Panama). Wood 
exceedingly heavy and strong. Seeds surrounded by a saccha- 
rine edible pulp. Tree source of West Indian Coual or Coapi- 
nole (Mueller). South American Anime has been wrongly re- 
ferred to this source (Nat. Dispensatory). 

1037. HYMENOCALLIS, Salisb. Spider Lily. Aniaryllidaceae. 

From Greek, "beautiful membrane", alluding to the crown. 
Syn. Pancratiumf, in part. Ornamental bulbous herbs; flowers 
white, fragrant, the filaments connected by a web-like crown. 
About 30 species. New World; 11 in U. S. 

1038. HYMENOCLEA, Torr. & Gr. Hymenoclea. Compositae. 

From Greek, "enclosed membrane". Low shrubby plants 
with numerous small flower-heads. Two species, southwestern 
U. S. 

1039. HYMESOFAPPUS, L'Her. Hymenopappus. Compositae. 

From Greek, "membrane papfms." Herbs with rather small 
discoid flower-heads (white or yellow). About 10 species, all 
of southern U. S. and Mexico. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 197 

1040. HYMEN6tHRYX, Gray. Hymenothryx. Compositae. 

From Greek, "membrane bristle", alluding to the pappus. 
Herbs. Two known species, southwestern U. S. 

1041. HYOSCYAMUS, L. Henbane. Solanaceae. 

The ancient Greek name, meaning ''hog bean". Coarse, 
viscid-pubescent herbs. About 15 species, Mediterranean re- 
gion; 1 nat. in U. S. 

a. H. dlbns L. Southern Europe. White Henbane. Properties 

of (b). Seeds are official in French Codex. 

b. H. niger L. Southern Europe, sparingly nat. in U. S. Black 

Henbane, Henbane (Henbell, Henkam), Fetid or Stinking 
Nightshade, Hog's-bean, Insane-root, Belene. Chenile, Loaves- 
of -bread, Poison Tobacco; Ger. Bilsenkraut (schwarzes), Teu- 
felsaugenkraut; Fr. Jusquiame noir (Codex) ; Sp. Beleno negro, 
ieayes of second year's growth; Hyoscyamus U, S. P., Hyos- 
cyami folia, Br. , Herba hyoscyami, P. G. [The seeds also were 
formerly official, still so in the Codex]. Sedative, deliriant 
narcotic. Contains the alkaloids atropine and hyoscine. 

1042. HYPELATE, P. Br. White Ironwood. Sapindaceae. 

The ancient Greek name of Butcher's Broom. Syn. Amy- 
risf, Melicocca, in part. A small tree. West Indies to Florida. 

1043. HYPERICUM, L. St. John's wort. Hypericaceae. 

The ancient Greek name, "under heathei*". Syn. Sarothra, 
Androssemum, in part. Herbs with punctate or black-dotted 
leaves and yellow flowers. About 210 species, widely distribut- 
ed; 34 in U. S. 

a. H. Androsaemum L. fA. vulgare Gaertn., A. officinale All.). 

Asia Minor. Tutsan (Tipsen, Titson, Titsy, Stitson; Fr. toute- 
saine). Park-leaves, Touch-leaves, Touch-and-heal, Sweet-am- 
ber, Sweet-leaf, White-amber. Plant vulnerary. 

b. H. perforatum L. (H. vulgare Lam., H. officinale Gates, H. 

officinarum Crantz). Europe and northern Asia, nat. in U. S. 
Common St. John's- wort, John's-wort. St. John, Herb John, 
Penny -John, Amber, Balm-of-warrior' s- wound, Cammock, 
Hyssop*, Rosin-rose, Touch-and-heal; Ger. Johanniskraut, 
Johannisblut, Hartheu, Hexenkraut, Hasenkraut, Teufelsflucht; 
Fr. Millepertuis (Codex), Casse-diable; Sp. Hypericon. Flow- 
ering tops; Herba v. Summitateshyperici; bitter, terebinthinate, 
vulnerary. Used in jj reparation of Oleum hyperici, Red Oil. 
Some other species may be equally efi^ctive. The more note- 
worthy (indigenous) are (c) H. Ascyron L. (H. pyramidatum 
Ait. ), Great or Giant St. John's- wort; (d) H. graveolens 
Buckley, Mountain St. John's-wort; (e) H. maciilatuni Walt. 
(H. corymbosum Muhl.), Spotted or Corymbed St. John's- 
wort and (f) H. proliflcum L., Shrubby St. John's-wort, 
Broom-brush, Paint-brush. See Sarothra. 

1044. HYPHAENE, Gaertn. Doum Palm. Sabalaceae. 

From a Greek word meaning to "weave". Branching fan- 
palms. About 10 species, Africa, Arabia and Madagascar. 



198 PLANT NAMES'aND SYNONYMS 

a. H. crinita Gaertn. (H. Thebaica Mart. ) . Northeastern Africa 
and Arabia. Doum Palm, Doom Palm, Gingerbread tree, 
Mealy husk of fruit edible, resembling gingerbread in taste. 

1045. HYPOCHOERIS, L. (Hypochaeris). Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'for pigs' ' , these animals being fond of its roots. 
Perennial herbs with basal leaves and large flower-heads (yel- 
low). About 50 species, Europe, Asia and S. America; 2 nat. 
U. S. Synonyms, Cat's-ear, Gosmore; Ger. Saukraut; Fr. 
Porcelle. Boots of some S. American species used like Salsify. 

1046. HYPOPITYS, Adans. Pine-sap, etc. Monolropaceae. 

From Greek, ''under fir trees". Syn. Monotropa, in part. 
Scapose saprophyte, with flowers in a one-sided raceme. One 
species, north temperate zone (U. S. ). 

a. H. Hypopitys (L. ) Small (M. Hypopitys L., H. multiflora 
Scop. (Kew),H. lanuginosa RafjH. Monotropa Crantz). North- 
ern Europe, Asia and N. America, south to Florida and Ari- 
zona. False Beech- drops, Pine-sap, Fir- rape, Bird's-nest, 
Yellow Bird's-nest. Plant hitter, nauseaut, diuretic. 

1047. HYP6xIS, L. Star-grass. Aiiiaryllidaceae. 

From Greek, "acute below", perhaps descriptive of the cap- 
sule. Syn. Ornithogalum, in part. Perennial herbs from a 
corm, with grass-like leaves. About 50 species, warmer regions 
of Old and New World; 3 in U. S. 

a. H. hirsiita (L. ) Coville (O. hirsutum L. 1753, H. erecta L. 
1759). British America and eastern U. S. Star-grass, Yellow 
Star-grass. Boot detergent, vulnerary. 

1048. HYSSOPUS, L. Hyssop. Labiatae. 
Ancient Greek name of some aromatic herb. Perennial aro- 
matic herb. One species, southern Europe, nat. in U. S. 

a. H, officinalis L. (H. canescens DC, H. orientalis Adam, etc.). 
Hyssop (Ezob, Isop), Garden Hyssop; Ger. Ysop, Eiserig; Fr. 
Hysope ( Codex) ; Sp. Hissopo. Flowering herb, aromatic, bitter^ 
vulnerary. 

1049. IBERIS, L. Candy-tuft, etc. Cruciferae. 

Name from Iberia, i. e. Spain. Herbs, some ornamental. 
About 20 species, Mediterranean region. The Candy-tuft of 
gardens is (a) I. umbellata L. of southern Europe; the white 
variety is I. Coronaria Don, not a distinct species. 

1060. IBERYILLEA, Greene. Ibervillea. Cucnrbitaceae. 

Syn. MaximowicziaCogn., not Rupr. Perennial herbaceous 
climbers. Two species, Texas. 

1061. ICAC6rEA, Aubl. Marlberry Cherry. Myrsinaceae. 

From vernacular (Carib) name. Syn. Ardisia, Bladhia,. 
Cyrilla, Pickeringia, in part. Shrubs. About 200 species, 
warmer regions of both hemispheres; 1 in Florida, viz. (a) I, 
paniculdta (Nutt. ) Sudw. (C. paniculata Nutt. ). Marlberry 
Cherry. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 199 

1052. ICHTHYOMETHIA, Jamaica Dogwood. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "fish intoxicant". Syn. Piscidia, L. 1759; 
Erythrina, in part. A West Indian tree. One species; extends 
to Florida. 

a. I, Piscipiila (L. ) Kze. (E. Piscipula L., P. Piscipula Sarg; P. 
Ervthrina Jacq., P. toxicaria Salisb., P. inebrians Medic.) 
WVst Indies to Florida. Jamaica Dogwood, White Dogwood, 
Manaca*: Ger. Piscidie; Fr. Bois enivrant; Sp. Colorin de 
peces. Bark of root, narcotic, analgesic, sedative. Used to 
stupefy fish. See Cracca (b) and (c). 

1053. ILEX, L. Holly, Winterberry. Ilicaceae. 
Ancient name of Holly Oak. Syn. Prinos, in part. Shrubs 

or trees with berry-like fruit, some evergreen. About 160 
species, most numerous in New W^orld; 14 in U. S. 

a. I. Aquifolium L. Europe. European Holly, Aunt Mary's 

tree, Christmas, Crocodile, He-Holly (also She-Holly), 
Hulver (Helver, Holiverd, HoUin, Hollen. Plollond, Holyn), 
Holm, Sparked Holm, Prick-HoUin, Poison-berry; Ger. Stech- 
palme, Slecheiche, Christdorn; Fr. Houx. Leaves anti-arthri- 
tic. Fruit emeto-cathartic. Bark yields bird lime. Wood 
very white and close-grained. 

b. I. Cassine L. (1. Dahoon Walt. (Kew); includes I. myrtifolia 

Walt.). Southeastern U. S. Dahoon Holly, Yaupon. 

c. I. (lecidiia Walt. Southeastern U. S. Swamp or Meadow 

Holly, Bear-berry, Possum Haw. Properties and uses of (k). 

d. I. opdca Ait. [I. quercifolia Meerb. (Kew)]. Maine to 

Fl'Tida, west to Texas and Missouri. American Holly, W^hite 
Holly. Properties of (a), but leaves are said to be sedative and 
expectorant. 

e. I. Paragiieiisis St. Hil. (I. Paraguariensis Don., I. Paraguayen- 

sis Hook., 1. thseezans Bonpl. not Mart.). Brazil and Argen-- 
tina. Paraguay Tea, Jesuit's or St. Bartholomew's Tea, Yerba 
Mate; Ger. Jesuitenthee, St. Bartholomykraut; Fr. Mate 
(Codex). Leaves contain Cafieine. Used like Chinese tea. 
(f) I. Goiigoiiha Lamb., (g) I. theezans Mart, and some 
other species are used also as yerba mat^. 

h. I, verticilldta (L. )A. Gray (P. verticillatus L. ). Canada 
and eastern U. S. Black or False Alder, Striped or White 
Alder, Virginia or Common Winterberry, Feverbush. Bark 
astringent, tonic, febrifuge. Similar properties are ascribed to 
(i) I. g:ldbra (L) A. Gray (P. glaberL. ), Massachusetts to 
Florida, west to Louisiana; Ink-berry, Dye-leaves, Gall-berry, 
Evergreen Winterberry and (j) I. laevigilta (Pursh. ) A. 
Gray (P. laevigatus Pursh), Maine to Virginia. Smooth 
Winterberry, Hoop- wood, Can-hoop. 

k. I. voiiiitoria Ait. (I. Cassine Walt. (Kew), not L., L religiosa 
Barth. ). Southeastern U. S., west to Texas, also in Bermuda, 
Cassena, Yaupon (Youpon), Emetic Holly, Indian Black-drink; 



200 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

Appalachian, Indian, Carolina or South-sea Tea; Ger. Apal- 
achenthei^ Carolinathee, Indischer Thee. Leaves, Folia apal- 
arhinis, Fol. paragufe, contain caffeine and were formerly used 
by Indians to make their "black drink" . 

1054. ILICIOiDES, Dumont 1802. Mountain Holly. Ilicaceae. 
From Greek, "resembling Holly". Syn. Nemopanthus 

(Nemopanthes), Kaf. 1819 (Kew); Vacciniumf, in part. A 
deciduous shrub. One species, U. S. 

a. I. imicrondta (L. ) Britton (V. mucrouatnm L., N. fascicula- 
ris Kaf. (Kew); N. Canadensis DC). Canada, south to 
Virginia and Wisconsin. Mountain Holly, Canadian or Wild 
Holly, Brick-timber, Cat-berry. 

1055. ILLICIUM, L. Star- Anise. Magnoliaceae. 

From Latin, "enticing", alluding to the odor. Evergreen 
shrubs. About 6 species, eastern Asia, Japan and eastern jS". 
America; 2 in U. S. 

a. I. rioridannm Ell. Florida to Louisiana, Poi-on Bay, Stink- 

bush (of Louisiana), Sweet Laurel, Florida Anise tree, Florida 
Star- anise. Bark aromatic, tonic. Leaves and fruit have 
poisonous properties. 

b. I. parviflorum Vent. (I. anisatum Bartr, , not L. ). Georgia to 

Florida. Properties of (a), /^oo^ said to resemble sassafras. 

c. I. religiosum Siebold (1. anisatum L. notGaertn., I. San-ki 

Pers. ). Eastern Asia and Japan. Sacred Anisetree. Bark, 
Lavola bark, used for incense. Leaves and fruit aromatic but 
poisonous. 

d. I. veriim Hook. f. (I. anisatum Gaertn., not L.). Southeastern 

China, cult, in China and Japan. Chinese Anise tree. Fruit, 
Star-anise, Chinese Anise; lUicium U. S. P.; Fructus (Semen) 
anisi stellati, Sem. badiani: Ger. Indischer Anis, Sternanis, 
Badian; Fr. Anis etoile, Badiane; aromatic, carminative, with 
flavor of true Anise. 

1056. ILYSANTHES, Raf. False Pimpernel. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Greek, "mud flower". Syn. Capraria, Lindernia. in 
part. Small herbs. About 10 species, 6 in U. S. 

1057. IMPATIEIVS, L. Touch-me-not. Balsaminaceae. 

Name Latin, alluding to sensitiveness of capsules. Succulent 
herbs with irregular, often ornamental flowers. About 220 
pecies, mostly of tropical Asia; 2 in U. S. 

a. I. aurea Muhl. (I. pallida, Nutt. ). Quebec to Oregon, south 

to Georgia and Kansas. Pale Jewelweed, Pale Touch-me-not, 
Yellow or Golden Jewelweed, Wild Celandine, Ceroline, Wild 
Balsam, Pale Balsam- weed, Quick in-the-hand, Silver- weed, 
Slipper-weed, Slippers, Wild Ladies* -slipper. Snap-weed, 
Weathercock. Herb aperient, diuretic. 

b. I. Balsamina L., from tropical Asia is the Common Garden 

Balsam; (c) I. NoU-taiigere L. (1. Noli-me-tangere Crantz) 
is the European Touch-me-not or Wild Balsam, called also 
Codded Arsmart. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR 201 

•d. I. biflora Walt. (I. fulva Nutt. )• British America, south to 
Florida and Missouri. Spotted Touch-me-not, Cowslip-, Ear- 
jewel, Spotted or Orange Jewel weed, Speckeled Jewels or 
Jewel-weed, Balsam-weed, Wild Balsam, Brook Celandine 
(Solentine), Wild Celandine, Ceroline, Kicking-colt, Kicking- 
horses, Ladies' -eardrop, Ladies' -pocket. Silver-leaf, Silver plant, 
Shining-grass, Slipper-weed, Wild Ladies' -slipper, Snapdragon* 
Snap- weed, Weathercock. Properties of (a). 

1058. IMPERAT6rIA, L. Masterwort. Umbelliferae. 

From Latin, "imperial". Peucedanum, Oreoselinu i, in 
part. Robust perennial herbs. About 10 species. Old World. 

a. I. Ostr lithium L. (P. Ostruthium Koch. (Kew), O. officinale 
Link.). Central and southern Europe adv. in U. S. Master- 
wort, Felon-grass, Felonwort, Imperial Masterwort, Broad- 
leaved Hog' s-fennel, Pellitory of Spain*; Ger. Meisterwurz, 
Kaiserwurz, Ostritzwurz, Ostranz; Fr. Imperatoire (Codex). 
Mhizome; Rhizoma (Radix) imperatorise v. ostruthii, R. as- 
trantise; aromatic, acrid, masticatory, etc., sometimes mixed by 
accident or design with aconite root. Leaves used as a pot herb, 
and in manufacture of some kinds of Swiss cheese. 

1059. INDIG6fERA, L. Indigo. Papilionaceae. 

From Latiu, "indigo yielding". Herbs or shrubs. About 
250 species, warm and temperate regions; 6 in U. S. including 
introduced species, 

a. I. Anil L. ( I. tinctoria Blanco not L. ) . West Indies and tropi- 
cal America; Carolina and southward in eastern U. S., also 
cult. West Indian Indigo plant, Devil' s-eye, Anil (vernacular 
name whence our word aniline). Leaves source of the dye-stuff 
Indigo; Indicum, Pigmentum indicum; Ger. Indigo, Indig; Sp. 
Anil; formerly used in epilepsy, also reputed emmenagogue. 
Indigo is obtained also from (b) I. argentea L. (I. coerulea 
Roxb., I. glauca Lam, I. tinctoria Forst., not L. ), North 
Africa, east to India, also cult., and from (c) I. tinctoria L. 
(I. Indica Lam. not Mill.), tropical Asia, Africa and Australia 
and widely cult, in tropical countries, East Indian Indigo 
plant. 

1060. IKGA, Scop. Inga tree. Mimosaoeae. 

Vernacular name, S. America. Trees or large shrubs. 
About 150 species, tropical America. The pods of several spe- 
cies contain a saccharine pulp which in some is edible, in some 
is cathartic. 

1061. INGENHOl^ZIA, DC. not Bert. ( Ingenhoussia. )Malvaceae. 

Shrub resembling Gossyx^ium. One species, Mexico and 
southern U. S. 

1062. INULA, L. (Enula). Elecampane, etc. Conipositae. 

Ancient Latin name of Elecampane, probably corrupted from 
Helenium, the Greek name. Syn. Asterf, Conyza, Corvisartia, 
in part. Perennial herbs with large flower heads (yellow). 
About 90 species, Old World; 1 nat. in U. S. 



202 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. I. Heleiiium L. ( Cor. Helenium Merat, A. Helenium Scop. ). 

Central Asia and Europe, nat. in U. S. Elecampane (Alli- 
campane, Alicompane, Aligfopane), Elf Dock, Elfwort, Horse- 
heal, Horse-elder, Inul, Scabwort, Yellow Starwort, Velvet 
Dock, Wild Sunflower; Ger. Alant, Glockenwurzel, Ottwurz^ 
Fr. Aunee officinale, Grande aunee (Codex). Root; Inula, 
U. S. P., Radix helenii v. inulae v. enulse; diuretic, expectorant,, 
reputed bactericide. Candied root a popular cough remedy. 

b. I. sqiiarrosa (L. )Bemh. (Con. squarrosaL., I. Conyza DC). 

Europe. Plowman's Spikenard, Cinnamon-root, Flea wort*, 
Lady's-glove; Ger. Diirrwurz; Fr. Conyze. Herb diuretic,. 
emmenao:ogue, insecticide, (c) I. ci'ithmoides L. of southern 
Europe is called Golden Samphire; (d) I. Oculus-Christi L. 
(I. Oculus Schr. ), Europe, is called Christ' s-eye. 

1063. lODANTHUS, T. &Gr. Purple or False Rocket. Cniciferae. 

From Greek, ''violet" colored "flower". Syn. Hesperis, 
Thelypodium, in part. Herb with violet or white flowers in 
panicled racemes. One species, easternU. S. 

1064. lODINA, Hook. & Arn. lodina. Aqiiifoliaceae. 

Shrubs. Two species, South America; (a) I. rhoinbifolia 

H. & A. is Quebracho flojo. Wood and bark rich in tannin. 

1065. lONAC-TIS, Greene. Pine Starwort, etc. Compositae. 

From Greek, "violet rayed". Syn. Aster, Diplopappus, in 
part. Aster-like perennial herbs. Three known species, all 
of U. S. 

a. I, linariifolins (L.) Greene (A. linariifolius L. (Kew), D. 
linariifolius Hook. ) Canada to Florida, west to Texas and 
;^[innesota. Stiff" Aster, Savory-leaved Aster, Sandpaper Star- 
wort, Pine Starwort. 

1066. IPOMOEA, L. (Ipomsea, Ipomea). Convolvulaceae. 

From Greek, "worm like", alluding to twining stems. 
Syn. Batatas, Calonyction, Convolvulus, Pharbitis, in part. 
Herbs, usually twining or trailing. About 300 species, widely 
distributed ; 33 in U. S. See also Exogonium. 

a. I. Batatas Poiret (B. edulis Choisy, Con v. tuberosa). Tropi- 
cal America, now widely cult. Sweet Potato, Camote. Tubers 
esculent. The following species among others yield also edi- 
ble tubers; (b) I. Batatilla G. Don., Venezuela; (c) I. Calo- 
bra Hill & Muell., Australia; (d) I. costdta F. Muell., Aus- 
tralia; (e) I. graminea R. Br., Australia (Mallamak of the 
natives); (f) I, luamiiiosa Choisy, Amboina; (g) I, plataui- 
folia R. &S., Central America. 

h. I. Bona^nox L. (Cal. speciosum Choisy (Engler & Pranfl), 
Cal. Bona-nox (L. ) Boj. ). Tropical America to Florida, 
widely nat. [in tropical countries, also cult. Moon-flower, Moon 
Creeper. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 20S 

i. I. hederdcea (L. )Jacq. (Con v. hederaceus L., C. Nil L., P. 
Nil Choisy, I. Nil Roth, I. triloba Thunb. ). Tropical Amer- 
ica, nat. in southern U. S. and widely elsewhere. Blue Morn- 
ing-glory. Boasted seeds, in India called Kaladana, in Japan 
Kengashi, used as a purgative. Varieties of this and of (j) 
I. purpurea Lam. are the garden Morning-glories. 

k. I, leptophylla To-r. Nebraska to New Mexico and Texas. 
Bush Morning-glory, Man-root. 

1. I. Orizsibensis (Pel.) Ledan. (Conv. Orizabensis Pelletan). 
Mexico. Tuberous roots; Male Jalap, Fusiform or Woody Jalap, 
Jalap-stalks; Ger. Falsche Jalape, Jalapenstengel; purgative, 
(m) I. siuiulans Hanbury. Mexico. Source of Tarapico 
Jalap or Sierra Gordo Jalap. See Exogonium, to which pos- 
sibly these species belong. 

n. I. pandurata (L. ) Meyer (Conv. panduratus L. ). Ontario 
and eastern U. S. Man-root, Man-of-the-earth, Hog Potato, 
Wild Potato, Wild Sweet-j)Otato, Wild Jalap, Mechoacanna, 
Mechamech (of the aborigines), Scammony-root, Wild Scam- 
mony. Tubers feebly cathartic. 

1067. IRESINE, P. Br. Blood-leaf, etc. Amaraiithaceae. 

From Greek, alluding to ''woolly" calyx. Herbs, annual or 
perennial. About 20 species, warm and temperate regions; 2 
in U. S. (a) I. paniculata (L. ) Kze, southern U. S. and 
southward, is called Blood-leaf, Juba's-bush and Juba's-brush. 

1068. IRIS, L. Fleur de lis. Blue Flag, etc. ^ Iridaeeae. 

From Greek, "rainbow". Herbs from creeping root stocks. 
About 100 species, mostly of north temperate zone; 22 in U. S. 

a, I. Florentina L. Southern Europe, Florentine Orris (i. e. Iris )y 

White Flag, Florence or Sweet Flower-de-luce. Rhizome of 
this and two following species; Orris-root; Rhizoma iridis, 
Kadix iridis florentinse, R. ireos; Ger. Irisrhizom, Vielchen- 
wurzel, Violfcnwurzel, Schwertelwurz; Fr. Iris de Florence 
(Codex); Sp. Liria de Florencia; acrid, sternutatory, but chiefly 
used in deniifr ces, cosmttic powders, etc. Sometimes used for 
issue peas (Pois d'iris de Paris) 

b. I, Germanica L. Southern Europe, northern Africa to India^ 

cult, and adv. in U. S. European Blue Flag, German Iris or 
Orris; Ger. Blauer Schwertel, Schwertlilie; Fr. Flambe, Fleur de 
lis (corrupted in English to Flower de luce). This species, 
also (c) I. pallida Lam., Southern Europe to Syria, Pale 
Blue Flag, have properties and uses of (a). 

d. I, prismatica Pursh. (I. Virginica Muhl. not L., I. gracilis 

Bijjel. ) New Brunswick to N. Carolina. Slender Blue Flag, 
Poison Flag. Properties of (g). 

e. I. Pseudaconis L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Yellow Flag, False 

Sweet-flag, Daggers, Corn Flag, Yellow Water-flag, Sword Flag^ 
J acob's-sword. Flagons, Yellow Water-skegs, Water-seg. SeedL 
used for coffee. 



"204 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

f. I. v^rna L. Pennsylvania to Georgia. Dwarf Iris, Slender 

Blue Flag. Root stock "pungently spicy". 

g. I. versicolor L. (I. Virginica L. not Muhl. ). Canada, south to 

Florida and west to Arkansas and Manitoba. Blue Flag, Flag 
Lily, Liver Lily, Snake Lily, Poison Flag, Water Flag, Ame- 
rican Fleur-de-lis or Flower-de-luce; Ger. Verschiedenfarbige 
Schwertlilie, Amerikanischer Schwertel; Fr. Irisvarie, Flambe 
variee, Glaieul bleu; Sp. Liria Americana. Rhizome, Blue Flag, 
Iris U. S. P., cathartic, cholagoo:ue. 

1069. IRVINtJIA, Hook. Dika Bread. Simarubaceae. 

Named for Dr. Irving, R. N. Trees with curious annulated 
branches. Three species, tropical west Africa, (a.) I. Barter! 
H ook. f. is called Bread-tree, Dika Bread, Mango*. Seeds 
edible. 

1070. ISANTHUS, Michx. False Pennyroyal, etc. Labiatae. 
From Greek, '"equal" (i. e. regular) "flowered". Syn. 

Trichostema, in part. Annual herb. One species, Canada and 
eastern U. S., False Pennyroyal, Fluxweed, Blue Gentian*. 

1071. ISATIS, L. - Woad. - Criiciferae. 

Ant'ient Greek plant name. Herbs, annual or biennial. 
About 30 species, southern Europe and western Asia, 
a. I. tinctoria L. Europe. Dyer's Woad (Wad, Ode, Goud), 
Ash-of-Jerusalem. This species as well as (b) I. indi^otica 
Fortune, of China yields indigo. 

1072. ISNARDIA, L. Marsh Purslane. Onagraceae. 

Named for A. D. Isnard, French botanist, d. 1724. Syn. 

Ludwigia, in part. Sue ulent herbs. About 4 species, N. 
America; 3 in U. S. 

-a. I. paliistris L. (L. palustris Ell. ). Europe, Asia and N. Ame- 
rica; U. S. throughout. Marsh Purslane, Water Purslane, 
False Loose-strife, Phthisic-weed. Pkmt has been used in 
asthma. 

1073. ISOCARPHA, R. Br. 1816. Isocarpha. Conipositae. 

From Gret-k, ''equal chafl", the bracts of involucre and re- 
ceptable being similar. Syn. Dunantia, DC. 1836; Calea, in 
part. Herbs related to Ageratum. About 5 species, tropical 
America; 1 in U. S. 

1074. IS6C0MA, Nutt. Isocoma, Damiana*. Coinpositae. 

From Greek, ' equal hair". Syn. Aplopappus, Baccharis, 
Bigelovin, Linoseris, in part. Suffrutescent plants with succu- 
lent leaves and small rayless heads (yellow). Ten species in 
southwestern U. S. 

-a. I. yeneta (H. B. K. ) Greene (Bac. veneta H. B. K., Big. ve- 
neta Gray, L. Mexicana Schlecht., A. discoideus DC). Cali- 
fornia to Mexico. One of the plants called Damiana. Plant re- 
puted aphrodisiac. 

1076. IS6mERIS, Nutt. Isomeris. Capparidaceae. 

From Greek, "equal parts". A shrub of unpleasant odor, 
with yellow flowers. One species, California. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 205 

1076. ISOPAPPUS, F. & Gr. Isopappus. Compositae. 

From Greek, with "equal pappus". Syn. Aplopappus, in 
part. Herbs with small heads of yellow flowers. Two species, 
southern U. S. 

1077. ISOPYRUM,L.1752. False Eue Anemone.Raminciilaceae. 

Ancient Greek plant name. Syn. Enemion, Raf, 182(X. 
Herbs with ternately decompound leaves. About 15 species, 
north temperate zone; 4 in U. S. 

1078. ITEA, L. Virginia Willow. Saxifragaceae. 

From Greek name of "willow", the foliage being willow-like. 
Shrubs with raceraed Avhite flowers. About 5 species, 4 of east- 
ern Asia; 1 in U. S. 

1079. iVA, L. - Marsh Elder. - Ambrosiaceae. 

Old Greek name of Ground-pine (Ajnga) which has a simi- 
lar odor. Syn Cyclachsena, in part. Rough herbs resembling 
Ambrosia. About 14 species, all American; 11 inU. S. (a.) 
I. friitescPiiS L. is called also High-water shrub and Jesuit's- 
bark*. 

1080. IVESIA, Torr. & Gr. Ivesia. Rosaceae. 
Perennial herbs related to Potentilla. Syn. Potentilla, in- 

part. Fourteen species belong to southwestern U. S. 

1081. iXORA, L. Wild Jasmin, etc. Riibiaceae. 

Dedicated to Iswara, a Malabar deity in whose worship the- 
flowers were used. Shrubs or small trees. About 135 species, 
tropical regions especially of Old World. 

a. I. coccinea L. (I. Bandhuca Roxb. ). Tropical Asia. A 
remedy in India for dysentery. 

1082. JACARANDA, Juss. Rosewood, etc. Bignoniareae* 

From vernacular, Brazil. Syn. Bignonia, in part. Trees. 
About 30 species, tropical America. 

a. J. procera (Willd. ) Spreng. (B. procera Willd. ) ; (b) J. Copaia 
(Aubl.) D. Don. (B. Copaia Aubl. ); (c) J. Caroba ( Vel. ) 
DC. (B. Caroba Velloso); perhaps all three a single species. 
Guiana to Brazil. Caroba. Leaves alterative, anti-syphilitic. 
Other Brazilian species also called Caroba and having similar 
properties are (d) J. oxyphyl la Cham, and (e) J. subrhombea 
DC. See also Bignonia, Cybistax and Sparattosperma. 

f. J. ovalifolia R. Br. (J. mimossefolia Don.). Brazil. Wood of 
this and some other species is the fragrant Palixander or Palis- 
sandre wood, also called Rosewood. 

1088. JACOBIXIA, Moric. Jacobinia. Acantliaceae. 

Shrubs. About 30 species, warmer regions of America; 1 in* 

U. S. 

1084. JACQUEM6NTIA,Choisy.Jacquemontia.ConvoIvulaceae. 
Named for Victor Jacquemont who traveled in the West 
Indies, 19th century. Twining herbs. About 36 species, 
tropical America, 1 in Asia; 4 in U. S. 



•206 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1085. JACQUINIA, L. Bracelet-wood. ^ Myrshiaceae. 

Named for Prof. N. I. de Jacquin, botanist of Leyden, d. 
1818. Evergreen shrubs. About 18 species, tropical America; 
2 in U. S. ; (a) J, arinillaris Jacq., West Indies to Florida, 
is called Bracelet-wood or Joe-wood. .,^ _^^j 

1086. JAMBOS, Adans. (Jambosa DC, Jambus). Myrtaceae. 
Vernacular, Hindustan. Syn. Eugenia, in part. Trees 

bearing large edible fruits. 

a. J. Jambos (L. ) Lyons (E. Jambos L. (Kew), E. jambosa 

Crantz, E. Jamboo Roxb. , J. vulgaris DC, Jambus rot^atus 

Noronha). East Indies, cult, in all tropical countries. Kose 

Apple, Malabar Plum, Jambosade, Jamba. Fruit esculent, 
with flavor of rose-leaves. 

b. J. Malaccensis (L. ) DC (E. Malaccensis L. (Kew), J. pur- 

purea W. «& A., J. domestica Rumph. ). India, East Indies 
and Oceanica. Malay Apple, the Mountain Apple or Ohia of 
Hawaiian Islands. Fruit esculent. 

1087. JANtJSIA, Juss. Janusia. Malpighiaceae. 

Climbing shrubs. About 8 species, mostly of S. America; 1 
in U. S. 

1088. JASI6nE, L. Sheep' s-bit. Cainpanulaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of this or a kindred plant. Dwarf herbs 
with clustered flowers. About 12 species, temperate Europe; 
1 adv. in U. S., viz. (a) J. montana L., Sheep' s-bit, Sheep's 
Scabious. 

1089. JASMINDM, L. Jasmine, Jessamine. Jasminaceae. 

From the Arabic name, yasmin. Shrubs or climbers. About 
125 species, warmer regions especially of Old World. The fra- 
grant flowers of several species are largely used in perfumery, 
notably of (a) J. grand iflorum L., India to Japan, cult, in 
France, Large-flowered White Jasmine or Jessamine (Jasmin, 
Jessamin, Jessamy, Jeshamy); (b) J. oduratissimum L., 
Madeira, Sweet-scented Yellow Jasmine; (c) J. officinale L., 
Chma and southern Asia, cult, in southern Europe, Common 
White Jasmine; (d) J. Sambac, India to China, Arabian 
Ja.smine, Bela (Hindustan). 

1090. JATEORRHIZA, Miers. Calumba. Menisperniaceae. 

From Greek, "healing root". Syn. Cocculus, Menispermum, 
in part. Woody climbers. Three species, tropical Africa. 

A. J. palmdta (Lam.) Miers (M. palmatum Lam., C. palmatus 
DC, not Hook., M. Columba Roxb. This last is possibly a dis- 
tinct species; if so we must adopt for the name of the plant pro- 
ducing Calumba J. Colli mba ( Roxb. ) Miers. ) . Eastern Africa . 
Root; Calumba, U. S. P., Calumbse radix Br., Calumba or 
Columbo (from vernacular Kalumb); Radix Colombo, P. G., 
Calumbo; Ger. Kolombowurzel ; Fr. Racine de Colombo 
(Codex), Colombe; Bitter tonic. 



^ 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPL'LAR. 207 

1091. JATROPHA, L. Spurge Nettle, etc. Eiiphorbiacfae. 

From Greek, "healing nutriment". Prickly herbs or shrubs. 
About 70 specins, warmer regi(ms especially of New World; 8 
in U. S. (a) J. stiiniilosa Michx. (J. urens, var. stimulosa 
Muell. ), Virginia to Florida and Texas, is called Spurge Nettle, 
Sand Nettle, Stinging-bu^h, Tread-softly. 

1092. JAUMEA, Pers. 1807. Jaumea. Compositae. 

Named for I. H. Jaume St. Hilaire, French botanisr. Syn. 
Kleinia, Juss. 1803, not L. ; Coinogyne, in part. Herbs or sub- 
shrubs. About 5 species, chiefly of S. America; 1 in California. 

1093. JEFFERS6nIA, Bart. Twin-leaf. Berberidaceae. 

Named in honor of Thomas Jefferson, the statesman. Syn. 
Podophyllum, in part. Perennial herbs with solitary white 
flowers. Two species, one in Alantchuria; 1 in U. S. 

a. J, diphjlla (L. ) Pers. (P. diphyllum L., J. binata Bart. 
(Kew), J. Bartonis Michx, ). Ontario to Virginia and 
west to Wisconsin. Twin-leaf, Rheumatism root, Helm t-pod, 
Ground-squirrel Pea, Yellow-root. Pvoot diuretic, alterative, 
anti-arthritic. 

1094. JEPSONIA, Small. Jepsonia. Saxifragaceae. 

Two species in U. S. 

1095. JOANNESIA, Veil. Anda Assu. Euphorbiaceae. 

Syn. Anda, Juss., Andicus, Veil. Tree. One species, Brazil. 

a. J. princeps Veil. ( Anda Braziliensis Raddi, A. Gornesii Juss., 
Andicus pentaphyllus Veil.). Brazil. Anda Assu. Seeds, 
Semina (Nuces) anda3;Ger. Ararafriichte, Andaniisse; actively 
cathartic; yield an oil resembling castor oil. 

1096. JtGLANS, L. - Walnut . Jiiglandaceae. 

Latin name, the "nut of Jove". Trees with pinnate leaves 
and edible nuts. About 10 species, north temperate zone and 
S. America; 5 in U. S. 

a. J. cinerea L. (J. catharticaMichx., J. oblongaMill. ). Canada 

to Georgia, west to Arkansas and N. Dakota. Butternut, 
White or Lemon Walnut, Oil-nut. Bark of root; Juglans, 
U. S. P., Butternut bark; Ger. Graue Wallnussrinde; Fr. 
Ecorce de noyer gris; Sp. Nogal; cathartic, cholagogue. Seeds 
rich in oil. 

b. J. nigra L. Ontario and eastern U. S. Black Walnut. Seeds 

yield oil; twood valuable; (c) J, Californica Wats., California, 
is the California Black Walnut. 

d. J. r^gia L. Europe and Asia, cult, in U.S. English Walnut, 
European or French Walnut, Bennut, Welsh-nut, French-nut, 
Madeira-nut (a thin shelled variety); Xux regia, Nux persica, 
Nux euboea; Fr. Noyer commun (Codf-x). Rind of fruit, al- 
terative, anthelmintic. Leaves, Folia juglandis, P. G., astrin- 
gent, alterative. Kernels yield walnut oil. Immature fruit 
pickled. 



208 PLANT NAMES ANT) SYNONYMS 

1097. JtJNCOIDES, Adans. 1763. Wood Eush. Jimcaceae. 
From Greek, ''rush-like". Syn. Luzula, DC. 1805. Eush- 

like perennials. About 40 species; 11 in U. S. 

1098. JUNCUS, L. Eush, Bog Rush, etc. Jimcaceae. 
Ancient Latin name, referring to useol rushes for "binding". 

Grass-like plants, mostly paludal or aquatic. About 175 species, 
especially of north temperate zone; 78 in U. S. 

1099. JUNIPERUS, L. Juniper. Pinaceae. 
Ancient Latin name, meaning "renewing its youth". Syn. 

Sabina, in part. Evergreen trees and shrubs with berry-like- 
fruit. About 30 species, northern hemisphere; 9 in U. S. 

a. J. Bermudidna L. Bermuda and Barbados. Pencil Cedar. 

The fragrant icood used for pencils, etc. 

b. J. communis L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, 

south to New Jersey, Michigan and New Mexico. Juniper 
tree, Aiten (Ailnach, Etnaoh), Fairy-circle, Gorst, Hackma- 
tack, Horse Savin; Ger. Wachholder, Kaddig, Kranewett, 
Jachandel, Johandel; Fr. Genevrier comniun; Sp. Enebro. 
Fruit, Juniper berries, Melmot berries; Baccae juniperi; Ger. 
Wacbholderbeeren; Fr. Baie de genievre ( Codex j; diuretic, 
carminative, emmenagogue; source of oil of Juniper. Oleum 
juniperi, U. S. P. The wood also yields by distillation a vola- 
tile oil, oleum ligni juniperi. From the fruit is distilled the 
spirit called gin (originally geneva). 

c. J. Oxyc^driis L. Southern Europe and northern Africa. 

Prickly Cedar, Spanish Cedar, Large brown-fruited Juniper, 
Berry-bearing Cedar. Wood yields by dry distillation Oil of 
Cade; Oleum cadinum, U. S. P.; Ol. juniperi empyreumaticum, 
01. cadi, 01. juniperi nigrum; Ger. Kadeol, Kaddigol, Takinol; 
Fr. Huile de cade (Codex), anthelmintic; used in skin diseases; 
a constituent of Haarlem oil. 

d. J. Sabina L. (S. officinalis Garcke.). Europe, northern Asia 

and N. America, south to New York and Montana. Savin 
(Savine), Saving tree. Cover-shame; Ger. Sadebaum; Fr. Sabine- 
( Codex). The tops; Sabina, U. S. P., Sabinae cacumina Br., 
Summitates sabinte, Herba sabinae; Ger. Sadebaumspitzen, 
Sadekraut; emmenagogue, irritant, anthelmintic. Also source 
of oil of savin ( U. S. P. ) 

6. J. Tirginiana L. British America and U. S., east of Eocky 
Mountains. Eed Cedar, Carolina Cedar, Virginian Cedar, 
Pencil Cedar, Savin*, Eed Savin, Eed Juniper, Pencil-wood. 
Properties resemble those of (d) . 

1100. JUSSIAEA, L. Prim rose- Willow. Onagraceae. 

Named for Bernard de Jussieu, d. 1777. Syn. Ludwigia, in 
part, Jussieua (the older form). Perennial herbs with white 
or yellow solitary flowers. About 35 species, warm and tem- 
perate regions, especially of New World; 8 in U. S. ; (a) J. 
diffusa Forsk., Creeping or Floating Primrose-willow, is called, 
also Clove-strip. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 209 

1101. JUSTICIA, L. Justicia. Acanthaceae. 

Named for J. Justice, Scotch horticulturalist. Syn. Dian- 
thera, Diapedium, Dicliptera, in part. Herbs, rarely shrubs. 
About 110 species, warmer regions; 1 in U. 8. See Adhatoda. 

1102. KALLSTROEMIA, Scop. Caltrops. Zygophyllaceae. 

Named for Kallstroem. Syn. Tribulus, in part. Herbs, oft- 
en prostrate, with yellow flowers. About 10 species, warm 
and tropical regions; 4 in U. S. 

1103. KALMIA, L. Sheep Laurel, etc. Ericaceae. 
Named for Peter Kalm, a pupil of Linneus, d. 1779. Ever- 
green shrubs with showy flowers. About 6 species, 1 of Cuba 
the rest of eastern U. S. 

a. K. an^iistif61ia L. Canada, south to Georgia. Sheep Laurel, 
Calf-Kill, Lamb-kill, Kill-kid, Narrow-leaved Laurel or 
Sheep-laurel, Dwarf Laurel or Sheep-laurel, Sheej)- poison, 
Spoonwood Ivy, Wicky. Properties of (d), as have (b) K. 
glaiica Ait., British America, south to New Jersey, Michigan, 
Colorado and California., Swamp Laurel, Pale Laurel; and 
(c) K. hirsiita Walt., Virginia to Florida, Hairy Laurel, 
Wicky. 

d. K. latifolia L. Canada and eastern U. S. Mountain Laurel, 
Calico-bush, American Laurel, Small or Wood Laurel, Broad- 
leaved Laurel or Kalmia, Kose Laurel, Sheep Laurel, Spurge 
Laurel, Claujoun, Kalmia, Ivy-bush, Big-leaved Ivy, Spoon- 
hunt, Spoonwood, Wicky. Leaves alterative, narcotic, seda- 
tive, errhine, astringent. Fruit poisonous. 

1104. KARWINSKIA, Zucc. Karwinskia. Rhamnaceae. 

Shrubs. About 5 species, tropical and sub-tropical N. 
America; 1 in U. S. 

1105. KELL^ttGIA, Torr. Kelloggia. Riibiaceae. 

Slender herb. One species, California. 

1106. KHAYA, Juss. - Juribali. - Cedrelaceae. 

The vernacular name. Syn. Swietenia, in part. Large 
trees. Two species, tropical Africa; (a) K. Senegalensis 
(Desv. ) Juss. (S. Senegalensis Desv. ). W^estern Africa. 
Juribali. Bark astringent, febrifuge. 

1107. KNEIFFIA, Spach. Sundrops, etc. Onagraceae. 

Named for Prof. C. Kneifl of Strassburg. Syn. Oenothera,, 
in part. Sufii-utescent herbs with yellow diurnal flowers.. 
About 10 species, temperate N. America; 9 in U. S. 

a. K. puinila (L.) Spach. (Oe. pumilaL., Oe. chrysantha Michx.). 
Canada and northeastern U. S. Small Sundrops, Dwarf Eve- 
ning: Primrose, Golden-flowered Evening Primrose, (b) K. 
fniticosa (L. ) Rairaann, and (c) K, ^laiica (Michx.) Spach 
are called also Scabish. 



210 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1108. KNOWLT6NIA,Salisb.l796.KnowltoDia.Riiiiunciilaceae. 
Named for Thomas Knowlton, curator botanical garden at 

Eltham. Syn. Thebesia, Neck. 1790. Acrid herbs. About 
6 species, South Africa; (a) K. vesicatoria Sims. South 
African Buttercup. Plant acrid, vesicant. 

1109. k6cHIA, Roth. White Sage, etc. Cheiiopodiaceae. 

Named for W. D. J. Koch, curator botanical garden Erlan- 
gen, d. 1849. Syn. Chenopodium, in part. Perennial herbs or 
low shrubs. About 35 species, mostly of Old World; 2 in U. S. 

a. K. Americana Wats. ( K.prostrata Auct.,not Schrad. ). Nevada. 
White Sage. A valuable salt bush, as is (b) K. villosa Lindl. 
of Australian deserts, called Cotton-bush, (c) K. Scoparia (L) 
Roth. (C. Scoparia L. ), Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S., is 
called Brown Cypress, Belvidere or Summer Cypress. 

1110. KOEBERLOIA, Zucc. Koeberlinia. Simarubaceae. 

Shrub, almost leadess. One species, Texas and Mexico. 

1111. KOELLIA, Moench 1794. Mountain Mint. Labiatae. 
Named for J. L. C. Koelle, German botanist, 18th Century 

Syn. Brachystemum and Pycnanthemum, Michx. 1803; Clino- 
podium. Origanum, Satureja and Tullia, in part. Mint-like 
perennials. About 15 species, all of U. S. Properties of 
Mentha. 

a. K. incaua (L. )Kze. (C. incanum L., P. incanum Michx.). On- 

tario to Florida. Hoary Mountain Mint, Mountain Mint, 
Calamint, Wild Basil, locally known as Horsemint. 

b. K. Virginiana (L.) MacM. (S. Virginiana L., P. lanceolatum 

Pursh). Canada to Georgia, west to Nebraska. Virginia 
Thyme, Virginia Mountain Mint, Basil*, Mountain Thyme, 
Pennyroyal*, Prairie Hyssop. The name Virginia Thyme is 
given also to the much less aromatic, (c) K. flexiiosa ''Walt. ) 
MacM. (O. flexuosura Walt., S. Thymus- Virginicus L.,^P. 
linifolium Pursh), Ontario and eastern U. S., Narrow-leaved 
Mountain Mint^. 

1112. KONIGA, Adans. 1763. Sweet Alyssum, etc. Cruciferae. 

Named for Charles Konig;. curator in British Museum. Syn. 
Konig (older form), Lobularia, Desv. 1813; Glyce, Alyssum 
:and Clypeola, in part. [Not to be confounded with Koenigia 
L., Polygonaceae. ] Perennial herbs or shrubs. About 4 spe- 
■cie", Mediterranean region. The Sweet Alyssum of the gardens 
is (a) K. maritima (L. ) R. Br. (C. mantima L., G. mariti- 
mum Lind., A. maritimum Lam.). Seaside Koniga^, Sweet 
Allison, Anise*, Madwort, Snow-drift, Seedling. 

1113. KOSTELETZKYA, Presl. Kosteletzkya. Malyaceae. 
Named for V. F. Kosteletzky, botanist of Bohemia. Syn. 

Hisbicus, in Part. Perennial herbs or shrubs. About 8 spe- 
cies, New World; 3 in U. S. 

1114. KRAMERIA, Loefl. Krameria. Krameriaceae. 

Named for Dr. J. G. H. Kramer, Austria, 18th Century. 
Herbs or low shrubs. About 20 species, warmer regions of 
America; 4 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 211 

a. K. argentea Mart. Brazil. Source of Para, Brazilian or Ceara 

Rhatany, Eatanhia da terra. 

b. K. cistoidea Hook. Chili. Root resembles Payta Rhatany. 

c. K. Ixina L. Brazil to Mexico and West Indies. Source of 

Savanilla or New Granada Rhatany. See (e) 

■d. K. secuudiflora DC. (K. lanceolata Tor.). Florida to New 
Mexico and Mexico, Linear-leaved Krameria. Source of 
Texas Rhatany. 

€. K. tridndra R. & Pa v. (K. tomentosa St. Hil. ). Peru and 
Bolivia. Source of Peruvian or Payta Rhatany. Root of this 
and of (c), Rhatany, Rhatany root; Krameria. U. S. P,, Kra- 
meriae radix, Br., Radix ratanhiae (ratanhai); Ger. Ratanha- 
wurzel, Ratanhiawurzel; Fr. Ratanhia (Codex); Sp. Ratania, 
Crameria. [Varieties are Short or Stumpy Rhatany (the main 
root) and Long Rhatany (the branches)]. A powerful astrin- 
gent. 

1115. KRAUNHIA, Raf. 1808. Wisteria. Papilionaceae . 

Syn. Wisteria, Nutt. 1818, also Glycine, in part. Woody 

climbers with showy blue or purple flowers. Four known spe- 
cies, three of Asia; 1 in U. S. 

■a. K. frutescens (L. ) Raf. (G. frutescens L. , W. speciosa Nutt. 
(Kew), W. frutescens Poir. ). Southeastern U. S. American 
Wisteria, Kidney-bean tree, Virgin's- bower*. 

1116. KRYNiXZKIA, Fisch. & Mey. 1841. Boraginaceae. 

Syn. Krynitzia, Piptocalyx, Torr. 1874, not Oliver, 1870 
(but Heller catalogues two species under this name). Herbs. 
Perhaps 20 species, N. America. See Allocarya, Cryptanthe, 
Eremocarya and Oreocarya. 

1117. KUHNIA, L. False Boneset. Compositae. 

Named for JDr. Adam Kuhn of Philadelphia, pupil of Lin- 
naeus. Syn. Eupatorium, in part. Perennial herbs with 
small flower heads in corymbs. About 8 species, N. America; 
4 in U. S. 

1118. KUHSiSTERA, Lam. 1789. Prairie Clover. Papilionaceae. 

Named from resemblance to Kuhnia. Syn. Petalostemon, 
Michx. 1803, also Dalea, in part. Perennial herbs with spicate 
or capitate flowers (purple or white). About 35 species, N. 
America; 27 in U. S. (a) K. caudida (Willd. ) Kze. is White 
Prairie Clover or Tassel-flower; (b) K, purpurea (Vent.) 
MacM. is Violet Prairie Clover, Red Tassel-flower, Red Thim- 
ble weed. 

1119. KUMLIENIA, Greene. Kumlienia. Eanunculaceae. 

Herb. One species in western U. S. 

1120. KUNZIA, Spreng. 1818, not Kunzea, Reichb. Rosaceae. 
Syn. Pur.-hia, DC. 1817, not Spreng 1817. Shrubs. Two 

species, Pacific slope U. S. 



212 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1121. LABLAB, Adans. 1763. Egyptian Bean. Papilionaceae. 

From vernacular name, Africa. Syn. Lablavia, Don 1834; 
Dolichos, in part. Herbaceous climbers. One species, Africa. 

a. L. Lablab (L. ) Lyons (D. Lablab L., L. vulgaris Savi, L. 
niger Medic, and L. rufus Medic, L. cultratus DC, Lablavia 
vulgaris D. Don). Africa, widely cult, in tropical countries. 
Egyptian Bean, Black or Hyacinth Bean. Seeds and 'pods es- 
culent. 

1122. L ACHNOC AULON, Kunth. Lachnocaulon. Eriocaulaceae. 

From Greek, 'VooUy stemmed". Syn. Eriocaulon, in 
part. Scapose herbs resembling Eriocaulon. Four known 
species, southern U. S. 

1123. LACHN6ST0MA,H. B. K. Lachnostoma.Asclepia(iaceae. 
From Greek, "woolly mouth" , of the corolla. Herbaceous 

climbers. About 5 species, warmer regions of New World; 
l.in U. S. 

1124. LACINIARIA, Hill. 1762. Blazing-star. Compositae. 

From Latin, "fringed", from appearance of flower heads. 
Syn. Liatris, Schreb. 1791; also Serratula, Stoepelina, in part. 
Perennial herbs mostly from tuberous roots, the showy flower- 
heads in racemes or spikes. About 15 species, all of U. S. 

a. L. scariosa (L. ) Hill (Ser. scariosa L., Liatris scariosa 

Willd. ). Maine to Florida, west to Texas, Nebraska and Mani- 
toba. Large Button-Snakeroot, Gay-feather, Kattlesnake' s- 
master. Blue Blazing-star, Devil's-bit. Root of this and fol- 
lowing species reputed diuretic, diaphoretic, carminative. 

b. L. spicata (L.) Kze. (Ser. spicata L., Liatris spicata Willd. ). 

Massachusetts to Florida, west to Louisiana and Wisconsin. 
Button Snakeroot, Dense Button-Snakeroot, Gay-feather, Devil's- 
bit. Rough-root, Sawwort, Throatwort*, Colic-root*, Rattle- 
snake' s-master. Corn Snakeroot, Prairie-pine, Backache-root. 

c. L. squarrosa (L. ) Hill (Ser. squarrosa L., Liatris squarrosa 

Willd.). Scaly Blazing-star, Colic-root, Rattlesnake' s-master. 

1125. LACTl^CA, L. - Lettuce. - Cichoriaceae. 

Ancient Latin name, "milky", whence our word lettuce. 
Syn. Mulgedium, Sonchus, in part. Herbs with small flower 
heads (yellow, white or blue). About 85 species, northern 
hemisphere; 10 in U. S. 

a. L. Canadensis L. (L. elongata Muhl. ). British America, 
south to Georgia and Louisiana. Wild Lettuce, American or 
Canada Wild Lettuce, Tall Lettuce, Butter-weed, Devil's-weed, 
Devil's Ironweed, Fireweed*, Horseweed, Snake-bite, Snake- 
weed, Trumpet-weed, Trumpet Milkweed, Trumpets, Wild 
Opium. J}iice mildly narcotic as also in the indigenous (b) L. 
hirsuta Muhl. (L. sanguinea Bigel., L. elongati, var. san- 
guinea T. & Gr. ), Hairy or Red Wood-lettuce and (c) L. 
sagittifolia Ell. (L. integrifolia Bigel, not Nutt., L. elongata, 
var. integrifolia T. & Gr. ), Arrow-leaved Lettuce, Devil's 
Ircn-weed. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR, 213 

d. L. sativa L. Southern Asia, now widely cult. Garden Lettuce, 

Common Lettuce, Sallet, Sheepwort. Varieties are Cabbage 
Lettuce, forming heads (L. capitata DC.) and Cos Lettuce. 
Ger. Gartenlattich, Gartensalad; Fr. Laitue officinale (Codex); 
Sp. Lechuga. . i/caves used as salad. Inspis<iated juice is French. 
lactucarium; Fr. Thridace (Codex). 

e. L. Scariola L. Europe, nat. in eastern U. S. Prickly Lettuce, 

Wild Lettuce, Horse Thistle, Compass-plant. 

f. L. virosa L. Europe. Wild Lettuce (of Europe), Acrid Let- 

tuce, Strong-scented Lettuce, Green Endive; Ger. Gift-Lattich, 
Stink-Lattich; Fr. Laitue vireuse (Codex). The flowering herb; 
Lactuca Br., Herba lactucae (virosae), H. intybi angusti. * The 
concrete milk juice (of this and other species); LactUCarium, 
V. S. P., Lettuce Opium; sedative, mildly narcotic, hypnotic. 
This species and (g) L, sagittata Waldst. & Kit. (L. altissima 
Bibers. ), perhaps only a variety, are cult, in Europe as a source 
of lactucarium. 

1126. LAGENARIA, Seringe. Gourd. Cucurbitaceae. 

From Latin lagena, a "flask". Syn. Cucurbita, in part. 
Vine, climbing by tendrils. One species. Old World. 

a. L. Lagenaria (L.) Lyons (C. Lagenaria L., L. vulgaris 
Seringe). Europe and Asia, cult, in many varieties. Gourd, 
Calabash Gourd, Bottle Gourd, Sugar-trough Gourd; Ger. 
Kiirbis; Fr. Calebasse d' Europe, Gourde, Cougourde (Codex). 
Root pulp reputed cathartic. Seeds (cold seeds), emollient. 
See 614 (d). 

1127. LAtfERSTROEMIA, L. Crape Myrtle, etc. Lythraceae. 

Trees or shrubs. About 20 species, warmer regions of east- 
ern Asia, (a) L, lauceoldta Wall. (L. microcarpa Wight), 
East Indies, is Ben Teak, an inferior kind of teak; (b) L. Flos- 
reginae Retz. (L. reginse Roxb. ), India to Burmah, is Jaroul, 
Blood- wood; (c) L. Indica L., China, is Crape Myrtle, Indian 
Lilac. 

1128. LAGETTA, A. L. Juss. Lace-bark tree. Thymeliaceae. 

From vernacular, lagetto. Trees. Two known species, West 
Indies, (a) L. liiitearia Lam. is the Jamaica Lace-bark tree. 
The name Lace-bark is applied in Australia to Sterciilia 
acerifolia Cunningham, Flame tree, and in New Zealand to the 
malvaceous Flagidnthus betuliniis Cunn. 

1129. LAG6tIS, J Gaertn. 1770. Lagotis. Selaghiaceae. 

From Greek, "hare's ear". Syn. Gymnandra, Pall. 1776. 
Perennial herbs. About 8 species, central and northern Asia; 
1 in U. S. 

1130. LAGUNCDLAKIA, Gaertn. f. 1805. Combretaceae. 

Latin, diminutive of lagena, a "flask". Syn, Horan, Adans. 
1763; Conocarpus, in part, A small tree with habit of Man- 
grove, One species, tropical coasts in Atlantic Ocean, extend- 
ing to Florida, (a) L. racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. (C. racemosa 
L. ). White Mangrove, White Battonwood. 



214 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1131. LAMINi-RIA, Lam. Hanger, Tangle, etc. Lamiuariaceae. 
From Latin, lamina a thin plate. Leathery seaweeds of cold 

northern seas. 

a. L. Cloiistoni Edmonston (L. digitataLam. The Linnsean name 

Fucus digitalus, has been applied to two different species. ) 
Tangle, Hanger, Sea-girdle, Sea-staff, Sea- wand; Ger. Riemen- 
tang; Fr. Laminaire digitee. Stems used for "tents" and dilat- 
ing bougies. 

b. L. saccliarina Lam. Devil' s-apron. Sweet Tangle, Sea-belt. 

Fronds contain mannite and are sometimes eaten. 

1132. LAMIUM, L. - Dead Nettle. - Labiatae. 
From Greek, "throat", alluding to ringent corolla. Herbs. 

About 40 species, Old World; 5 nat. in U. S. 

a. L. album L. Europe, adv. in U. S. White Dead-nettle, Bee 

Nettle, Blind Nettle, Day Nettle, Dumb Nettle, Dunny Nettle, 
Flowering Nettle, Stingless Nettle, W^hite Nettle, Snake-flower, 
Suck-bottle, Suckie-Sue, White Archangel; Ger. Taubnessel, 
Weisser Bienensaug; Fr. Ortie blanche, Lamier (Codex). 
Flowers alterative, mildly astringent. 

b. L. amplexicaiile L. Europe and Asia, nat. in eastern U. S, 

Henbit, Henbit Dead-nettle, Greater Henbit. 

c. L. piirpiireiim L. Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Red 

Dead-nettle, Deaf Nettle, Day Nettle, Dog Nettle, French Net- 
tle, Red Archangel, Sweet Archangel, Rabbit-meat. 

1133. LAND6lPHIA, Beauv. (Landolfia). Apocynaceae. 

Named for Capt. Landolph, explorer. Shrubs or small trees. 
About 17 species, mostly of tropical Africa, (a) L. ilorida 
Benth. and (b) L. gunimifera Lam., of southeastern Africa 
yield Caoutchouc, known as African or Mbungu rubber. The 
fimit of (a), Abo or Aboli fruit, is edible. 

1134. LANGrLOiSIA, Greene. Langloisia. Folemoniaceae. 

Syn. Gilia, in part. Herbs. Three species in U. S. 

113^. LANTANA, L. - Lantana. - Verbenaceae. 

Shrubs, rarely herbs. About 60 species, tropical and sub- 
tropical America; 4 in U. S. 

a. L. Ctimara L. (L. Antillana Raf., L. mutabilis Salisb. ). 
Georgia, West Indies and cult, as a garden flower. Bahama 
Tea, Wild Sage (Jamaica), Sage-tree, Cailleau. Leaves febri- 
fuge, containing an alkaloid resembling quinine; substitute for 
Chinese tea. 

1136. LAPHAMIA, Gray 1852. Laphamia. Compositae* 

Na i^ed for Dr. J. A. Lapham of Wisconsin, d. 1875. Syn. 
Monothrix, Tor, 1852. Herbs or under shrubs. About 15 spe- 
cies, all of southwestern U. S. and Mexico. 

1137. LAPPULA, Moench 1794. Stickseed. Boraginaceae. 

Latin, dim. of Lappa, "Burdock". Syn. Echinospermum,. 
Sw- 1818; Cynoglossum, Myosotis, in part. Rough-pubescent 
herbs with bur-like fruit. About 40 species, north temperate 
zone; 12 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POIULAE. 215 

a. L. Ldppiila (L. ) Karst. (M. Lappula L., E. Lappula Lehm. 

(Kew)), L.Myosotis Moench). Europe and Asia, nat. in 
tl. S. European Stickseed, Bur-seed, Small Slieep-bur, Stick- 
tight. 

b. L. Virginiiiiia (L. ) Greene (M. Virginiana L., E. Virginicum 

Lehm., C Morrison i DC. ). Canada and eastern U. S Vir- 
ginia Stickseed, Stick-tight, Beggar' s-lice. Beggar' s-ticks, 
l3ysentery-vveed. Dysentery-root, Small Sheep-bur, Soldiers, 
Virginia Mouse-ear. Eool astringent, demulcent. 

1138. LARIX, Adans. Larch. - Piiiaceae. 

Ancient Latin name, probably from Celtic. Syn. Binusf, 
Abies, in part. Trees with deciduous needle-like leaves. 
About 9 species, north temperate zone and northward; 3 inU. S. 

a. L. Americana (Muench) Michx. (P. Larix Americana nigra 

Muench 1770, L. lariciua (DuRoi) Koch. (Brit. & Brown), 
P. laricina DuKoi 1771, P. pendula Ait., L. pendula Salisb., 
P. microcarpa Lamb'. ). British America, south to New Jersey, 
Indiana and Minnesota. Tamarack, American Larch, Hack- 
matack (Hackraetackj Hacmatac, Hacmack), Blai^k or Red 
Larch, Cypress*, Juniper*. Bark used like that of (b). 

b. L. Ldrix (L. ) Karst. (P. Larix L., L. Europsea DC. (Kew), 

A. Larix Lam., L. decidua Mill. ). Europe. European Larch. 
Bark, Laricis cortex Br. ; (ier. Larchenrinde; Fr. Ecorce de 
m^leze; astringent, terebinthinate. Oleoresino as exudate, Venice 
Turpentine; Terebinthina laricina v. laricis v. veneta; Ger. 
Larchen-terpenthin; Fr. Terebenthine de Venise (Codex); bal- 
samic, antiseptic. Saccharine exudate, Briangon Manna. 

c. L. oceidentalis Nntt. (P. Nuttallii Pari. ). Northeastern U.S. 

Western Larch or Tamarack. Exudate from wounds in trunk 
sweetish, eaten by the Indians. 

d. L. Sibirica Ledeb. Northern Europe. Siberian Larch. 

Source of much of the European tar. See Pinus palustris. 

1139. LASERPITIUM, L. Laserwort. Umbelliferae. 

Latin name ot L. latifolium, the ''Laser" plant. Perennial 
herbs. About 20 species, chietiy of southern Europe. 

a. L. latifolium L. Europe. White Gentian, Herb-frankincense, 
Broad-leaved Laserpitium or Laserwort. Root; Radix gentianse 
albse, R. cervarise albse; Ger. Wei&ser Enzian, Laserkrautwur- 
zel; bitter tonic. Gum resin, called Laser, acrid, bitter, re- 
puted purgative. 

1140. L ASTHENIA, Cass. Lasthenia. Conipositae. 

Named for Lasthenia, a pupil of Plato. Syn. Bajria, Crocke- 
ria, Orobus, in part. Herbs; mostly annual. About 7 species, 
southwestern U. S. 

1141. LATHYRUS,L. Vetchling,MarshPea,etc.FapilioDaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of a Vetch. Syn. Pisum, Orobus, in 
part. Herbs, mostly climbing by tendrils. About 110 species, 
northern hemisphere and S. America; 36 in U. S. 



216 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. L. maritimus (L. ) Bigel. (P. maritiraum L.). Northern 
Europe, Asia and N. America, south to New Jersey and Michi- 
gan. Beach Pea, Sea or Seaside Pea, Seaside Everlasting-pea. 
Another circumpolar species is (b) L. paliistris L., Marsh 
Pea, Marsh Vetchling, Wild Pea. Closely allied to this is the 
Myrtle-leaved Marsh Pea, (c) L. myrtifolius Muhl. , of 
Canada and eastern U. S. 

d. L. pratensis L. Europe and northern Asia, nat. in New Eng- 
land. Meadow Pea, Craw Pea, Mouse Pea, Angleberry, Lady's- 
fingers, Yellow Vetchling. Other species of interest are (e) L. 
odoratiis L., the Sweet Pea of gardens; (f) L. latifol.us L., 
the Everlasting Pea of gardens; (g) L. decaplljllus Pursh, 
Prairie Vetchling also called Everlasting Pea; (h) L. Cicera 
L. of Europe, the Lesser Chick-pea (Jarosse pois-carres); (i) 
L. sativus L. of southern Europe, Jarosse or Gesse, a valuable 
fodder plant, the seeds esculent, and (j) L. moiit amis Bern. (O. 
tuberosus L. ) of Europe, Dutch-mice, Tine-tare; producing 
edible tubers. 

1142. LAURELIA, Juss. Peruvian Nutmeg, Monimiaceae. 

Latin^ "Laurel like" . Syn. Pavonia, K. & P. 1794, not Cav. 
1787; Atherosperma, in part. Aromatic trees. Two species, 
S. America and New Zealand. 

a. L. semper virens (R. & P.) Tulasne (L. aromatica Juss. 
(Kew), P. semper virens K. & P.), Peru. Peruvian Nut- 
meg, Chilian Sassafras. Ba7'k and fruit aromatic, used as con- 
diments, the latter resembling nutmegs in flavor, 

1143. LAURE5TIA, Adans. Laurentia. Lobeliaeeae. 

Annual herbs. About 12 species, mostly of Mediterranean 
region and S. Africa; 1 in U. S. 

1144. LAURUS, L. - Bay Laurel. - Lauraceae, 

The ancient Latin name. Shrubs or trees. Two known spe- 
cies, Europe and western Asia. The genus has been made 
formerly to include species now referred to a dozen different 
genera. 

a. L. uobilis L. Mediterranean region, cult, in Mexico. Bay 
Laurel, Bay tree, Sweet Bay, Noble Laurel; Ger. Lorbeer; Fr. 
Laurier commun (Codex); Sp. Laurel. Leaves aromatic, con- 
diment; /rui^, Bay-berries, Fructus lauri, Baccae lauri; aromatic, 
bitter, carminative. By expression from these is obtained 
Laurel butter or Oil of Bays, Oleum lauri unguinosum s. ex- 
pressum; by distillation is procured the ethereal Oil of Bay 
Laurel, not to be confounded with the oil of Myrcia. 

1145. LAVANDULA, L. - Lavender. - Labiatae, 
The Latin name of (a). Perennial herbs or shrubs. About 

20 species, chiefly of the Mediterranean region. 

a. L. angustifolia (L. )Mill. (L. Spica var. angustifolia L., L. 
vulgaris Lam. 1778, L. officinalis Chaix., L. vera DC. 1805) 
Mediterranean region. Lavender, Garden Lavender, True 
Lavender; Ger. Lavandel; Fr. Lavande ofiicinale (Codex), Sp. 
Alhucema, Spliego. Flowers, Flores lavandulse, stimulant, aro- 
matic, perfume; source of the oflicial Oil of Lavender flowers. 



i 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR 217 

h. L. Spica Cav. (L. lati folia Villars). Mediterranean region. 
Spike Lavender, French Lavender, Great or Male Lavender, 
Aspic; Fr. Lavande commune, Spic (Codex). Flowers richer 
in oil but of less delicate aroma than those of (a) ; source of oil 
of Spike 1^ essence d'aspicj. 

•e. L, Stoechas L. Mediterranean region. Arabian Lavender, 
French Lavender*, Gentle or Topped Lavender, Cast-me-down, 
Cassadong:}:, Stickadore. Properties of (b) ; an important honey 
plant. 

1146. LAVATERA, L. Tree Mallow, etc. Malvaceae. 
Named in honor of the two Lavaters, naturalists of Zurich. 

Herbs or small trees. About 40 species, widely distributed; 2 
in U. S. (a) L. arborea L. Middle and southern Europe. 
Tree Mallow, Sea Mallow, \'elvet-leaf. 

1147. LAVAIjfXIA, Spach. Primrose. Oiia^raceae. 

Named for Francois Delavaux of Nismes. Syn. Oenothera 
(Kew), in part. Perennial herbs with white, pink or pale 
yellow flowers. About 6 species, N. America; 4 in U. S. 

1148. LAWS6NI4, L. Henna plant. Lythraceae. 

Named for Dr. John Lawson, early in 18th Century. Shrub 
with fragrant white flowers. One species. (a)L. inermisL. (L. 
alba Lam. ( Kew), including L. spinosa L. j. Northern Africa, 
southern Asia and Australia. Henna plant, Egyptian Privet, 
Jamaica Mignonette, Flower-of-paradise, Alkhanna, Alcanna; 
Fr. Henne. [See Alkanna]. Leaves yield an orange dye. 

1149. LEAVENW6RTHIA, Torr. Leaven worth ia. Cruciferae, 

Named for Dr. M. C Leavenworth, U. S. A. Syn. Cardam- 
ine, in part. Annual sub-scapose herbs. About 4 species, 
southeastern U. S. 

1150. LECANORA, Ach. Archil Lichen. Parmeliaceae. 

From Greek word for a "dish". 

a. L, esculenta Ach. Algiers to Tartary. Manna Lichen. Used 

for food in time of scarcity. 

b. L. Tartarea Achar. Northern Asia. Tartarean Moss, Canary 

Moss, Canary-weed, Cudweed*. From this and other lichens 
is prepared litmus-, Lacmus, Lacca musica; Ger. Lakmus; Fr. 
Tournesol, Laque bleu. Also from these lichens is made Archil 
or Orchil; Fr. Orseille, and Cudbear; Ger. Persio; Fr. Orseille de 
terre, all used for coloring. 

1161. LECHEA, L. - Pin-weed. - Cistaceae. 

Named for Johann Leche, Swedish botanist, d. 1764. Peren- 
nial herbs, often sufli-utescent, with small leaves and flowers. 
About 14 species, N. America and West Indies; 13 in U. S. 
(a) L. villosa Ell. (L. major Michx., not Lin.). Ontario and 
eastern U. S., west to Nebraska. Greater Pin-weed, Hairy 
Pin- weed. Herb tonic, anti periodic, febrifuge. 

1152. LECYTHIS, Loefl. Monkey-pot tree. Lecythidaeeae. 

From Greek, "oil vase", alluding to the fruit. Large trees. 
About 65 species, tropical S. America. 



218 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. L. oUaria L. Tropical America. Monkey-pot tree. Inner- 

hark, called Kakarali or Tauare, used for wrappers for cigarettes. 

b. L, Zabucajo Aiiblet. Brazil. Sapucaya-nut. Seeds esculent, 

superior to the allied Brazil nut; source of sapucaya oil. Other 
species yielding esculent nuts are (c) L. Pisonis Camb., (d) L. 
lanceolata Poir. (Sapueajabranca of Guiana), (e) L. iiriiigera 
Mart., (f) L. Amazonum Mart, and (g) L. Polilii Berg. 

1153. LEDUM, .L Labrador Tea, etc. Ericaceae. 
Ancient Geeek name of Cistus Ledon. Shrubs with leaves of 

firm texture. Three species, north temperate zone and north- 
wards; 3 in U. S. 

a. L. Groenlandiciim'Oeder (L. la ti folium Ait.). Greenland and 

British America, south to Xew Jersey and Wisconsin. Labra- 
dor Tea, Continental Tea, Labrador Continental Tea, James' 
Tea. ieares expectorant, tonic; applied to insect-stings. Form- 
erly a substitute for Chinese tea. 

b. L. paliistre L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. Wild 

Rosemary, Marsh Rosemary, Marsh Tea. Swamp Tea, Narrow- 
leaved Labrador Tea, Marsh Cistus; Ger. Wilder Rosmarin, 
Porsch, Sumpfporsch, Porst, Mattenkraut; Fr. Ledon, Romarin 
sauvage. Leaven and ticigs, Herba ledi palustris, Herba ros- 
marini silvestris; reputed narcotic, sedative, insecticide; used 
in cutaneous eruptions, etc. 

1154. LEGOUZIA, Durand, 1782. Cainpanulaceae. 

Name unexplained. Syn. Specularia, Heist, 1830. An- 
nual herbs. About 10 species, mostly of northern hemisphere; 
4 in U. S. Synonym, Venus' Looking-glass. 

1155. LEIBERGIA, Coult. & R. Leibergia. Umbelliferae. 

Herb. One species in western 17. S. 

1156. LEITXERIA, Chapman. Cork- wood. Leitneriaceae. 

N«med for Dr. E. F. Leitner, German naturalist. Shrub or 
small tree. One species, (a) L. Floridana Chapm., Florida 
to Texas; Corkwood. The wood lighter even than cork. 

1157. LEMBERTIA, Greene. Lembertia. Compositae. 

Syn. Eatonella, in part. Herb. One species in western 
U. S. 

1158. LEMM^JilA, Gray 1877. Lemmonia. Hydropbyllaceae. 

Named for John Gill Lemmon the discoverer. Canescent 
winter-annual. One species, California. 

1159. LEMNA, L. - Duckweed. - Lemnaceae. 

A ncient Greek name of a water plant. Minute floating plants. 
Seven known species; 5 in U. S. Synonyms, Duck's-meat, 
W^ater-lentil, Mardling, Toadspit. 

1160. LENS, Grev. & Godron. Lentil. Papilionaceae* 

The ancient Latin name, whence our word lens. Syn.Ervum» 
Vicia, in part. Herbs. About 5 species, Mediterranean region- 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 219 

a. L. Lens (L.) Lyons (Erviira Lens L., L. esculenta Moench 
(Kew), L. vulgaris Delarb., L. sativa Hill, Yicia LensCoss, ). 
Southern Europe and the Orient. Lentil, Common Lentil, 
Till-seed*. Seeds an important esculent in the East. From 
them is prepared "Kevalenta Arabica". 

1161. LE0N6tIS, R. Br. Lponotis. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "lion's ear". Herbs or shtubs with showj 

orange flowers, natives of southern hemisphere; 1 in U. S. 

1162. LE6nTICE, L. Lions-leaf Berberidaceae. 

An ancient Greek plant name. Herbaceous perennials from 
tuberous roots. Eastern Europe and western Asia. 

a. L. Leontopetaluni L. Europe. Lion's-leaf, Lion's Turnip, 
Black Turnip. Tubers detergent, used in Turkey as antidote 
to opium. 

1163. LE6xT0I)0N, L, 1737. Hawkbit. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "lion's tooth". Syn. Apaigia, Scop. 1772, 
Thrincia, Roth 1796; Crepis, in part. Scapose perennials with 
dandelion-like flower-heads. About 45 species. Old World; 2 
nat. in U. S. 

a. L. autuiiiiialis L. (A. autumnalis Hoflm. ). Europe and Asia, 
nat. in V. S. Fall Dandelion, Autumnal Hawkbit, Lion's- 
tooth, Dog Dandelion, Arnica-bud, 

1164. LE0>T0P6dIUM, R. Br. Edelweiss. Composltae. 

From Greek, "lion's foot". Syn. Antennaria, Gnaphalium, 
in part. White-woolly or silky low perennials. About 5 spe- 
cies, Alpine regions of Europe, Asia and S. America. 

a. L. Leontopodiiim ^L.) Lyons (L. Alpinura Cass. (Kew), not 
Colm., G. Leontopodium L., A. Leontopodium Gaertn.). 
Alps to the Himalayas. Lion's- foot, better known by its 
German name. Edelweiss. 

1165. LEONURUS, L. Motherwort, Lion's-tail. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "lion' s-tail". Syn. Ballota, Cardiaca, Panzeria, 

in part. Biennial or perennial herbs. About 10 species, 
Europe and Asia; 3 nat in U. S. 

a. L. Cardiaca L. (Cardiaca vulgaris Moench). Europe and 

northern Asia, nat. in U. S. Motherwort, Cowthwort, Lion's- 
tail, Lion's-ear, Throwwort; Ger. Herzgespann, Wolfstrapp^ 
Fr. Agripaume, Cardiaire. Herb stomachic, diaphoretic. 

b. L. lanatiis (L. ' Spreng. (B. lanata L., P. lanata Pors. ). 

Northern Asia. AVoolly Motherwort; Ger. Wolliger Wolfs- 
trapp, Wolliges Ballotenkraut. Herb, Herba ballota? lanatse, 
vascular stimulant, .diuretic. 

c. L. Marriibiastriim L. (C. Marrubiastrum Medic). Europe 

and northern Asia, nat. in U. S. Hoarhound Motherwort or 
Lion's-tail. 



220 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1166. LEPAROYREA, Raf. 1817. Buflfalo-berry. Elaeagnaceae. 

From Greek, ''silvery scaly". Syn. Lepargyrsea, Lepargy- 
reia, Shepherdia, Niitt. 1818, also Elaeagnus, in part. Shrubs 
with scurfy foliage. Three known species, all of U. S. 

a. L. argentea (Nutt.) Greene (E. argentea Nutt. 1813, S. argen- 

tea Nutt. 1818.) Kansas to Nevada and northward. Buffalo- 
berry, Rabbit-berry, Beef-suet tree, Bull-berry, , Silver-leaf, 
Wild Oleaster-tree, Wild Olive-tree. Fruit edible. 

b. L. Canadeusis (L. ) Greene (E. Canadensis L., S. Canadensis 

Nutt.). British America, south to New York and Utah. 
Canadian Buffalo-berry, Wild Oleaster- or Olive-tree. Fruit 
insipid. 

1167. LEPEUROPET ALON, Ell.Lepeuropetalon.Saxifragaceae. 
A very small annual herb. One species, Georgia and S. 

Carolina. 

1168. LEPIDIUM, L. Peppersrrass. Cruciferae. 

Greek name of a Cress, meaning a ' 'little scale" . Syn, Thlas- 
pi, in part. Herbs with more or less pungent foliage. About 
65 species; 29 in U. S. 

a, L. apetalum Willd (L. intermedium A. Gray) and (b) L. 
Virg'inicum L. are common weeds throughout the U. S., known 
as Wild Peppergrass, Tongue-grass, Bird's Pepper*. Plants 
pungent, antiscorbutic. 

€. L. campestre (L.) R Br. (T. campestre L.). Europe, nat. in 
U. S. Field Cress, Cow Cress, Mithridate Mustard, Mithri- 
date Pepperwort, Poor-man's Pepper, Yellow-seed, English 
Peppergrass, Glenn Pepper, Glenn- weed. Bastard Cress, Crowd- 
weed, False Flax. Properties of (e). 

d. L, Iberis L. Europe and northern Asia. Peppergrass (of 
Europe); Ger. Iberiskresse, Pfefferkraut; Fr. Passerageiberide. 
Properties of (e). 

«. L. sativum L. Garden Peppergrass, Garden Garth or Cress 
(Karse), Town or Golden Peppergrass or Cress, Tongue grass, 
Sauce-alone, Garden Pepper-cress, Poor man's Pepper. Herb 
pungent, antiscorbutic, used as salad. [The New Zealand (f) 
L. oleraceiim Forst. is cultivated as a pot herb. In the Society 
Islands (g) L. piscidium Forst. (L. oleraceum Ait. not 
Forst. ) is used for stupefying fish]. , / 

1169. LEPIDOSPARTUM, Gray. Lepidospartum. Compositae. 

From Greek, "Scale-Broom". Syn. Linosyris, Tetradymia, 
Carphephorusf, in part. Shrubby plants. Three known spe- 
cies, southwestern U. S. 

1170. LEPTAMNIUM, Raf. 1818. Beech-drops. Orobanchaceae. 

Syn. Epifagus (Kew), Nutt. 1818 (Epiphegus); Orobauche, 
in part. A purplish or brownish leafless parasite. One spe- 
cies, N. America. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 221 

a. L. Yirg'inidnum (L. ) Kaf. (O. Virginiana L., Epifagus Amer- 
icana Nutt. , Epiphegus Virginiana Bart. ) . Canada and eastern 
U. S. Beech-drops, Beech-drop, Cancer-drops, Cancer- root, 
Broom-rape, Fir- rape; Ger. Krebswurz; Fr. Orobanche de Vir- 
ginie. Root astringent, vulnerary. 

1171. LEPTANDRA, Nutt. Culvers-root. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Greek, ''slender stemmed". Syn. Veronica, in part. 
Kobust perennial herbs. Two species, one of Asia, one of N. 
America (U. S. ). 

a. L. Virginica (L.) Nutt. (V. Virginica L., V. Sibirica L., L. 
purpurea Raf. ). British America, south to Alabama, Missouri 
and Nebraska. Culver' s-root. Culver" s-physic. Black-root, 
Beanmont-root, Bownian's-root, Brinton-root, Hini, Oxadoddy, 
Quital, Tall Speedwell or Veronica, Whorly-wort. Rhizome 
diud. rootlets', Leptandra, U. S. P.; Ger. Leptandrawurzel; Fr. 
V^ronique de Virginie, Leptandra; eraeto-cathartic, reputed 
cholagogue, alterative. 

1172. LEPTARRHENA, R. Br. Leptarrhena. Saxifragaceae. 

Perennial evergreen scapose herb. One species, northeast- 
ern Asia and northwestern America (U. S. ). 

1173. LEPTAXIS, Raf. 1836. Leptaxis. Saxifraffaceae. 

Syn. Tolmia:a (Kew), Torr. & Gr. 1840; Tiarella, in part. 
Herb related to Tiarella. One species; western U. S. 

1174. LEPTILON, Raf. 1818. Horseweed. Compositae. 

Syn. Ctenotus Raf. 1836; Conyzella, Erigeron (Kew), in 
part. Herbs with very small heads of white or greenish flowers. 
About 20 species, America and Asia; 4 or 5 in U. S. 

a. L. Canadense (L. ) Britton(E. Canadensis L., C. Canadensis 
( L. ) Rupr. ) Widely distributed in Old as well as New World. 
Canada Fleabane, Horseweed, Mare's- tail, Canada Erigeron, 
Butter- weed, Bitter- weed, Cow's-tail, Colt's-tail, Fireweed, 
Blood-staunch, Hogweed, Pride- weed, Scabious; Ger. Canadis- 
ches Berufkraut, Beschreikraut. Source of oil of Canada Eri- 
geron, Oleum Erigerontis Canadensis, U. S. P., which is re- 
puted to control hemorrhage. 

1175. LEPT0GL6SSIS, Benth. Leptoglossis. Solanaceae. 

From Greek, ' 'slender throated". Syn. Nierembergia ( Kew), 
in part. Herbs. Three known species, temperate regions of 
America; 1 in U. S. 

1176. LEPT6RCHIS, Thouars 1808. Twayblade. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "slender Orchis". Syn. Liparis, L. C 
Richard, 1818; Ophrys, in part. Perennial, scapose, two- 
leaved herbs. About iOO species, most abundant in East Indies; 
2 in U. S. 

1177. LEPT6sYNE, DC. Leptosyne. Compositae. 

From Greek, ''slender", applicable to original species. 
Small scapose annuals with showy flower heads (yellow). 
About 7 species, California to Arizona. 



222 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1178. LEPTOTAENIA, Xutt. Leptotjenia. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "'slender liilleted". Syn. Ferula (Kew), in 
part. Perennial herbs from fleshy roots. About 7 species, 
western U. S. 

1179. LESPEDEZA, Michx. Bush Clover. Papilionaceae. 

Named for D. Lespedez, Spanish governor of Florida, about 
1800. Syn. Hedysarum, in part. Herbs, often suffrutescent, 
with trifoliate leaves. About 35 species, Asia, Australia and 
eastern N. America; 11 in U. S. 

a, L. capitdta Michx. (L. frutescens Ell.). Ontario and eastern 

U. S. Eound-headed Bush Clover, Dusty Clover. 

b. L. striata (Thunb. ) H. & A. (H. striatum Thunb. ). Eastern 

Asia, nat. in (J. S., especially in southern states. Japan 
Clover, Wild Clover, Hoopkoop plant. A valuable fodder 
plant. 

1180. LES(^UERELLA, S. Wats. Bladder-pod. Cruciferae. 

Named for Leo Lesquereux, Swiss botanist, d. 1889. Syn. 
Vesicaria and Myagrum, in part. Low herbs with inflated 
globose silicles. About 35 species, N. America; 32 in U. S., 
mostly in the west. 

1181. LESSiNGrIA, Chamisso. Lessingia. Compositae. 

Named for Christian F. Lessing, (xerman botanical author. 
Floccose-woolly annuals with stnall flower heads. About 14 
species, California. 

1182. LEUCAENA, Benth. Mimosa. Mimosaceae. 

From Greek, "white". Shrubs or trees with white flowers 
in globular heads. About 10 species, tropical America; 3 in 
U. S. 

1183. LEUCAMPYX, Gray. Leucampyx. Compositae. 

From Greek, "white bordered" (of the bracts). Perennial 
herb resembling Hymenopappus, One species, Colorado. 

1184. LEUCELENE, Greene. Heath Aster. Compositae. 

From Greek, "white aster". Syn. Aster, in part. Peren- 
nial leafy herbs with white flowers. About two species, south- 
western U. S. and Mexico. 

1185. LEUc6CRINUi>I, Nutt. Soap root*. Liliaceae. 
From Greek, "white lily". Perennial acaulescent herb 

with crocus-like, white, fragrant flowers. One species, Neb- 
raska to California. 

1186. LEUCOPHYLLUM, Humb. & Bonpl. Scropliiilariaceae. 

From Greek, "white leaf". Tomentose shrubs. Three 
species, Mexico and adjacent territory; 2 in U. S. 

1187. LEUCOPHYSALIS,Rydberg. Ground Cherry. Solanaceae. 
From Greek, "white Physalis". Syn. Physalis, in part. 

A viscid, hairy annual, British America and northern U. S. 

1188. LEUC6SYRIS, Greene. Leucosyris. Compositae. 
Syn, Aster, in part. Perennial herbs resembling Aster. 

Two species, both_of U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AXD POPULAR. 223 

1189. LEUC6tH0E, D. Don. Leucothoe. . Ericaceae. 

Name from Greek mythology. 8yn. Andromeda, in part. 
Shrubs with flowerri in dense racemes. About 35 species, Amer- 
ica and eastern Asia; 6 in U. S. 

a. L. Catesbaei (Walt.) Gray (A. Catesbaei Walt., A. spinulosa 
Pursh. ), Virginia to Georgia, is called Dog Laurel; (b) L. 
racemosa (L. ) Gray (A. racemosa L., L. spicata G. Don.), 
near Atlantic and Gulf sea-board, Swamp Leucothoe, is also 
called White Osier, \Vhite Pepper. 

1190. LEViSTICUM, Koch. Lovage. Umbelliferae. 

Robust herb, with yellow flowers. One species only. Old 
W^orld. See Ligusticum. 

a. L. Levisticum (L. ) Lyons (Lig. Levisticum L., Lev. officinale 
Koch., Lev. vulgare Reichb.). Southern Europe. Lovage, 
European Lovage, Italian or Garden Lovage, Lavose, Levose, 
Sea Parsley, Smellage; (rer. Liebstockel, Badekraut, Barmut- 
terwurz; Fr. liveche (Codex), Ache des riiontagnes. Root, 
Radix levistici P. G., R. ligustici, R. laserpitii germanici, also 
j'ruit, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, emmenagogue. 

1191. LEWiSIA, Pursh. Lewisia. Portulacaceae. 

Named for Capt. M. Lewis, explorer. Fleshy perennial 
herbs, with showy rose-colored flowers. Two species, western 
U. S. 

a. L. rediviva Pui-sh. Arizona to Montana and westward. Bitter- 
root (whence the name of the Bitter- root Mountains), Tobacco- 
root. Starchy roots, called Spatlum by Oregon Indians, esculent. 

1192. LIBOCEDRUS, Endl. Incense Cedar. Pinaceae. 
From Greek, * 'balsam cedar". Evergreen trees with frag- 
rant wood. Syn. Thuya, in part. About 8 species, America 
and New Zealand; 1 in California. 

a. L. deciirreiiS Torr. Pacific coast of U. S. Post Cedar; White, 

Bastard or Incense Cedar. Tree attains 200 ft. in height, 
yielding valuable timber. 

b. L. tetragona Endl. Chili. Alerse. The most important tim- 

ber tree of that country. 

1193. LIGUSTICUM, L. Lovage. Umbelliferae. 

Named from the country Liguria, where the plant abounded. 
Syn. Ferula, in part. Perennial herbs with aromatic roots, 
About 25 species, northern hemisphere; 12 in U. S. 

a. L, Canadense (L. ) Britton (L. actseifolium Michx. (Kew), F. 

Canadensis L. ) . American Lovage, Nondo, Angelico. Root 
aromatic, carminative, stomachic. 

b. L. filicinum Wats. (L. apiifolium of Bot. King's Exp., not of 

Gray). Utah to Wyoming. Colorado Cough- root, Osha. 
Properties of (a). 

c. L. Scoticum L. Europe, Asia and northern N. America. 

Scotch Lovage, Sea Parsley, Shunas. Used as a pot herb. 



224 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1194. LIGHJSTRUM, L. - Privet. - Oleaceae. 
The ancient Latin name. Shrubs or small trees. About 35 

species, Old World; 1 nat. in U. S., viz: (a) L. vulgdre L., 
Europe and Asia; Privet, Prie, Prim, Prim wort, Print, Privy 
Saugh (i. e. Willow), Skedge, Skedgwith, Skerrish; Ger. Rain- 
weide. 

1195. LILAEA, Humb. & Bonp. Lilaea. Naiadaceae. 

Aquatic or marsh herbs. One or two species, warmer regions 
of New World; 1 in U. S. 

1196. LILIUM, L. - - Lily. - - Liliaceae. 

Latin, from ancient Greek name of a Lily. Leafy herbs 
from scaly bulbs, with large showy flowers. About 45 species, 
north temperate zone; 18 inU. S. 

a. L. Canadense L. Canada to Georgia, west to Missouri and 

Minnesota. Canada Lily, Wild Yellow Lily; Field, Meadow 
or Nodding Lily. 

b. L. candidum L. Europe and western Asia. White Lily^ 

Madonna or Annuciation Lily, Juno' s Kose. 

c. L. Martagon L. Europe and north-central Asia. Martagon 

Lily, Turk's-cap Lily. Bulbs eaten by Cossacks. 

d. L. Philadelphicum L. Ontario to west Virginia. Red Lily 

Wood Lily; Flame, Glade, Philadelphia or Huckleberry Lily^ 
Wild Orange Lily, American Tiger Lily. 

e. L. siip^rbum L. (L. Martagon Walt, not L. ). Canada to N. 

Carolina, west to Minnesota. Turk's-cap Lily (of America), 
Turk' s-head Lily, Nodding or Wild Lily. 

f. L. tjgriniim Andr. China and Japan, cult, in gardens and ad v, 

in U. S. Tiger Lily, Crumple Lily. Bulbs esculent. 

Additional indigenous species, worthy of note, are, (g) L. 
Caroliniaiiiim Michx., Carolina Lily ; (h)L. Catesbaei Walt., 
Southern Red Lily; (i) L. Humboldtii R. &L., Pacific Coast, 
Humboldt's Lily; (j) L. pardaliniiiii Kellogg, Paci tic Coast, 
California Tiger Lily, Panther Lily; (k) L. umbelldtuni 
Pursh (L. Andinum Nutt. ), Ohio and northwestward, Western 
Red Lily, often confounded with (d) and known by the same 
popular names; (1) L. Washiugtoiiianum Kellogg, Pacific 
Coast, Washington Lily. 

Noteworthy exotic Lilies are (m) L. aiirdtiim Lindl. , Gol- 
den-banded Lily; (n) L. speciosuiii Thunb. , and (o) L. 
lougiflorum Thunb., Long-flowered White Lily, all three 
from Japan. Var. eximiuiii of the last, L. Harrisii of the 
florists,is known as Easter Lily. The European (p.) L. dlbum 
L. is official in the Codex as Lis blanc. 

1197. LDINANTHEMUM, S. P. Gmel. 1770. Menyanthaceae. 

From Greek, ''pool blossom". Syn. limnanthes, Stokes^ 
not R. Br., Limnanthus, Neck. 1790, Nymphoides, Medic. 
1789; Villai-sia, Menyanthes, in part. Aquatic perennials with 
floating heart-shaped leaves. About 20 species; 3 in U. S. 



J 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 225 

a. L. nympba^oides (L. )Hoffm. & Link. (L. nymphoides H. & 
L. (Kew), M. nymphseoides L,, Lirananthes nymphoides 
Stokes). Europe and Asia, cult, for ornament in U. S. Wa- 
ter-lily*, Floating-heart, Fringed or Dwarf Water-lily, Fringed 
Bog-bean. 

1198. LIMNANTHES, Limnanthes. Limnanthaceae* 

From Greek, "pool flower". Herbs with pungency of Tro- 
poeolum. About 7 species, southwestern U. S. 

1199. LIMN6bIUM, L.C. Rich. Frog's-bit. Valisneriaceae. 

From Greek, "marsh loving". Aquatic herbs. About 4 
species, all American; 1 in U. S. 

1200. LIM0D6rUM, L. 1753. Swamp Pink. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "meadow gift". Syn. Cathea, Salisb. 1812, 
Calopogon R. Br. 1813; Cymbidium, in part. Scapose herbs- 
from round tubers. Two or three species, north temperate zone; 
1 in U. S. 

a. L. tuberosum L. (Calthea pulchella Salisb., Calop. pulchellus 
R.Br., Cym. pulchellum Willd. ). Canada and eastern U. S. 
Swamp Pink, Grass Pink*, Bearded Pink, Calopogon. 

1201. LIM6nIA, L. Persian Lemon. Aurantiac»"ae. 

From Latin limon, a "lemon". Trees or shrubs, generally 
thorny. About 24 species, tropical regions. 

a. L. acidl'ssima L. East Indies. Musk-deer plant, Persian 
Lemon. Fruit acid, detergent. The related Ataliintia 
monophylla (L. ) Correa (L. monophylla L.), East Indies, is 
called Wild Lime. 

1202. LIM6nIUM, Adans. 1763. Statice. Plumbaginaceae. 

An ancient plant name. Syn. Statice (Kew), Willd. 1798 
(L. 1737). Scapose herbs with numerous panicled small 
flowers. About 120 species, mostly of Old Woild; 5 in U. S. 
[The name Statice is really older than Limonium and preferable 
to avoid confusion with Limonia, above.] 

a. L. Carolinidiium (Walt.) Brit. (S. Caroliniana Walt., S. 

Limonium var. Carolinianum A. Gr. ). Atlantic and Gulf 
coast of N. America, in salt meadows. Marsh Rosemary (of 
America), Sea Lavender, Canker-root, vSea-thrift, Lavender- 
thrift, Marsh-root, Ink-root, Meadow-root. 

b. L. Brasiliensis (Bois. ) Lyons (S. Brasiliensis Boiss. ). Brazil. 

Guaycuru, Baycuru, or Biacuru. Bool astringent, styptic, a& 
alsoin(c)L. Limonium (L. ) Lyons (S. Limonium L., L. 
vulgare Mill. ). Europe. Sea Lavender, Marsh Beet, RecJ 
Behen; Ger. Strandnelke; Fr. Romarin des marais, Lavande 
triste. 

1203. LIMOSELLA, L. Mudweed, Mudwort.ScrophuLariaceae, 

From Greek, "mud-seated". Small, tufted aquatic heibs. 
About 6 species; 2 in U. S. 

1201. LINANTHUS, Benth. Linanthus. Polemoiiiaceae. 

From Greek, "flax flowered". Syn. Gilia (Kew), in part. 
Annual herbs, mostly with showy white flowers, natives of N. 
America; 28 in U. S. 



226 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1205. LENARIA, Juss. Toad-flax. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Latin, "flax like". Syn. Antirrhinum, in part. 
Herbs, some shrubby, many with showy flowers. About 150 
species, mostly of Old World; 4 in U. S., including 3 naturaliz- 
ed. See Cymbalaria. 

a. L. Liiiaria(L. ) Karst. (A. Linaria L., L. vulgaris Mill.). 
Europe, nat. in U. S. Common Toad-flax, Yellow Toad-flax, 
Butter-and-eggs, Chopped-eggs, Bread-and-butter, Bride-weed, 
Dead-men' s-bones. Devil's Flax, Flax- weed. Wild Flax, Gall- 
wort, Haycocks, Impudent-lawyer, Jacob' s-ladder^, Larkspur*; 
Ramsted, Ranstead, RancidJ, Snapdragon*, Wild Tobacco, 
Yellow-rod; Ger. Lein kraut, Flachskraut, Lowenmaul; Fr. 
Linaire commune. Herb, H. linarise, H. antirrbini, discutient, 
diuretic, alterative. 

1206. LINDHEIMERA, Gray & Engelm. Composite. 
Named for the discoverer, F. Lindheimer. Annual herb 

with a tive-rayed flower head (yellow). One species; Texas. 

LINGOUM, see PTEROCARPUS. 

1207. LINNAEA, Gronov. Twin-flower. Caprifoliaeeae. 

Named in honor of the botanist Linne. A creeping herb, 
the pink flowers borne in pairs. One species, viz. (a) L» 
borealis L. Circumpolar, south to Long Island, Michigaa 
and California. Twin-flower, Ground-vine, Deer-vine, Twin- 
sisters, Two-eyed berries. 

1208. LINUM, L. - - Flax. - - Linaceae. 

The ancient Latin name. Annual or perennial herte. 
About 100 species, temperate or warm regions; 28 in U. S. 

a. L. catharticum L. Europe and Asia. Dwarf Flax, Cathartic 

or Purging Flax, Fairy or Mountain Flax, Fairy Lint, Lave- 
rock's Lint, Mill-mountain. Plant cathartic. 

b. L. usitatissimum L. Europe and Asia, cult, and nat. in U. S. 

Flax (Flix, Vhi) Lin, Lint, Lint-bells. jPifie;- is linen. Seeds; 
Xinum. U. S. P., Lini semina Br., Semen lini P. G., Flaxseed, 
Xiinseed; Ger. Leinsamen, Flachssamen; Fr. Semence de lin 
(Codex); emollient, demulcent; source of linseed oil. 

1209. LIPPIA, L. Fog-fruit, etc. Verbenaceae, 

Named for Auguste Lippi, French naturalist, d. 1703. Syn. 
Aloysia, Lantana, Verbena, Zapania, in part. Perennial herbs 
or shrubs. About 100 species, mostly of tropical America; 7 
in U. S. 

a. L. diilcis Trev. Mexico and West Indies. Commonly known 

as Lippia Mexicana. Plant aromatic, stimulant, expectorant. 

b. L. origanoides Kunth. Mexico, known there as Origano. 

Plant aromatic. 

c. L. Pseudo-Thea (St. Hil.) DC. (Lantana Pseudo-Thea St. 

Hil. ). Tropical America. Leaves a substitute for Chinese tea. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 227 

d. L. triphjUa (L.'Her. ) Lyons (V. triphylk L'Her., A. citrio- 
dora Ortega, L. ciiriodora Kunth). Chile, cult, in gardens or 
as a house plant. Lemon Verbena, Lemon-scented Verbena, 
Sweet Verbena, Herb Louisa; Fr. Verveine odorante (Codex). 
Leave<i yield oil of Verbena. 

1210. LI(^UII)AMBAR, L. Sweet-Gum, etc. Hamamelidaceae. 

Name Latin-Arabic. Large trees with resinous sap. About 
4 species, Asia Minor, Java and N. America; 1 in U. S. 

a. L. orientalis Mill. (L. imberbe Ait.). Asia Minor. Storax 

tree. Oriental Sweet-gum tree. 5a/sam prepared from the in- 
ner bark, btorax; wtyrax, U.S. P., Styrax prseparatus, Br., 
Styrax liquidus P. (i., Storax liquidus; Ger. Flussiger Storax; 
Storaxbalsam; Fr. Styrax liquide (Codex): balsamic, stimulant, 
vulnerary; used in manufacture of chewing-gum, 

b. L. Styraciflua L. Connecticut to Florida, west to Missouri 

and Mexico. Sweet-gum tree. Star-leaved Gum-tree, Red Gum- 
tree, Alligator tree, Bilsted, Copal m tree, Liquidambar tree, 
Opossum tree, Satin Walnut. Balsamic exudate, Sweet Gum, 
White Gum, Eed Gum* Amber, Copalm, Copal-balsam, Gum- 
wax j Liquidambar, Ambra liquida; properties of storax. Bark 
astringent, reputed nervine. 

1211. LIRIODENDRON, L. Tulip tree Magnoliaceae. 

From Greek, "lily tre«" . A large tree bearing tulip-like 
blossoms. One (perhaps two) species (U. S. ). 

a. L. Tulipifera L. Eastern U. S., west to Wisconsin; also in 
China. Tulip-tree, White wood, Yellow Poplar, Blue or 
Hickory Poplar, Tulip Poplar, White Poplar*, Canoe-wood, 
Cucumber-tree*, Lyre tree, Saddle-leaf, Saddle-tree; Ger. 
Tulpenbaum; Fr. Tulipier. Bark bitter, tonic, febrifuge. 

1212. LiSTERA, R. Br. Twayblade. Orchidaceae. 

Named for Martin Lister, botanist, d. 1712. Small herbs 
with a single pair of leaves. About 10 species, north temperate 
and Arctic zones; 3 in U. S. 

1213. LITHOPHRAGMA, Tor. & Gr. Saxifra^aceae. 

Greek equivalent of ''Saxifrage". Syn. Lithofragma Nutt. ; 
Tellina, in part. Herbs. About 10 species, western U. S. 

1214. LITHOSPERMUM, L. Gromwell, etc. Boraginaceae. 

From Greek, "stone s-ed". Syn. Batschia, in part. An- 
nual or perennial hirsute herbs. About 40 species, mostly of 
northern hemisphere; 14 in U. S. 

a. L. arv^nse L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Bastard Alka- 

net. Corn Gromwell, Lichwale, Painting-plant, Pearl-plant, 
Salfern (i. e. Saffron), Stone-seed. Boot of this and the follow- 
ing species yields a red dye. 

b. L. can(6scens ( Michx. ) Lehm. (B. canescens Michx. ). British 

America, south to Alabama and Arizona. Hoary Puccoon, 
Indian Puccoon, Indian-paint, American Anchusa or Alkanet 



228 PLANT XAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. L. officinale L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Gromwell 
(Graymilej), Lichwale, Lithywale, Littlewale, Pearl- plant, 
Stony-hard. Seeds, Fructus lithospermi, Sem. miliisolis; Ger. 
Steinsamen, Meerlinsen, Perlhirse, Sonnenhirse, formerly re- 
puted lithontriptic. 

1215. LITTORELLA, Berg. (Littanella). Plantar inaceae. 

From Lati u, a " 'littoral" plant. Insignificant grass-like herb. 
One specits, Europe and N. America, south to Vermont; 
called Shoreweed or Shore-grass. 

1216. LLOYDIA, Salisb. - Lloydia. - Liliaceae. 

Small herbs. Two species, one of Himalayas, one in U. S. 

1217. LOBELIA, L. - Lobelia. - Lobeliaceae. 

Named for Matthias de L'Obel, Flemish botanist, d. 1616. 
Herbs, occasionally shrubs, often acrid, generally with bright- 
colored flowers. About 225 species; 25 in U. S. 

a. L. cardinalis L. British America, south to Florida and Texas. 

Cardinal-flower, Red Lobelia, Red -Betty, Red Cardinal, Slink- 
weed, Kog-physic. Herb used by Indians as anthelmintia 
Properties of (c). 

b. L. iiiflata L. British America, south to Georgia and Arkansas. 

Indian Tobacco, Lobelia, Bladder-pod, Lobelia, Wild Tobacco, 
Asthma weed. Gag-root, Puke-weed, Vomitwort, Low BeliaJ, 
Eyebright. Leaves and tops, Lobelia, U. S. P., Br., Herba 
lobelise, P. G., Ger. Lobelien kraut; Fr. Lobelie enflee (Codex). 
Emetic, nauseant, expectorant, anti-spasmodic. Seeds (Brown 
Lobelia) also sometimes used. 

c. L. syphilitica L. Ontario to Georgia, Avest to Louisiana and 

Dakota. Great Lobelia, Blue Cardinal-flower, Blue Lobelia, 
High Beliaj. Herb diaphoretic, alterative, reputed antLsyphilit- 



1218. LOEFLINGIA, L. Loeflingia. Caryophyllaceae. 

Named tor Peter Loefling, Swedish botanist, d. 1756. Low 
herbs. About 5 species, both hemispheres; 3 in southwest- 
ern U. S. 

1219. LOESELIA, L. Loeselia. Polemoniaceae. 

Named for John Losel, Prussian botanist. Herbs or under- 
shrubs with red or purple flowers. About 10 species, Mexico 
to New Granada; 1 in U. S. 

1220. l6lIUM, L. Eye-gras^, Darnel. Gramineae. 
The Latin name of (a). Grasses with spiked inflorescence. 

About 6 species, Old World; 2 nat. in U. S. 

a. L. temulentum L. (L. arvense Withering). Europe and Asia, 
nat. in U. S. Darnel, Bearded Darnel, Bragge, Cheat, Dragge, 
Drake, Drank, Dravick, Drunk, Droke, Ivray (Eaver), Lover' s- 
steps, Neele, Ray-grass (i. e. Kye-grass), Ray, Riely, Sturdy; 
Ger. Lolch, Taumelkorn, Fr. Ivraie. Fruit narcotic, intoxi- 
cant, reputed anodyne. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 229 

1221. LOMARIA, Willd. Lomaria. Polypodiaceae. 

From (iieek, "fhnge",alludiDg to the sori. A large genus 
of ferns allied to Blechnum; 1 in U. S. 

1222. LONICERA, L. Honeysuckle. Caprifoliaeeae. 

Named for Adam Lonitzer, German botanist, d. 158(5. Syn. 
Caprifolium, Periclymenura, Mill, 1752. Erect or climbing 
shrubs, often with showy flowers. About 100 species, mostly 
of north temperate zone; 22 in U. S. 

a. L. Caprifolium L. (L. grata Ait, C. gratum Pursh, P. Italicum 

Mill., P. Americanum Mill., C. valgare Mill. ). Europe, cult, 
and nat. in U. S. Italian Honeysuckle, Perfoliate Honeysuckle. 
American or Fragrant Woodbine, Goat-leaf; Ger. Geisbialt; Fr. 
Che vrefeuille ( Codex ) . 

b. L. Pericljmemim L. (P. vulgareMill.). Europe. Woodbine 

(of Shake^pere), Widbin (Scotland), Oodbinell, Common 
Honeysuckle (of England), Twisted Eglantine (Milton), Mil- 
silvestre, Serville, Suckling, Sycamine*. 

c. L. semperyireus L. Eastern U. S., west to Nebraska. Trum- 

pet or Coral Honeysuckle, Scarlet Trumpet Honeysuckle, 
Woodbine. Other indigenous species are (d) L. eiliata Muhl., 
Canada and northeastern U. S., American Fly-honeysackle 
Medaddy bush; (e) L. dioica L. (L. glauca Hill (Kew), L. 
parviflora Lam. ), Glaucous or Yellow Honeysuckle, Small or 
Northern Yellow Honeysuckle, Small Woodbine; (f) L. 
flava Sims, (Southern) Yellow Honeysuckle; (g) L. glaiices- 
cens Eydb. (L. Douglasii Hook.). Douglas' Honeysuckle; 
(h) L. hirsiita Eaton, Hairy Honeysuckle, Rough Woodbine. 

1223. LOPHIOLA, K^r. Lophiola. Amaryllidaceae. 

From Greek, "crested", of the perianth. Syn. Conostylis, 

in part. Perennial herb. One species, U. S., near Atlantic 
sea-board. 

1224. LOPHOPHOPtA, Coult. Mescale. Cactaceae. 
From Greek, "crest bearing". Syn. Anhalonium, Mammil- 

laria, Echinoractus, in part. One or two species, Mexico and 
southern U. S. 

a. L. Lewinii (Henn. ) Coult. (A Lewinii, Henn, M. Lewinii Auct., 
by some referred to (b) L. Williamsii Lem. Coult. (A. 
Williamsii Lem.), which is, however, probably distinct). 
Mexico. Source of Mescale buttons, which have remarkable 
narcotic and intoxicating properties. 

1225. LOPHOTOCARPUSjT.Durand. Arrow-head. Alismaceae. 

From Greek, "crested fruit''. Syn. Lophiocarpus, Miq. 
not Turcz; Sagittana, in part. Paludal or aquatic herbs. 
About 3 species, New World; 1 in U. S. 

1226. LORANTHUS, L. Mistletoe. Loranthaceae. 

From Gre^k, "thong flower". Plants usually parasitic. 
About 330 species, warm regions except of N. America. 



230 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. L. Eiiropaeus Jacq. Eastern and southern Europe. Oak 
Mistletoe, Wood-of-the-holy-cross, Viscum quernum of old 
writers. Plant yields bird-lime. See Viscum. 

1227. l6tIIS, L. 1753. Bird's-foot Trefoil, Papilionaceae. 

An ancient Greek plant name. Syn. Hosackia, Dougl. 1829. 
Herbs or shrubs. About 120 species; 60 in U. S. 

a. L. corniculdtus L. Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Bird's- 
foot Trefoil, Ground Honeysuckle, Bloom-fell, Crow-toe (Mil- 
ton), Crosstoes, Claver, Cat-in -clover. Bird's-eye, Butter-jags, 
Devil' s-fingers, Eggs-and-bacon, Jack-jump-about, Lady's- 
fingers, Lady' s-glove, Lady's-slipper*, Lady' s-shoes-and- 
stockings. Sheep-foot. Valuable as a fodder plant. 

1228. LUCUMA, Mol. Marmalade tree. Gultiferae. 

From vernacular, Peru. Syn. Vitellaria, Gaertn. ; Achras, 
Chrysophyllum, in part. Trees or shrubs with milky juice. 
About 50 species, tropical America and Australia. [The spe- 
cies excepting two are now referred by some botanists to Vitel- 
laria. ] 

a. L. mammosa (L.) Juss. (A. mammosaL., V. mammosa (L. ) 

Radlk. ). West Indies. Marmalade tree. Marmalade Apple 
or Plum, Mammee, Mammee Sapota, in Jamaica called Bully 
tree ( Bulletrie, Bolletrie) . Fruit, vegetable egg, esculent. 

b. L. salicifolia Kunth. Mexico. Zapote borracho, Zapote 

amarillo. Fruit soporific. 

c. L. glycyphloea Mart. & Eichl. (C. glycyphloeum Casaretti). 

Brazil. Bark, Monesia bark, Buranham or Guranham bark; 
Cort. monesiae; Ger. Monesiarinde; astringent with some stimu- 
lant action. The aqueous extract, Extractum nionesise, as well 
as the bark is called Monesia, leading to confusion. 

1229. LIIDWIGIA, L. False Loosestrife. Onagraceae. 

Named for Prof. C. G. Ludwig of Leipsic, d. 1773. Herbs, 
mostly with inconspicuous tlowers. About 25 species, warm 
and temperate regions; 14 in U. S.; va) L. alternifolia ^L., 
eastern U. S., is called Seed-box, Kattle-box, Bowman 's-root* 
See Isnardia. 

1230. LUDWIGIANTHA, Small. Ludx\igiantha. Onagraceae. 

From Greek, "Ludwigia-flowered". Syn. Ludwigia, in 
part. Fleshy aquatic herb. One species, southeastern tJ. S. 

1231. LUETKEA, Bong. 1833. Luetkea. Rosaceae. 
Syn. Lutkea, Steud. 1841, Eriogynia, Hook. 1833; Spira;a 

(Kew), in part. Suffrutescent plants with palmately cleft 
leaves. About 4 species. Pacific border of U. S. 

1232. LIJFFA, Toum. 1791. Towel Gourd. Cucurbitaceae. 
From the Arabic name. Syn. Tiiria, Forsk. 1775, Poppya, 

Neck. 1790; Cucumis, Momordica, in part. Prostrate herbs. 
About 7 species, tropical Asia and Africa, one in America. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 231 

a. L. Liiffa (L. ) Lyons (M. LuffaL., L. Aegyptiaca Mill. (Kew)^ 
Turia sativa Forsk., P. Fabiana C. Koch. ). North Africa and 
tropical Asia. Towel Gourd, Dish-cloth Gourd, Washing 
Gourd, Strainer vine, Luffa (Loofa, LoufF, Lief, Liff). The 
fibrous network of the fruit is the familiar vegetable sponge or 
gourd towel. Other species, as (b) L. acutaiigula (L.) Koxb. 
(C. aciitangala L. ), yield similar products. 

c. L. operculdta (L. ) Cogn. (M. operculata L., L. purgansMart. 
(Kew), P. operculata Roera. ). Tropical America. Fruit of 
this and some other species violently cathartic. 

1238. LtJINA, Benth. Luina. Compositae. 

Anagram of Inula, an allied genus. Perennial herb with 
small flower heads (yellow). One species. Pacific coast of U. S. 

1234. LUNARIA, L. Satin-pod, etc. Cruciferae, 

From Latin, *'moon wort". Herbs, the silicle with a mem- 
branous shining dissepiment. Two species, Europe and Asia. 

a. L. dnnua L. (L. biennis Moench, L. inodora Lam.). Europe, 
cult, in gardens and adv. in U. S. Honesty, Penny-flower, 
Satin-flower, Money plant, Balbonac, Gold-and-Silver plant, 
Lunary, Matrimony. 

1235. LUPINUS, L. Lupine, Sun-dial. Papilionaceae. 

Ancient Latin name of a Leguminous plant, from lupus a 
"wolf. Herbs or sub-shrubs, with digitate (rarely simple) 
leaves and racemes of showy flowers. About 125 species,temperate 
and warm regions; 99 in V. S. Many of the species are plant- 
ed in gardens; some are useful fodder plants; some have pro- 
nounced poisonous properties. The names Sun-dial, Old-maid's- 
bonnets, Quaker' s-bonnets and Wild Lupine or Lupin arc 
almost indiscriminately applied to the various species. 

1236. L\CHNIS, L. Lychnis, Campion, etc. Caryophyllaceae. 

From Greek word for "lamp", alluding to bright color of 
flowers. Syn. Agrostemma^ Coronaria, in part. Herbs. 
About 35 species, north temperate and Arctiq zones; 16 in U. S., 
including nat. species. 

a. L. alba Mill. (L. vespertina Sibth. ). Europe, nat. in U. S. 

White Campion, Evening-blooming Lychnis^, Bull-rattle, 
Cow-rattle, Snake-flower, Thunder-flower, White or Wild 
Cuckoo-flower, White Bachelor's-buttons, White- Robin, Rag- 
ged-Robin (a double variety). 

b. L. Chalcedonica L. Japan, cult, in gardens. Scarlet Lychnis, 

Cross-of-Jerusalem, Jerusalem- or Knight-cross, Maltese- or 
Scarlet-cross, Fire-balls, None-such, Scarlet-lightning, Sweet- 
William*, Mock Sweet- William. 

c. L. Coronaria (L. ) Desr. (A. Coronaria L., C. toraentosa A, 

Br.). Europe, adv. in U. S. Mullen (Mullein) Pink, Mul- 
len Lychnis^, Dusty-miller, Gardener's- eye, Rose Campion. 



232 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. L. Flos-ciiculi L. (C. Flos-cuculi A. Br.). Europe, nat. in 
U. S. Cuckoo-flower, Cuckoo Gilliflower or Lychnis, Crow- 
flower, Indian Pink, Marsh Gilliflower, Meadow Campion, 
Meadow Pink, Eagged-Jack, Kagged-Robin. 

1237. LYCIUM, L. Matrimony-vine, etc. Solanaceae. 

Named from Lycia in Asia Minor. Syn. lochroma, in part. 
Shrubs or climbers. About 75 species, temperate and warm 
regions; 17 in U. S. 

a. L. Afrum L. Africa and western Asia. Kafir Thorn. Plant- 
ed for hedges. Leaves discutient, alterative. Similar proper- 
ties are ascribed to (b) L. iimbrosiim Humb. & Bonp. [[. 
umbrosa Miers (Kew)], of South America. 

c. L. vulgare (Ait. f. ) Dunal (L. Barbarum var. vulgare Ait. f.). 
Europe, nat. in U. S. Matrimony vine, Box Thorn, Bastard 
Jasmine, Jessamine*, Jackson vine:}:, Duke of Argyll' s Tea-tree. 
Root diuretic. 

1238. LYCOPERDON, L. Puff"ball, Bunt. Gasteromycetes. 

From Greek, "wolf flatus". Syn. Bovista, Pachyma, in 
part. Globular or ovoid fungi, the innumerable spores form- 
ing when ripe a dust-like powder. 

a. L. Bovista L. (L. giganteum Batsch., B. giganteum Nees, L. 

cselatum Fries). Giant Puflfball, Pufl'ball, Blind-buflP, Blind- 
hairy, Blind-mans' -ball, Bullifer, Bullfeist, Devil' s-snufl-box. 
Feist, Fizbo, Foist, Furze-ball, Fuss-ball, Fuzz-ball, Mollipuff, 
Paddock-cheese, Pluft', Puckfist, Smut-ball, Wolf's-fist; Ger. 
Bovist; Fr. Lycoperde des bouviers, Vepseloup. The ripe fungus; 
Fungus chirurgorum. Crepitus lupi, Bovista; formerly used as 
a styptic. Unripe fungus esculent. Spores of this and other 
species anesthetic. 

b. L. solidum Gronov. (P. Cocos Fries). Southern U. S., also 
j, in China, on roots of fir trees. Tuckahoe, (Tuckahoo), Tucka- 

hoe Truflle, Indian Bread, Indian-head, Fuh-ling. Fungus 
contains much pectic acid; esculent, and used in jellies. 

1239. LYCOPERSICON, Hill. Tomato. Solanaceae. 

From Greek, * 'wolf peach" . Syn. Lycopersicum, Solanum, 
in part. Diffuse herbs. About 4 species, S. America. 

a. L. Lycopersicon (L. ) Karst. (L. esculentura Mill. (Kew), S. 
Lycopersicon L., L. Solanum- Lycopersicum Hill). South 
America, now everywhere cult. Tomato (from Spanish Ameri- 
can, Tamate), Love Apple (a translation of the French Pomme 
d'amour,but the original Italian, Poino dei Mori, meant Morocco 
Apple), Jew's-ear*, Paradise Apple. Fruit esculent, diuretic. 

1240. LYC0p6dIUM, L. Club-moss. Lycopodiaceae. 

Ancient Greek name, meaning "wolf's foot". [The aborigi- 
nal name in Oceanica means mouse-foot]. Perennial ever- 
green plants. About 100 species; 12 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 233 

a. L. claydtum L. Europe, Asia, N. America, south to N. Caro- 

lina, Michigan and Washington. Ground or Running Pine, 
Chib-moss, Clubfoot Moss, Running Moss, Snake Moss, Stag- 
horn (Stag's-hom) Moss, Buck-grass, Buck's-horn, Coral Ever- 
green, Creeping-bur, Creeping- Jennie, Forks-and-knives, Fox- 
tail, Lamb' s-tails, Toad's-tail, Traveler' s-joy*, Wolfs-claws; 
Ger. Schlangenmoos, Barlappkraut, Sautanne. Spores, veget- 
able sulphur; Lycopodium, U. S. P., P. G., Sem. V. Pulvis 
lycopodii, Sulphur vegetabile; Ger. Barlappsamen, Streupulver, 
Hexenmehl, Blitzpulver, Erdschwefel, Wurmmehl; Fr. Lyco- 
pode (Codex), Soufre v^g^tal; Sp. Licopodia. Absorbent, 
lenitive, diuretic. 

b. L. complanatiini L. Europe, Asia, N. America, south to N. 

Carolina and Michigan. Trailing Christmas-green, Ground 
Cedar, Ground Pine, Ground-festoon, Crow-foot*, Hog-bed, 
Creeping- Jennie. Spores used as in (a). 

c. L. obsciiruni L. (L. dendroideum Michx.). Asia and N. 

America, south to N. Carolina and Indiana. Ground Pine, 
Tree-like Club-moss, Bunch Evergreen, Spiral Pine, Crow- 
foot*. Plant much used in Christmas decorations. 

Other indigenous species are; (d) L. Alpinum L., Alpine 
Club-moss, Heath Cypress, Cypress Moss; (e) L. luciduluiu 
Michx., Shining Club-moss, Moon-fruit Pine^, Trailing Ever- 
green; (f) L. sabinaefolium Willd., Cedar-like Club-moss, 
Ground Fir; (g) L. Selago L., Fir Club-moss, Fir Moss, 
Tree Moss, Fox-feet. From an allied Brazilian species, (h) L. 
sauriirus (?), called Piligan, has been obtained a powerfully 
cathartic alkaloid, piliganine. Cathartic properties are at- 
tributed also to other species. 

1241. LYC6pSIS, L. Bugloss. Boraginaceae. 

From Greek, "wolf face". Syn. Buglossa. Bristly hispid 
herbs. About 6 species, Old World; 1 nat. in U. S., viz. (a) 
L. arvensis L. (B. arvensis S. F.Gray). Small or Wild Bug- 



1242. LYCOPUS, L. Bugleweed, Gypsywort, etc. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "wolfs foot". Stoloniferous herbs. About 10 
species, north temperate zone; 6 in U. S. 

a. L. Americdnus Muhl. (L. sinuatus Ell. (Kew), E. Europaeus 

var. sinuatus A. Gray). British America and U. S., through- 
out. Cut-leaved Water-hoarhound, Bitter Bugle, Paul's 
Betony, Gypsywort. 

b. L. Europaeus L. (L. aquaticus Moench, L. riparius »Salisb., 

L. vulgaris Pers.). Europe, adv. in U. S., Water Hoarhound, 
Marsh Hoarhound, Gipsy wort|, Gipsy-herb, Green Archangel, 
Bitter Bugle, European Bugleweed; Ger. Wasserandorn; Fr. 
Lycope d' Europe. Herb, Herba marrubii aquatici, astringent, 
hemostatic, anti-periodic. 

c. L. Virginicus L. British America, south to Florida and Mis- 

souri. Bugleweed, Buglewort, Sweet Bugleweed, American 
Water-hoarhound, Carpenter' s-herb, Green Archangel, Gypsie- 



284 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

weed, Paul's Betonv, Wood Betony, Wolf-foot; Ger. Virgin- 
isches Wolfsfuss; Fr. Lycope de Virginie. Hei-b 8e<lative, 
hemostatic; antidote to snake bites. 

1243. LYGODESMIA, D. Don. Lygodesmia. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "twig bundle". Syn. Prenanthes, in part. 
Herbs with linear leaves and pink or purple flowers. About 6 
species, all of U. S. and Mexico. 

1244. LYG6dIUM,'Swz. Climbing Fern. Schizaeaceae. 

From Greek, ''pliant". Syn. Gisopteris, in part. Twin- 
ing or climbing ferns, 16 species, mostly tropical; 1 in U. S. 

a. L. palmatum (Bernh. ) Swz. (G. palmata Bernh. ). Massachu- 

setts to Florida. Climbing F'ern, Hartford Fern, Creeping or 
Windsor Fern. 

1246. LYONOTHAMNUS, Gray. Ironwood*. Saxifragaeeae. 

Named for William S. Lyon, botanist of California. A tree 
or shrub. One species, islands oft" coast of California. 

1246. LYROCARPA, Harv. Lyrocarpa. Cruci ferae. 

From Greek, "lyre fruit". Perennial herbs. Two species, 
Pacific border of U. 8. 

1247. LYSICHITON, Schott. 1857. (Lysichitum). Araceae. 
From Greek, "loose mantle". Syn. Arctiodracon, Gray 

1858. Kobust marsh herb. One species, northern Asia and 
N. America (U. S. ). 

1248. LYSIL(3mA, Benth. Wild Tamarind, etc. Mimosaceae. 

From Greek, "loose border". Syn. Mimosa, in part. Trees 
or shrubs. About 10 species, tropical America; 1 in U. S., 
viz. (a) latisiliqua (L. ) Benth. (M. latisiliqua L. ), West 
Indies to Florida; Wild Tamarind. 

b. L. Sabicd Benth. Cuba. Sabicu (Savacu, Savico). Wood, 

Sabicu-wood, Horseflesh Mahogany, very hard and durable. 

1249. LYSIMACHIA, L. Loosestrife. Primiilaceae. 

Ancient Greek name, meaning "loosestrife". Syn. Viscumt, 
in part. Herbs Avith yellow flowers, axillary, racemose or 
paniculate. About 70 species, mostly of northern hemisphere; 
7 in U. S.; Ger. Weiderich; Fr. Lysimaque. 

a. L. Niimmularia L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Moneywort, Creep- 

ing Loosestrife, Creeping-Jenny, Down-hill-of-life, Herb Two- 
pence (Tuppence), Two-penny grass, Meadow-runagates, Strings- 
of-80vereigns. Wandering- Jenny, Wandering- sailor; Ger. Pfen- 
nigkraut; Fr. Monnayfere. Herb astringent, vulnerary. 

b. L. qnadrifolia L. Canada and eastern U. S. Crosswort, 

Whorled Loosestiife, Five-sisters, Yellow Balm. Herb as- 
tringent, stomachic, expectorant. 

c. L. terrestris (L.) B. S. P. (L. stricta Ait. (Kew), V. terres- 

treL. ). Canada and eastern U. S. Bulb-bearing Loosestrife, 
Swamp-candles. 



SCIKNTIFIC AND POPULAK. 235 

d. L. yulgaris L, Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Common 
Loosestrife, Golden or Yellow AVillow-herb, Yellow Rocket*. 
Properties of (b). 

1250. LYTHRUM, L. Loosestrife. Lythraceae' 

Fro'^ii Greek, "gore'". 8yn. Hyssopifolia, Opiz., Salicaria, 
Mill., in part. Herbs or shrubs. About 25 species, widelv dis- 
tributed; J2inU. S. 

a. L. Salicaria L. (S. vulgaris Moench). Europe and Asia, nat» 
in U. S. Loosestrife, Spiked or Purple Loosestrife, Spiked or 
Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb, Willow-weed, Willow- 
wort, Sage Willow, l^irple-grass, Long- purples, Eed-Sally, 
Rainbow-weed, SoldiersJ; Ger. Rother Weiderich; Fr. Salicaire. 
Herb astringent, demulcent, alterative, (b) L. aldtuin Pursh, 
Ontario and northeastern LL S., Wing-angled Loosestrife^, is 
called also Milk Willow; (c) L. Hyssopifolia L. (H. parvi- 
flora Opiz. ), Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S., is Hyssop Loose- 
strife or Grass Poly. 

1251. MACBRIDEA, Ell. Macbridea. Labiatae. 
Named for Dr. James Macbride. Syn. Thymbra, Prasium, 

Melittis, in part. Perennial herbs with showy flowers. Two 
species, southeastern U. S. 

1252. MACHAERANTHERA, Nees. Aster. Compositae. 

From Greek, "sickle A stei-". Syn. Aster (Kew), Dieteria, 
in part. Herbs resembling Aster. About 15 species, all of 
U. S. and Mexico. 

1253. MACHAERIUM, Pers. Tiger- wood, etc. Papilioiiaceae. 

From Greek, "saber", alluding to the fruit. Trees, shrubs 
or tall climbers. About 60 species, S. America. 

a. M. fertile Griseb. Argentina. Tipa. Wood and bark astrin- 
gent, used in tanning; (b) M. Schomburgkii Benth. of British 
Guiana is called Itaka and Tiger-wood. Some species yield 
varieties of Rosewood. 

1254. MACOUNASTRUM, Small. Macounastrum.Polygonaceae. 
Syn. Koenigia, L. 1764, not Konig, Adans. 1763. Insignifi- 
cant herbs. Two or three species, boreal or alpine; 1 in U. S. 

1255. MACRAE THE R A, Torr.Macranthera. Serophiilariaceae. 
From Greek, "long stamened". Syn. Conradia, Dasystoma, 

in part. Tall biennial with orange-colored flowei-s. One spe- 
cies, southeastern U. S. 

1256. MACROCALYX,Trew.l761.Nyctelea,etc.Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "large calyx". Syn. Ellisia, L. 1763 (not L. 
1759); Ipomoeaf, Polemoniumf, in part. Annual hairy herbs. 
About 3 species, N. America; 2 in U. S. 

1267. MACRONEMA, Gray. Macronema. Compositae. 

From Greek, "long thread". Syn. Aplopappus, in part. 
Perennial herbs; rays few (conspicuous) or wanting. About (► 
species, western U. S. 



236 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1258. MACR0SIPH6nIA, MuelL Apocynaceae. 

From Greek, "long tubed". Shrubs with showy flowers, 
white, yellow or red. About 12 species, warmer regions of 
New World; 3 in southwestern U. S. 

1259. MADARIA, DC. Mignonette-vine. Coinpositae. 

Name Latin, "Madia-like". Syn. Anisocarpus, Madia, in 
part. Herbs with hirsute leaves. About 4 species, Pacific 
border of U. S. (a) M. ^legans (Don) DO. (Madia elegans 
D. Don). California. Mignonette-vine. 

1260. MADIA, Mol. 1782. Tar-weed, etc. Compositae. 

From vernacular modi, Chili, Herbs, commonly viscid 
and heavy- scented. About 12 species. New World; 9 in U. S. 

a. M. satiya Mol. Chili, cult, in Europe, Africa and Asia. Seeds 

source of Madia oil. 

1261. MAES A, Forsk. - Saoria. - Myrsinaceae. 

Shrubs. About 40 species, warmer regions of Old World, 
(a) M. lanceolata Forst. (M. picta Hochstetter) . Abyssinia. 
Saoria. Fruit anthelmintic. 

1262. MAG>6lIA, L. Magnolia. Ma^oliaceae. 

Named for Prof. Pierre Magnol, French botanist, d. 1715. 
Trees or shrubs with large fragrant flowers. About 15 species, 
N. America and eastern Asia; 7 in U. S. 

a« M. acuminata L. (M. Virginiana, var. acuminata L. ). New 
York to Alabama, west to Arkansas. Cucumber tree. Moun- 
tain Magnolia, Black or Yellow Linn. Bark of this and other 
species, tonic, bitter, febrifuge. 

b. M. foetida (L. ) Sarg. (M. Virginiana var. foetida L. Ed. 1., 

M. grandiflora L. Ed. 2 (Kew), the preferable name as Linne 
himself decided). Southeastern U. S. Southern Magnolia, 
Large- flowered Magnolia, Laurel- leaved Tulip-tree, Bull Bay. 

c. M. Frdseri Walt. (M. auriculata Lam.). Virginia to Florida 

and Mississippi. Eraser's Magnolia, Long- or Ear-leaved Um- 
brella-tree, Fraser's Umbrella-tree, North Carolina Bay, 
Indian-physic*, Water-lily tree, Cucumber-tree. 

d. M. macrophylla Michx. Kentucky southward, west to Arkan- 

sas. Large-leaved Umbrella-tree or Cucumber-tree, Big-bloom, 
Elk-bark, Elk-wood, Silver-leaf, Silver-leaf Umbrella-tree. 

€. M. trip^tala L. (M. Umbrella Lam.). Pennsylvania to Ala- 
bama, west to Arkansas. Umbrella-tree, Cucumber-tree. 

f. M. Virginidna L. 1753 (M. glauca L. 1762). Massachusetts, 
south to Florida and Texas, near Atlantic and Gulf sea-board. 
Laurel Magnolia, Small or Sweet Magnolia, Swamp Magnolia, 
Beaver tree. Elk-bark, Holly Bay, Sweet or White Bay, Red 
Bayt, Indian-bark, Small or White Laurel, Swamp Laurel, 
Swamp Sassafras. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 237 

1263. MAIRASIA, Xeck. 1790. Alpine Bearberry. Ericaceae. 
Syn. Arctous, Niedenzu 1890; Arctostaphylos (Kew), Arbutus, 

in part. A low deciduous shrub. One species, north polar 
zone to U. S. 

1264. MALACHRA, L. AVild Okra, etc. Malvaceae. 
Hairy herbs. About 20 species, warmer regions of Old 

World; 2 nat. in U. S. 

1265. MALACOTHRIX, DC. Malacothrix. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "soft hair", alluding to the pappus. Syn. 
Leptoseris, in part. Herbs with yellow, rarely white, flowers. 
About 15 species, southwestern U. S. 

1266. MALAPOESNA, Adans. 1763. Pond-spice, etc.Lauraceae. 

From vernacular, Malabar. Syn. Litsea (Kew), Lam. 1789, 
Sebifera, Lour. 1790, Tetranthera, Jacq. 1797; Laurus, in part. 
Trees or shrubs. About 100 species, warmer regions, especially 
of Old World; 1 in U. S. 

a. M. geniculata (Walt.) Coult. (Laurus geniculata Walt., Litsea 
geniculata Mez. (Kew), T. geniculata Nees. ). Virginia to 
Florida. Pond-spice. 

1267. MALLOTUS, Lour. 1790. Kamila, etc. Eiiphorbiaceae. 

From Greek, "woolly"'. Syn. Eottlei-a, Roxb. 1798; Echi- 
nus, Croton, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 70 species, 
warmer regions of Old World. 

a. M. Philippinensis (Lam. ) Muell. Arg. (C. Philippinense Lam., 
E. Philippinensis Baill., R. tinctoria Roxb.). Abyssinia to 
India and Australia. Kamila tree, Monkey-face tree, Spoon- 
wood. Glands and hairs from the capsules, Kamila, Kamala 
(Kamela, Kameela, Kaimaile, Kanbil), Wurrus (Wurus, 
Waras); Kamala, U. S. P., Rottlera, U. S. P. 1870; Glan- 
dulse rottlerae; twnicide, used also as an orange dye. 

1268. MALPIOHIA, L. Barbados Cherry, etc. Malpigrbiaceae. 

Named for Marcello Malpighi, Italian physiologist, d.l694. 
Trees or shrubs, some with stinging haii*s. About 20 species, 
tropical America; 1 in U. S. Several species produce edible 
fruits, notably (a) M. glabra L., Surinam Cherry; (b) M. 
punicifolia L., Barbados Cherry; (c) M. lirens L., Cowhage 
Cherry. 

1269. MALUS, Juss. Apple, Crab-tree. Pouiaceae. 
The classical name. Syn. Pyrus, (Pirus) in part. Trees 

with showy white or pink blossoms. About 15 species, north 
temperate zone; 6 in U. S. 

a. M. Mains (L. ) Britton (P. Mains L., M. communis Poir., M. 
paradisaica Medic, M. domestica Baumg. ). Western Asia, 
now widely cult, in numerous named varieties. Probably de- 
rived from several wild species. Apple tree. Seedling trees are 
known as Crab-stock, Scarb-tree, Wilding tree or Nurse-garden. 
Bark tonic, febrifuge. Fruit esculent. The cultivated Crab- 
apple is ( b ) M. baccata ( L. ) Lyons ( P. baccata L. ) or some 
hybrid of this with (a). 



238 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

Indigenous species are; (c) M. angiistifolia (Ait.) Michx., 

southeastern U. S., Southern Crab-apple or Crab tree; (d) M. 
corouaria (L. ) Mill., Ontario and northeastern U. S., Amer- 
ican or Garland Crab-apple, Fragrant Crab-apple, Sweet- 
scented Crab tree; (e) M, rivularis (Doug. ) Eoem., the Ore- 
gon Crab-apple. 

1270. MALVA, L. - Mallow. - Malvaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Mucilaginous herbs, the shape of 
the fruit suggesting the popular name "Cheeses". About 30 
species, Old World; 8 nat. in U. S. 

a. M. rotundifolia L. Europe and western Asia, nat. in U. S. 

Low or Common Mallow (Maul, Maws), Mallows (MaliceJ); 
Blue, Country, Dwarf or Running Mallow, Dutch- cheese, Doll- 
cheeses, Fairy-cheeses, Pellas; Ger. Kasekraut; Fr. Petite 
Mauve (Codex). Flowers and leaves mucilaginous, demulcent. 

b. M. sylvestris L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. High Mal- 

low, Common or Country Mallow, Cheese-flower, Cheese-cake 
plant. Chock-cheese, Pick-cheese, Pancake plant. Round Dock; 
Ger. Kasepappel, Waldmalve; Fr. Mauve (Codex), Mauve 
sauvage, Grande Mauve. FloiverSy Flores Malvee P. G., Flores 
malvae vulgaris s. silvestris; Ger. Malvenbliithen; mucil- 
aginous, demulcent. 

€. M. vulgaris Fries (M. rotundifolia L.f (Kew), M. neglecta 
Wallr. ). Europe. Common Mallow of Europe. Leaws, Folia 
Malvse, P. G., Herba raalvse; Ger. Malvenblatter, Pappelkraut, 
Hasenpappelkraut; Fr. Feuilles de Mauve (Codex); mucila- 
ginous, demulcent, (d) M. Alcea L. is European or Vervain 
Mallow; (e) M. Moschata L., with faint odor of musk, is Musk 
Mallow or Musk plant. 

1271. MALVASTRUM, A. Gray 1848. False Mallow. Malvaceae. 
Name altered from Malva. Syn, Malveopsls, Presl. 1847; 

Cristaria, Malva, Sida, in part. Herbs allied to Malva. 
About 75 species, America and S. Africa; 25 in U. S. (a) M. 
coccineum (Pursh) A. Gray of western prairies is called Red 
False Mallow, also Moss Rose*. 

1272. MALVAViSCUS, Adans. Malvaviscus. Malvaceae. 
Shrubs with crimson flowers. About 20 species, tropical 

America; 1 in Florida. 

1273. MAMMEA, L. Mammee Apple. CInsiaceae. 

From vernacular. West Indies. Trees. About 5 species, 
tropical regions of Old and New World, (a) M. Americdna 
L. West Indies, cult, in most tropical countries. Mammee 
Apple, Mamey tree. South American Apricot. Fruit esculent. 
Seeds anthelmintic. 

1274. MANDRAGORA, Juss. Mandrake. Solanacea^. 

From the ancient Greek name, whence also our word Man- 
drake. Syn. Atropa, in part. Herbs. About 4 species, Medi- 
terranean region. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 239 

a. M. officiuarnin L. (M. officinalis Mill,, M. vernalis Bertol., 
A. Mandragora L. , Ed. 10). Mandrake (of Scripture), Euro- 
pean Mandrake, Mandrake Apple, Mandragora, Devil's Apple; 
Ger. Alraunwurzel, Schlafapfel; Fr. Mandragora. Rout nar- 
cotic. 

1275. MANGIFERA, L. Mango. Auacardiaceae. 

From Latin, "Mango bearing". Syn. Mangas, Adans., 
Manga, Noronha. Trees. About 30 species, tropical Asia. 
(a) M. Indica L. Southern Asia, cult, in all tropical countries. 
Mango tree. Bark astringent. Fruil esculent. 

1276. MANIHOT, Adans. Cassava, etc. Eupliorbiaceae. 

Vernacular name, S. America. Syn. Jatropha L., Janipha, 
H. B. K. , Mandioca, Link . Herbs or shrubs. About 80 species, 
warmer regions of New World; 2 in U. S. 

a. M. Glaziovii J. Muell. Ceara, Brazil. Source of Ceara rubber. 

See Hevea. 

b. M. Manihot (L. ) Lyons ( Jat. Manihot L., Jan. Manihot Kunth, 

M. utilissima Pohl). Brazil, now cult, in all tropical coun- 
tries. Manioc (Mandioc, Maniocca), Cassava, Bitter Cassava, 
Tapioca plant. Starch obtained from the fleshy roots is Tapioca, 
Brazilian Arrowroot, Cassava meal, Amylum manihot; Ger. 
Cassavastarke, Tapiocca; Fr. Tapioka (Codex). Tapioca is 
obtained also from (c) M. Carthagineiisis J. Muell. (Jat. 
Janipha L. ). 

d. M. palmata (Veil.) J. Muell. (Jat. palmata Vell.,M. Aipi 
Pohl, Jat. dulcis Gmel. ). Tropical S. America. Aipi, Sweet 
Cassava. Root farinaceous, comparatively free from poisonous 
properties. 

1277. MARANTA, L. Arrowroot plant. Marantaceae. 

Named for B. Maranta, Venetian botanist, 16th century. 
Herbs from fleshy rhizomes. About 15 species, tropical 
America. 

a. M, anmdinacea L. Tropical America and West Indies. [The 
species probably includes (b) M. Indica Tussac, source of the 
Natal and East Indian arrowroot]. Arrowroot plant (properly 
aru-root, aruaru being a Brazilian word for flour). Starch 
from the rhizomes is Bermuda or True Arrowroot; Amylum 
marantfe; Ger. Pfeilwurzelmehl, Maiantastarke; Fr. Arrowroot 
de la Jamaique (Codex)). Arrowroot is also procured from 
some other gpecies, as also from the allied Canna and Curcuma. 

1278. MARASMIUS, Fries. Champignon. Hymenomycetes. 

From Greek, "withering". Syn. Agaricus, in part. Fungi 
with a tough leathery pileus, some edible. About 300 species. 

a. M. Oreades, (Bolt.) Fries (A. Oreades Bolt.). Champignon, 
Fairy-ring Mushroom (Champignon is the French word for 
Mushroom). Fungus esculent. 

1279. MARGARANTHUS, Schlecht. Solanaceae. 

From Greek, "pearl flower". Syn. Physalis, in part. 
Herbs resembling Physalis. About 3 species, Texas to Arizona. 



240 PLANT XAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1280. MARIAiSA, Hill 1762. Milk Thistle. Compositae. 

Syn Silybum Adans. 1763; Carduus, in part. A coarse 
prickly herb. One species, Mediterranean region. 

a. M. Mariana (L.) Hill (S. MarianumGsertn. (Kew), C. Marianus 
L. ). Mediterranean region, adv. in U. S. Milk Thistle, 
Virgin Mary's Thistle, Our Lady's Thistle, Lady's or Holy 
Thistle, Lady's-milk; Ger. Steckkorner, Frauendistel; Fr. 
Chardon Marie. Fruit, Fructus silybi, Sem. cardui raarise; 
expectorant, tonic. 

1281. MAKRtJBIUM, L. Hoarhound. Labiatae. 
Name middle Latin, of uncertain origin. Perennial herbs. 

About 40 species, temperate regions of Old World. 

a. M. vulgare L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Hoarhound, 
Horehound (Herehoune, Horhowne, Horone), Common Hoar- 
hound, Houndbene, MarvelJ, MawrollJ; Ger. Weisser Andorn, 
Andornki-aut; Fr. Marrube blanc (Codex); Sp. Marrubia. 
Leaves and tops; MarrulDium, U. S. P., Herba marrubii (albi); 
expectorant, laxative, deobstruent, carminative. 

1282. MARSDENIA, E. Br. Condurango. Asclepiadaceae. 

Syn. Gonolobus, in part. Shrubs or shrubby climbers. 
About 60 species, tropical regions. 

a. M. Ciindiirdngo Nichols, not Reich. (G. Cundurango Triana). 
S. America. This species is cited by the German Pharma- 
copoeia as the source of Condurango. That name, meaning 
Eaglevine, is applied in South America to at least ten different 
plants. Dr. Ruschenberger names the plant yielding the white 
Condurango of Peru, Pseiismagennetiis Equatoriensis, locally 
known as Cundurango bianco or Mata perro (i. e. dog killer). 
Bark, Cortex Condurango, P. G., reputed alterative. 

1283. MARSHALLIA, Schreb. ]\[arshallia. Compositae. 

Named for Humphrey Marshall of Pennsylvania. Syn. 
Athanasia, in part. Perennial smooth herbs with discoid flower- 
heads. Four known species, central and southern U. S. 

1284. MARTYNIA, L. Martyiiiaceae (Pedal iaceae). 

Named for Prof. John Martyn, English botanist, d. 1768. 
Cx)arse, viscid herbs, with beaked capsule. About 10 species, 
warmer regions of New World; 3 in U. S. 

a. M. Louisiana Mill. [M. proboscidea Glox. -(Kew)]. Iowa 
and Illinois, southward, adv. in northern states. Elephant' s- 
trunk, Unicorn-plant, Devil' s-claw, Double-claw, Martinoe, 
Mouse-bur, Toe-nails. [In Mexico a name meaning "Devil's- 
claw" is given to the clinging hooked fruits of some species.] 

1286. MATRICARIA, L. Camomile. Compositae. 

From Latin matrix, "womb", alluding to supposed medici- 
nal properties. Syn. Chrysanthemum, Chamomilla, Pyreth- 
rum, Santolina, in part. Herbs with dissected leaves; flower 
heads commonly with white rays. About 20 species, northern 
hemisphere and Africa; 3 native in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPL'LAR 24! 

a. M. Chamomilla L. (Chrys. Chamomilla Bern., Cbani. vulgaris 
S. F. Gray, Chata. officinalis Koch). Europe and Asia, nat. 
in U. S. and widely elsewhere. German Camomile (Chamo- 
mile), Wild Camomile, Dog's Camovyne, Apple-riennie, Corn 
Feverfew, Horse-Gowan, Mayweed*; Ger. Feldkamille; Fr. 
Camomille commune ou d'Allemagne (Codex); Sp. Manzanilla 
comun. Flowers (flower-heads), German Chamomile; Matri- 
caria, U. S. P., Flores Chamomillae P. G. ; Ger. Kamillen, 
Gemeine Kamillen; bitter tonic, diaphoretic, etc. Source of oil 
of Camomile. In South Africa the flowers of (b) M. glabrdta 
DC. are used as a substitute for German Camomile. 

1286. MAUCHIA, Kze, Bradburya. Compositae. 

Syn. Bradburya, Tor. & Gr., not Kaf. A tall annual. One 
species, southern U. S. 

1287. MAURANDIA, Ortega. Maurandia. Scrophulariaceae* 

Named for Prof. Maurandy of Cartagena, vSpain. Syn. 
Antirrhinum, in part. Herbaceous climbers, often ornamenial. 
About 6 species, Mexico and Texas; 2 in U. S. The common 
Maurandia of gardens is (a) M. antirrhiniflora (Poir. ) Willd. 
(A. maurandioides Gray), native of Texas and Mexico. 

1288. MAY AC A, Aubl. - Mayaca. - Mayacaceae. 

The vernacular name, Guiana. Moss-like aquatic herbs with 
white flowers. About 8 species, warmer regions of New World; 
1 in U. S. 

1289. MAYTENUS, Mol. Maytenus. Celastraceae. 

Evergreen shrubs or trees. About 50 species. New World, 
mostly of S. America; 1 in U. S. 

1290. MEDEOLA, L. Indian Cucumber. Convallariaceae. 

Named after the sorceress Medea. Syn. Gyromia, Nutt. 
Herb with two whorls of leaves from a fleshy rhizome. One 
species, viz. (a) M. Yirginiana L. (G.Virginica Nutt., M. 
Virgin ica Auct. Nova Scotia to Florida. Indian Cucumber, 
Indian Cucumber-root, Medeola. Rhizome diuretic, hydragogue. 

1 291. MEDICAtiO, L. ( Medica ) . Snail Clover, etc. Papilionaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of Lucerne, which was brought from 
' 'Media' ' . Mostly herbs resembling Trifolium. About 50 spe- 
cies. Old W^orld; 7 nat. in U. S. The species ail furnish excel- 
lent pasturage, particularly the last. 

a. M. Ardbica All. [M. maculata Sibth. (Kew)]. Europe, adv. 

inU. S. Spotted Medic (Medick), Spotted Clover, Bur or 
Heart Clover, California Clover, Heart Trefoil, Heart-leaf, 
Purple- grass. 

b. M. arborea L. Europe. Tree-Medic (Medick), Yellow Lu- 

cerne, Moon Trefoil. Plant reputed galactagogue. 

c. M. lupulina L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Black Medic, 

Hop Medic, Black-grass, Black-seed, Hop Clover, Black None- 
such, Nonesuch, Black or Melilot Trefoil, Hop Trefoil, Hornedi 
Clover, Natural-grass, Shamrock*. 



242 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. M. satira L. Central Asia, now widely naturalized. Lucerne, 
Alfalfa v»pplit^ particularly to the Perurian variety), Brazilian 
or Burgundy Clover, Chilian or Spanish Clover. Dutch Clover, 
Snail Clover, Burgundv-hay, Great or Spanish Trefoil: Holy- 
hay, Luciferi. Purple Medic (England). 

12i>2. MEEHANLi, Britton. Meehania. Labiatae. 

Named tor Thomas Meehan, botanist, Philadelphia. Syn. 
Pracocephalum, Cedronella, in part. Herb with large blue 
flowers in secund spikes. One species, southeastern U. S. 

1293. MEG-iPTERIUM, Spach. Primrose* Onasrraceae. 

From Greek, ' "large winged' ' , alluding to the ovary. Syn. 
Oenothera, in part. Perennial herbs with large yellow flowers. 
Three known species, all of southwestern U. S. and Mexico. 

1294. MEIBOMIA, Adans. 1763. Tick-Trefoil. Papilionaeeae. 

Named for Dr. Brandus Meibom. d. 1740. Syn. Desmodium, 
Desv. IS 13: Hedysarum. in part. Herbs, some suflrutescent; 
fruit a loment, the segments of which adhere to clothing. 
About 160 species, America, Africa and Australia: 3S in L'. S. 

a, M. Canadensis (L) Kze. (Hedysarum Canadense L., Desmo- 

dium Canadense DC.) Canada and eastern U. S., Canadian or 
Showy Tick-trefoil, Beggar's- lice. Beggar-ticks; these names 
applied to other species also. A few of the numerous species are 
useful fodder plants, popularly called Clover or Lucerne. 

b. M. grjrans (L. f. '» Lyons (D. gyrans DC, H. gyransL. f. ). 

India and cult, for curiosity. Telegraph plant. Semaphore 
plant. Moving plant. Remarkable for active spontaneous move- 
ments of the leaflets. 

XELALEUCl. seeCAJUPUTL 

1295. MEL.OLPODIUM, L. Melampodium. Compositae. 

The Greek name of Black Hellebore, "black foot", in no way 
applicable to these plants. Herbs, some shrubby. About 25 
species, warmer regions of America; 4 in U. S. 

1296. MELAMFYRUM. L. Cow- Wheat Scrophulariaceae. 

The Greek name, meaning 'black wheat". Annual herbs. 
About 10 species,' northern hemisphere; 2 in V. S. ; Ger. 
Wachtelweizen; Fr. Melampyre. 

a. M. arvense L. Europe. Cow-wheat, Horse-flower, Mother- 
of-wheat. Poverty-weed. Seeds reputed aphrodisiac. Similar 
properties are ascribed to (b) M. sylTaticiun L. of Europe, 
Horse-flower. Root of the latter reputed diuretic. 

1297. MELAMHERA. Kohr. (Melananthera). Compositae. 
From Greek, "black anthered". Suflfrutescent herbs with 

discoid flower heads. About 9 species, warmer r^ions of 
America, some African: 3 in U. S. 

1298. ME LAM Him. L. Melanthium. Melanthaeeae. 

From Greek, "black flower.'' Perennial herbs from thick 
j-kizomes. Three known species, all in eastern U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 243 

a. M. Virginicum L. Rhode Island to Florida, west to Texas and 
Minnesota. Bunch-flower, Black-flower, QuafodiJ. Jt"Ot used 
as a fly poison. 

1299. MELIA, L. Pride of India, etc. Meliaceae. 
From Greek name of Ash tree, which this sf»mewhat resem- 
bles in foliage. Sjn. Azedarach, Azadirachta. Trees wiih pani- 
cled white or lilac flowers: 12 species, India, Australia and 
Oceanica. 

a. M. Azadirachta L. (Azadirachta Indica Jus?., Azedarach 

deleteria Media J. East Indies. Nim tree, Neem tree, Mar- 
gosa Bark tonic, febrifuge. 

b. M. Azedarach L. (Azedarach Commelini Medic., Azed. odora- 

tum Ndronha;. thina to India and widelv cult- and nat. in 
tropical countries. Pride-of- India, Pride-of-China, Azedarach, 
African or Indian Lilac, Lilac tree. Bead-tree, False Sycamore, 
China tree, Holy tree, Hoop-tree ( W. Indies;, VVhiie Cedar 
( Australia j. IPyx/ is called Bastard Cedar. Bark of root nar- 
cotic, cathartic, anthelmintic. 

1300. MELILOTUS, Juss. (MeUilota). Fapilionaceae. 

From Greek, "honey Lotus''. Syn. TrifoUumt, in part. 
Annual or perennial herbs with racemed white or yellow 
flowers. About 20 species. Old World; 2 nat. in U. S. 

a. M. alba Desv. (M. vulgaris Willd.). Europe and Asia. nat. in 

U. S. White Melilot. White MiUeti, White Sweet Clover, 
Honey Lotus, Cabul Clover, Tree or Bokhara Clover, Sweet 
Melilot, Sweet Lucerne. Properties of (b). 

b. M. officinalis ( L. ) Lam. (T. Meli lotus officinalis L., M. arv en- 

sis Wallr., M. diffu-a Kochi, Europe and Asia, sparingly 
nat in U. S. Yellow Melilot, Yellow Millet*, Yellow Sweet 
Clover, Hart's Clover, King's Clover, Plaster Clover, Hart's 
Trefoil, Heartwort. Kings-crown, Whuttle-grass. Wild Labur- 
num (England); Ger. Steinklee, Melilotenklee; Fr. Melilot 
officinal (Codex); Sp. Meliloto, Trebol oloro-o. Floxcering 
tops, Herba Meliloti P. G., H. meliloti citrini. Balsam flowers, 
emollient, local anodyne; rich in coumarin. (c) M. altissimas 
Thuill. of Europe resembles this species and is used in its place. 

1301. MELIXIA, Decne. Melinia Asclepiadaceae. 

Shrubby clinabers. About 6 species, New World, 1 in Ari- 
zona. 

1302. M:ELISSA, L. - Balm. - Labiatae, 

From Greek, "bee". Mint-like herbs. About 8 species, 
Europe and Western Asia. 

a, M. officinalis L. Europe and Asia widely cult., nat. in L'. S. 
Balm I Barm, Bawme i. Lemon Balm. Bee or Garden Balm, 
Blu^^ or Sweet Balm, Balm Mint, Balm-leaf, Cure-all. Dropsy- 
plant, Goose-tongue, Honey-plant, Lemon Lobelia, Pimenta^, 
.Sweet-Mary; Ger. Citronenmelisse, Citronenkraut; Fr. Meli^ 
officinale, Citronelle (Codex), Celine, Herbe au citron; .Sp. 
Toronjil. Herb, Folia Meli>S8e P. G., H. melissse citratae; in 
hot infusion, diaphoretic, emmenagogue. 



244 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1303. MELITTIS, L. 1753. Bastard Balm. Lablatae. 
From Greek, "honey". Syn. Melissophyllon, Adans. 1763. 

Herb with showy flowers. One species, Europe, (a) M. 
Melissophyllum L. (M. melissi^efolium Salisb. ). Bastard 
Balm; formerly reputed diuretic and lithontriptie. 

1304. MELOCHIA, L. Melochia, Sterculiaceae. 

Tomentose herbs or sub-shrubs. About 50 species, tropical 
regions of both hemispheres; 2 in U. S. 

1305. MEL6tHRIA, L. Creeping Cucumber. Ciiciirbitaceae. 

Old Greek plant name. Vines with small monoecious flowers. 
About 65 species, chiefly of Old World; 1 in U. S. (a) M. 
pendula L., of southeastern U. S. to Mexico, is called Creep- 
ing Cucumber. 

1306. MENISPERMUM, L. Moonseed. Meiiispermaceae. 

From Greek, "moon seed", alluding to crescentic shape of 
seeds. Dioecious vines. About 4 species, 3 of eastern Asia; 1 
in U. S. 

a. M. Canadense L. Canada to Georgia, west to Arkansas. 
Canada Moonseed, Yellow Parilla, Texas or Yellow Sarsa- 
parilla. Vine Maple; Ger. Canadisches Mondkorn; Fr. Meni- 
sperme du Canada. Rhizome and roots; Menispermnm, U. S. P., 
bitter tonic, alterative, diuretic. 

1307. MEN0D6rA, Humb. & Bonp. Menodora. Oleaceae. 
From Greek, "gift of power". Syn. Bolivaria, in part. 

Sub-shrubs. About 15 species, mostly of Mexico and adjacent 
region; 6 in U. S. 

1308. MENTHA, L. - Mint. - Labiatae. 
The Latin name of Mint. Syn. Pulegium, in part. Herbs 

with odorous foliage. About 30 species, north temperate zone; 
12 in U. S.; Ger. Minze; Fr. Menthe. 

a. M. arvensis L. Europe, nat. in U.S. Corn Mint, Field Mint^ 

Lamb' s-tongue, Wild Pennyroyal, Water Calamint; Ger. 
Feldminze. Var. piper^scens Malinvaud is the source in part 
of Japanese oil of peppermint, and of menthol. 

b. M. Canadensis L. (M. borealis Michx. ). British America, 

south to \'irginia and N. Mexico. American Wild Mint. 
Var. glabrata Benth. is also a source of Japanese or Chinese 
oil of peppermint and of menthol. 

e. M. citrata Erhr. [M. aquatica L. (Kew)]. Europe, adv. in 

U. S. Bergampt Mint, Bishop's- weed*, Fish Mint. 

d. M. crispa L. (M. aquatica var. crispa Benth.). Europe; adv. 
in U. S. Crisped- leaved Mint, Curled or Cross Mint, Balm 
Mint; Ger. Krauseminze. Leaves of this and of (e) M. crisp- 
ata Schrad., perhaps a variety of (j), are the Folia menthse 
crispje of the P. G. 

f. M. longifolia (L. ) Huds. (M. sylvestris L. 1763 (Kew), M. 

spicata var. longifolia L. 1753). Europe, nat. inU. S. Euro- 
pean Horsemint, Brook Mint, Fish Mint, Water Mint. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 245 

g. M. piperita L. Europe, nat. in U. S. and widely elsewhere. 
Peppermint, Brandy Mint, Lamb Mint, Lammint;Ger. PfefFer- 
minze; Fi. Menthe poivree ( Codex );Sp. Yerba beuna piperita. 
Leaves and tops, Kientha Piperita, U. S. P., Folia Menthae 
piperitae P. G., Herba menthse; carminative, anodyne, stimu- 
lant. Plant yields oil of Peppermint, which consists partly of 
menthol. 

h. M. Piilegiuni L. (P. vulgare Mill.). Europe. European 
Pennyroyal, Brotherwort, Church wort. Flea Mint, Hillwort, 
Lillie-riallJ, Lurkey-dish, Organy, Origan, Pudding-grass, 
Puliall, Puliolroyal; Ger. Polei; Fr. Menthe pouliot, Pouliot 
commun (Codex), Tolilolo;Sp. Poleo. Properties of Hedeoma 
pulegeoides, q. v. 

i. M, rotimdifolia (L. ) Huds. (M. spicata var. rotundifolia L. ). 
Eastern U. S. to Mexico. Kound-leaved Mint, Patagonia 
Mint, Apple Mint, Horsemint*, Wild Mint, Yerba buena 
piperita. 

j, M. spicata L. M. spicata var. viridis L. 1753, M. viridis L. 
1763 (Kew), M. sylvestris var. glabra Koch). Europe, nat. 
in U. S. and widely elsewhere. Spearmint, Mint, Brown or 
Garden Mint, Lamb Mint, Lammint, Mackerel Mint, Our 
Lady's Mint, Saffe-of-Bethlehem; Ger. GriineMinze, Eomische 
Minze; Fr, Menthe verte (Codex), Menthe romaine, Baume 
vert; Sp. Y^'erba buena.. Leaves and tops] Ir. entha Viridis, 
U. S. P., Herba menthae acutse v. romanae; properties of (f ) . 

1309. MENTZELIA, L. Prairie Lily. Loasaceae. 
Named for C. Mentzel, German botanist, d. 1701. Syn. Bar- 

toniaf , in part. Coarse herbs or suffrutescent plants with showy 
white or yellow flowers. About 40 species, warmer regions of 
New World; 27 in U. S. 

a. M. decapetala (Pursh)Urb. & Gilg. (B. decapetalaPurshl812, 
B. ornata Pursh 1814, M. ornata T. & Gr. ). Dakota and 
Montana to Texas. Gunebo Lily, Prairie Lily. 

1310. MENYANTHES, L. Buckbean. Menyaiithaceae. 

Greek plant name. Marsh herb with trifoliate leaves. One 
species, northern hemisphere (U. S. ) 

a. M. trifoliata L. Europe, Asia and north America south to 
Pennsylvania, Minnesota and California. Buckbean, Bog- 
bean, Brook-bean, Bitter- worm, Bog Hop, Bop Myrtle, Bog- 
nut, Bean or Bitter Trefoil, Marsh or Water Trefoil. Marsh 
Clover, Moon-flower* Water Shamrock; Ger. Dreiblatt, Fieber- 
klee, Bitterklee, Bieberkiee, Wasserklee; Fr. Menyanthe, 
Trefle d'eau, (Codex); Sp. Trebal acuatico. Leaves, Folia 
Trifolii fibrini P. G., bitter tonic, alterative, antiscorbutic, em- 
men agogue. 

1311. MENZIESIA, J. E. Smith. Menziesia. Ericaceae. 
Named for Dr. A. Menzies, naturalist of Vancouver's explor- 
ing expedition. Shrubs. About 7 species, N. America and 
Japan; Sin U. S. (a) M. pilosa (Michx. ) Pers. (M. globula- 
ris Salisb. ) is called Minnie-bush. 



246 PLANT NAMES ANT) SYNONYMS 

1312. MERCURIALIS, L. Dog' s Mercury, etc. Euphorbiaceae. 

From Latin, "mercurial plant". Herbs. About 6 species, 
Mediterranean region and eastern Asia; 1 nat. in U. S.; Ger. 
Bingelkraut; Fr. Mercuriale. 

a. M. auiiua L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Mercury herb, French 

Mercury. Leaves cathartic, alterative. 

b. M. perennis L. Europe. Dog's Mercury, Kentish Balsam, 

Bazzard-flower, Bristol-weed, Cheadle, Sapwort. The male 
plant is called Baron's (i. e. barren) Mercury, also Girl's Mer- 
cury, ]VIaiden Mercury, the female plant is Boy's Mercury. 
Properties of (a). 

1313. MERIOLIX, Raf. Primrose*. Oiia^-raceae. 

Syn. Oenothera, in part. Sufirutescent herb with yellow 
flowers. One species, southwestern U. S. and Mexico. 

1314. MERTENSIA, Roth. Lungwort. Bora^inaceae. 

Named for Prof. F. C. Mertens, German botanist. Syn. 
Pulmonaria, in part. Perennial herbs. About 15 species, 
northern hemisphere; 10 in U. S. 

a. M. Yirgrinica (L. ) DC. (M. pulmonarioides Roth. (Kew), P. 
Virginica L. ). Ontario to S. Carolina, west to Kansas and 
Nebraska. Virginia or American Lungwort, Smooth or Tree 
Lungwort, Virginia Cowslip, American Cowslip*, Roanoke 
Bell, Blue-bells*. Herb lenitive, expectorant. 

1315. MESADENIA, Raf. Indian Plantain. Compositae. 

From Greek, "central gland". Syn. Cacalia, Senecio, in part. 
Perennial herbs with small discoid flower-htads. About 12 
species, N. America, 8 in U. S. 

a. M. atriplicifolia ( L. ) Raf. (C. atroplicifoliaL., S. atroplicifol- 

iusHook.). Ontario to Florida, west to Kansas and Minne- 
sota. Pale Indian Plantain, Wild Caraway. Plant emollient. 

b. M. reiiiformis (Muhl. ) Raf. (S. Muhlenbergii Sch. (Kew), 

C. reniformis Muhl.). New Jersey to Minnesota and south- 
ward. Great Indian Plantain, Wild Collard. 

1316. MESEMBRYANTHEMUM, L. Aizoidaceae. 

From Greek, "midday flower". Syn. Mesembryum, Adans. 
Fleshy-leaved plants, some cactus-like. About 300 species, 
warmer regions mostly of Old World, especially Africa; 3 nat. 
in U. S. 

a. M. crystallinuin L. South Africa, nat. in southern Europe and 

in California. Ice-plant, Diamond Fig, Diamond-plant; Ger. 
Eiskraut; Fr. Glaciale, Cristalline. Plant diuretic, emollient. 

b. M. edule L. S.Africa. Hottentot's Fig. Fruit ed'ihle. 

1317. MESOSPHAERUM,P.Br. 1756. Mesosphaerum. Labiatae. 
Syn. Hyptis, Jacq. 1786. Herbs or shrubs. About 250 spe- 
cies, warmer regions of New World, especially in Brazil; 4 in 

U.S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 247 

1318. MESPILUS, L. - Medlar. - Poiiiaceae. 

From ancient Greek name of (a). Syn. Pyrus, in part. 
Shrubs or small trees. One or two species, Europe and Asia. 

a. M. Germanica L. [P. Germanica J. Hook. (Kew)]. Europe 
and western Asia. Medlar, English or Dutch Medlar, Medle. 
tree, Hosedoup, liowdoup, Marie. Fruit edible. 

1319. METASTELMA, K. Br. Metastelma. Asclepiadaceae.. 

Shrubby climbers with small or minuteWhite flowers. About 
40 species, warmer regions of New World; 6 in U. S. 

1320. METHYSTICUM, Kaf. 1738. Kavakava. Piperaceae* 

From Greek, "intoxicating". Syn. Macropiper, Miq, 1739; 
Piper (Kew), in part. Succulent shrubs with ample foliage. 
About 6 species, Polynesia. 

a. M. excelsiim (Forst. ) Lyons (P. excelsum Forst., P. methysti- 

cum L., not Forst., Mac. excelsum Miq.). New Zealand to 
Australia. New Zealand Toothache-tree, KaAvakawa tree. 

Boot analgesic. 

b. M. methysticum (Forst.) Lyons (P. methysticum Forst,, Mac. 

metbysticum Miq,, Mac. latifolium Miq. fide Hillebr., Meih. 
esculentum Kaf.). Polynesian Islands. Kavakava, Awa, 
Ava, Kawa. Moot intoxicant, analgesic, local anesthetic. 

1321. METROSIBEROS, Banks 1788. Lehua, etc Myrtaceae. 

From Greek, "iron womb". Syn. Nani, Adans. 1763, Nania, 
Miq. 1855. Trees or shrubs, some climbers, with showy flowers. 
About 10 species, Oceanica to Australia. 

a. M. polymorpha Gaud. (M. lutea Gray, M. spectabilis Gaertn. , 
etc. ). Polynesian Islands, Hawaii to Viti. The Lehua of 
Hawaiian song. The similar (b) M. tomeiitosa Cunn. of 
New Zealand is known as Fire-tree. Both are large trees with 
crimson (sometimes yellow) tassel-like flowers and very hard 
durable timber, (c) M. vera Lind. (Nania vera Miq. ) is the 
Iron-tree of Java. 

1322. METr6xYL0N, Rottb. 1783. Sago Palm. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, "womb wood", meaning probably pith wood, 
yn. Sagus, Kumph. 1788. Lar 
Malay archepelago to Fiji islands. 

a. M. Riimphii (Willd. ) Mart. (S. Rumphii Willd., S. genuina 

Blume). East Indies. Prickly Sago Palm. Starch from in- 
terior of trunk is SagO, U. S. P. 1870; Fr. Sagou (Codex); Sp. 
Sagii. 

b. M. Sagu Rottb. (M. Sago Koen., M. Sagus Spreng., M. laeve 

Mart., S. lajvis Blume). East Indies. Spineless Sago Palm. 
Chief source of the sago of commerce. ( Sago or sagu is the 
Papuan word for "bread" ). 

1328. MEUM, Adans. Spignel, ite. Umbelliferae. 

The ancient Greek name. Herbs. One, possibly 2 or 3, spe- 
cies, Mediterranean region. 



248 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

A. M. Athamanticum Jacq. Europe. Spignel (Spicknel, Spike- 
nel, Speknel, Spike-nail), Spignet, Baldmoney (Badmoney), 
Bawdmoney, Bearwort, Honka, Mew, Micken. Boot, Radix 
mei (athainantici), Bad. anethi ursini; Ger. Barwurzel, Herz- 
wurzel, Mutterwurzei, Barendillwurzel; carminative, stomachic, 
emmenagogue. 

1324. MICHELIA, L. Champaca. Magnoliaceae. 

Named for Micheli, Florentine botanist early in I8th Century. 
8yn. Cha paca, Adans. Trees. About 15 species, tropical 
and mountainous Asia. 

a. M. Champaca L. (C. Michelia Noronha, M. suaveolens Pers., 
M. Blumei Steud. ). India. Chumpaka or Champak tree, 
sacred to Vishnu. Moot bitter, tonic. Flowers exceedingly 
fragrant. 

1326. MICRAMPELIS, Eaf. Wild Balsam-apple. Cucurbitaceae. 

From Greek, "small grapevine" . Syn. Echinocystis, T. & 
Gr. ; Megarrhiza, Momordica, Sicyos, in part. Herbaceous 
vines. About 25 species. New World; 9 in U. S. 

«,. M. fabacea (Naud. ) Greene (Meg. Californica Tor.) and (b) 
M. Marali (W^ats. ) Greene (Meg. Marah Wats. ), both of Cali- 
fornia, are called Big-root, Bitter-root, and Yerba marra. Seeds 
called chilli coyote. 

c. M. lobata (Michx.) Greene (S. lobata Michx., E. lobata Tor, tfc 
Gr., Mom. echinata Muhl., Mic. echinata Raf. ). Ontario 
to Texas. Wild Balsam-apple, Mock Orange*, Creeper, Creep- 
ing-Jenny. 

1326. MICRANTHEMUM, Michx. Scropliulariaceae. 

From Greek, "small flowered". Small glabrous annuals. 
About 16 species, New World; 2 in U. S. 

1327. MICR6caLA, Link. Microcala. Geiitianaceae. 

From Greek, "little beauties". Slender herbs. Two spe- 
cies, one of Europe, one of N. and S. America ( U. S. ) 

1328. MICROMERIA, Benth. 1829. Yerba Buena. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "small parts". Syn. Piperella, Presl. 1826, 

Low herbs, some shrubby. About 75 species, mostly of Old 
World, a few in America; 3 in U. S. 

A. M. Chamissonis (Benth."* Greene (M. Douglassii Benth. 
(Kew), M. barbata, Fisch, & Meyer). Pacific Coast of U. S. 
Yerba buena (Spanish name for Mint). Plant diaphoretic, 
febrifuge. Similar properties are ascribed to (b) M. obovata 
Benth., West Indian Islands, called All-heal. 

1329. MICRORHAMNUS, Gray. Microrhamnus. Rhamnaceae. 

From Greek, "small Buckthorn". Shrub. One species, 
Texas to New Mexico. 

1330. MICR6SERIS, Don. Microseris. Ciclioriaceae. 

From Greek, "little Endive". Herbs with scape- like ped- 
uncles, flowers yellow. About 20 species, mostly of N.Amer- 
ica: 15 in California. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 249 

a. M. Forsteri J. Hook. Australia and New Zealand. Native 
Scorzonera, Root esculent. 

1331. MILLA, Cav. (Millea). Milla. Liliaceae. 
Herbs with cylindrical hollow leaves. About 20 species, 

New World; 1 in U. S. 

1332. MIM(3SA, L. Mimosa, etc. Mimosaceae. 

From Greek, * 'mimic". Herbs, shrubs or trees. About 280 
species, warmer parts of America, Africa and Asia; 16 in U. S. 

a. M. piidica L. South America, now widely naturalized in sub- 
tropical countries. Sensitive-plant, Humble-plant, Touch- 
weed. The Wild Sensitive-plant of Texas is (b) M. strigil- 
losa T. & Gr. 

1333. MIMCLUS, L. Monkey-flower. . Scrophulariaceae. 

Latin, diminutive of /wj'mjts, an "actor". Herbs with pink, 
violet or yellow flowers, commonly showy. About 50 species. 
New World; 41 in U. S. 

a, M. moscliatus Dougl. Pacific coast of U. S. Musk-flower, 
Musk plant, Vegetable Musk. Plant has a musk-like odor. 

1334. MIMUSOPS, L. Balata, etc. Sapotaceae. 

From Greek, "ape's face". Syn. Achras, Sapota, in part. 
Trees or shrubs with milky juice. About 30 species, tropical 
regions of Old and New World. 

a. M. elata Allem. Para. Cow tree. Milk sap resembles cow's 
milk, (b) M. Elengi L. of India yields an edible fruit and a 
6ar/: which is tonic and astringent, (c) M. Sieberi DC. (A. 
Zapotilla var. parviflora Nutt. ), W^est Indies to Key AVest, is 
called W^ild Dilly; fruit eaten by birds. 

d. M. globosa Gaertn. (M. Balata Crueg., A. Balata Aublet, S. 
Mueller! Belkrode). Oronoco and Amazon valleys. Balata or 
Bully tree ( Bulletrie, Bolletrie, Bullet tree ) . Exudate is Chicle, 
Balata or Tuno gum; Leche de popa, now largely used in the 
manufacture of chewing gum. 

1335. MIRABILISjL. (originally Admirabilis). Nyctagiiiaceae. 
Latin, "wonderful". Ornamental heibs, from fleshy tubers. 

About 15 species, warmer regions of America; 9 in U. S. ; Ger. 
Wunderblume; Fr. Belle de nuit. 

a, M. Jalapa L. (M. Jalappa Thunb. ). S. America, commonly 
cult, in gardens. Marvel-of-Peru, Four-o'clock, World' s- 
wonder, Afternoon-ladies, Beauty-of-the-night. Boots, known 
as Metalista root or False Jalap, reputed cathartic. 

1336. MITCHELLA, L. Partridge-berry. Rubiaceae. 
Named for Dr. John Mitchell, botanist of Virginia, 18th 

Century. Creeping, evergreen herbs with flowers in pairs. 
Two species, one of S. America, one in U. S. 

a. M. repens L. Canada to Florida, west to Texas and Minne- 
sota, also in Japan. Partridge-berry, Squaw-vine, Twin-berry, 
Checker-berry, Chicken-berry, Cow-berry, Deer-berry, Box- 



250 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

berry, Fox-berry, Hive-vine, Partridge- vine, Winter Clover, 
Wild Running Box, One-berry, I'igeon-berry, Snake-berry, 
Two-eyed berries. Squaw Plum. Plant tonic, astringent, par- 
turifacient, etc. 

1337. MITELLA, L. Mitrewort, Bisbop's-cap. Saxifragaceae. 

Latin, dim. of miira, "a cap". Perennial berbs, witb slen- 
der racemes of small flowers. About 10 species, N. America 
and eastern Asia; 9 in U. S. 

a. M. (lipliylla L. Canada to N. Carolina, west to Missouri. 
Mitrewort, Common or Two-leaved Mitrewort, Bisbop's-cap, 
Currant-leaf, False Sanicle, Fairy-cup, Fringe-cup. Leaves 
astringent, diuretic, 

1338. MITRACARPUM, Zucc. (Mithracarpus). Riibiaceae. 

From Greek, "turban fruit". Herbs. About 30 species, 
mostly of tropical America, a few African; 1 in U. S. 

1339. MODIOLA, Moench. Modiola. MaHaeeae. 
From Latin modiolus, an ancient Koman measure. A small 

mallow-like herb. One variable species, warmer regions of 
America and S. Africa (U. S. ) 

1340. MOEHRINGIA, L. Sandwort. Caryophyllaceae. 

Named for P. H. G. Moehring, naturalist of fJanzig. Syn. 
Arenaria (Kew), in part. Low herbs. About 20 species, 
northern hemisphere; 2 in U. S. 

1341. MOENCHIA, Ehrh. Pearlwort. Caryophyllaceae. 

Kamed for Prof. Konrad Moench of Marburg. Syn. Ceras- 
tium (Kew), in part. Low herbs. About 3 species, Medi- 
terranean region; 1 adv. in U. S. 

1342. MOGIPHANES, Mart. Mogiphanes. Amaranthaceae. 

From Greek, ''hard to see". Herbs. About 12 species, 
warmer regions New World; 2 in U. S. 

1343. MOHAVEA, Gray. Mohavea. Scrophulaiiaceae. 

Named from the river near which the plant was discovered. 
Viscid-pubescent herb. One species, Arizona to southern Cali- 
fornia. 

1344. MOHRODENDRON, Brit. Snowdrop tree. Styracaceae. 

Named for Dr. Charles Mohr, botanist of Alabama. Syn. 
Halesia, in part. Shrubs or small trees with drooping bell- 
shaped flowers. About 4 species, southeastern U. S. 

a. M. Caroliuum (L.) Brit. (H. tetraptera L. 1762 (Kew), H. 
Carolina L. 1759). Virginia to Florida, west to Illinois. Sil- 
ver-bell, Snowdrop tree. Bell tree. Wild Olive tree, Calico- wood, 
Shittim-wood, Tiss-wood. Some of these names apply also to 
(b) M. dipterum (Ell.) Brit. ^H. dipterum Ell.). 

1345. MOLLl^GO, L. Carpet- weed. Aizuaceae. 
Low herbs, usually with whorl ed leaves. About 12 species, 

mostly tropical; 2 in U. S. 

a. M. verticillata L. Eastern U. S. and widely distributed as a 
weed. Carpet- weed, Indian Chick weed. Devil' s-grip. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 251 

1346. MOLUCCELLA, L. (Molucca). Shell-flower. Labiatae. 
Xamed (in error) from Molucca Islands, Herbs with large 

bell-shaped calyx. About 2 species, Mediterranean region. 
(a) M. laevis L., western Asia, often cult, in gardens, is called 
, Shell-flower or Molucca Balm. 

1347. M0iM6KmCA, L. Balsam Apple. Cuciirbitaceae. 

From Latin, "chewed", alluding to appearance of the seeds. 
Climbing herbs. About 25 species, tropical regions of Old 
World; 2 adv. in U. S. (a) M. Balsamiua L. (M. Charantia 
Desc. ). Tropical countries generally. Balsam Apple, Balsam 
vine, Balsamina. Root and fruit cathartic, emetic. Seedtf 
vulnerary, (b) M. Charantia L. (M. Balsamina Desc.) is 
the similar Balsam Pear; East Indies and widely cult. 

1348. MOXARBAyL. Horsemint, Wild Bergamot, etc. Labiatae. 
Named for N. Monardes, Spanish botanist, 16th Century. 

Aromatic herbs with rather large flowers in capitate clusters. 
About 12 species, N. America; 11 in U. S. 

a. M. didyma L. (M. coccinea Michx. ). Canada to Georgia and 

Michigan. Oswego Tea, American Bee Balm, Rose Balm, Low 
Balm, Bed or Scarlet Balm, Mountain Mint, Horsemint-,. 
Indian' s-plume; Sweet-Mary, Square-stalk. 

b. M. punctata L. Xew York to Florida, west to Texas and 

Wisconsin. Horsemint, American Origanum, Rignumj, Mon- 
arda;Ger. Pferdeminze; Fr. Menthe de cheval. Herb, as in 
other species, diaphoretic, diuretic, carminative, emmenagogue. 
Source of oil of Monarda. (c) M. citriodora Cerv. (M. aris- 
tataNutt. ), Nebraska to Texas and Arizona, is called Lemon 
Monarda or Prairie Bergamot; (d) M. flstulosa L. (M. mollis 
L. ), Ontario and eastern U. S., is Wild Bergamot; called also 
Oswego Tea and Horsemint. 

1349. MOXESES, Salisb. One-flowered Pyrola. Pyrolaceae. 

From Greek, "single delight' ', alluding to the solitary flower. 
Syn. Pyrola, in part. Perennial evergreen herb. One species, 
(a) M. uniflora (L. ) Gray (M. grandifloraS. F, Gray (Kew), 
P. uniflora L. ). Europe, Asia and N. America. One-flowered 
Wintergreen, One-flowered Pyrola. 

1350. MONNIER A,P. Br. 1755.Hedge- Hyssop. Scrophulariaeeae. 
Named for Prof. L. Guillaume le Monnier, French botanist, 

d. 1799. Syn. Herpestis, Gaertn. 1805, also Limosella, 
Gratiola, Matourea, Obolaria, in part. Herbs. About 60 spe- 
cies, warmer regions of both hemispheres; 7 in U. S. 

1351. MONSO A, R. & P. Monnina. Polygalaceae. 

Herbs or shrubs. About 50 species. South America, (a) 
M. polystachya R. & P. Peru. South American Polygala. 
Moot bark astringent and detergent, containing saponin. 

1352. «I0N0D6rA, Dunal. Calabash Nutmeg. Anonaceae. 
From Greek, "single gift". Syn. Anona, in part. Trees 

with large woody fruit and aromatic seeds*. About 6 species^ 
natives of Africa. 



252 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a, 31. Myristica (Gaertn. )Dunal (A.MyristicaGaertn. )• Jamaica, 
probably introduced from Africa. Calabash Nutmeg; Amer- 
ican, Mexican, Guinea or Jamaica Nutmeg. Seeds having 
flavor and use of Nutmegs. 

1363. M0N6lEPIS, Schrad. Monolepis. Chenopodiaceae. 

From Greek, "one scale", alluding to the single scale-like 
sepal. Syn. Blitum, in part. Low herbs resembling Chenopo- 
dium. About 4 species, northern Asia and western N, Amer- 
ica; 3 in U. S. 

1354. M0X0L6pIA, DC. " Monolopia. Compositae. 

From Greek, "single husk", alluding touniserial involucre. 
White-woolly annuals with yellow flowers. Three species. 
Pacific border of U. S. 

1355. M0N6pTIL0N, Tor. & Gr. Monoptilon. Compositae. 

From Greek, "single feather", alluding to pappus. A small 
desert annual. One species, California to Utah. 

1356. M0N6tR0PA, L. Indian- Pipe. Monotropaceae. 

From Greek, "singly nodding", descriptive of the flower. 
Syn. Monotropion. Low saprophytes, bearing a single nodding 
flower at the summit of a soaly scape. Two species, widely 
distributed; 1 in U. S. 

a. M. imiflora L. British America, U. S. throughout, Mexico, 
Japan and southeastern Asia. Indian-pipe, American Ice- 
plant, Corpse-plant, Ghost-flower, Pipe-plant, Dutchman' s- 
pipe*. Fairy-smoke, Eye-bright*, Nest-root, Bird's-nest plant, 
Fit-root, Convulsion-root, Convulsion-weed, Ova-ova. 

1357. MONOTROPSIS, Schwein. 1817. Monotropaceae. 

From Greek, "Monotropa-like" . Syn. Schweinitzia, Nutt, 
1818. Saprophytes. Two species, southeastern U. S. (a) M. 
odorata Ell. (S. odorata DC. (Kew), S. Caroliniana Don.) 
of Maryland and N. Carolina is the rare Sweet Pine-sap, called 
also Carolina Beech-drops. 

1358. MOJiTIA, L. Water Chickweed, etc. Portulacaceae. 

Nanjed for G. Monti, Italian botanist, 18th Century. Low 
annual herbs. About 5 species, colder regions of both hemi- 
spheres; 2 in U. S. (Heller includes in this genusjfmany spe- 
cies referred by others to Clayton ia. ) 

a. M. fontana L. Northern U. S. and widely distributed. Wa- 
ter Chickweed, Blinking Chickweed, Blinks, W^ater-blinks. 

1359. MORINDA, L. Indian Mulberry. Rubiaceae. 
From Latin, "Indian mulberry". Trees or shrubs, some 

climbers. About 40 species, warmer regions, particularly of 
Old World. 

a. M. tinctoria Koxb. (M. citrifolia Hunt., not L. ). India to 
Australia. Indian Mulberry, Al tree. Bark and roofs (Ach- 
root, Al-root) yield a red dye, as do those of (b) M. Royoc 
L. (M. umbellata L. (Kew), M. Kojoc Lour.), WeSt Indies 
and Florida, called Yaw- weed, (c) M. citrifolia L. is the 
Noni of the Polynesian Islands; pulp of fruit used as a hair- 
dressing. 



SCIENTIFIC AXD POPULAR. 253 

1360. MORINGA, Juss. Ben nut. Moringaceae. 

From vernacular name, Malabar. Syn. Guilandinat, in part. 
Trees. Three known species, N. Africa, western Asia and East 
Indies. 

a. M, aptera Gaertn. ( M. Arabica Pers. ) . Arabia to Abyssinia. 

Behen. Seeds source of true oil of Ben. 

b. M. ptery^ospernia Gaertn. (M. oleifera Lam., G. MoringaL. ). 

Horseradish tree. Boot has pungency of horseradish. Seeds, 
Ben nuts, Behen nuts, yield oil of Ben which is bitter, acrid 
and purgative. Wood, Lignum nephriticum, formerly used in 
kidney complaints. 

1361. MORONGIA, Brit. 1894. Sensitive Brier. Mimosaceae. 

Named for the late Rev. Thomas Morong, Amei ican botanist. 
Syn. Schrankia, AVilld., not Medic; Leptoglottis, Mimosa, in 
part. Prickly herbs or shrubs. About 10 species, warmer 
regions of America, 1 in Africa; 6 in U. S. 

a, M. iincinata (Willd. ) Brit. (S. uncinata Willd., Mimosa Intsia 
Walt. ) Virginia to Nebraska and southward. Sensitive Brier, 
Sensitive Rose, Shame- vine. (b) M. angiistata (T. & G.) 
Brit., southeastern U. S., Narrow-leaved Sensitive Brier, is 
also called Sensitive-plant*. 

1362. M0RON6bEA, Aubl. Hog-gum tree. Guttiferae. 

From vernacular, Guiana. Trees. Two known species, S. 
America and the West Indies. 

a. M. coccinea Aublet. Brazil and West Indian Islands. Hog- 
gum tree. Resinous exudate, Hog gum. Doctor gum, Mani, 
Onani; terebinthinate, vulnerary. See Cochlospermum and 
Rhus. 

1363. MORTOSIA, Gray. Mortonia. Celastraeeae. 

Shrubs. About 5 species, Mexico and borders; 3 in U. S. 

1364. MORUS, L. - Mulberry. . Moraceae. 
Ancient Latin name of Mulberry. Trees or shrubs with 

succulent aggregate fruits. About 10 species, northern hemi- 
sphere; 2 in L^. S. 

a. M. alba L. China, now widely cult, and nat. White Mulberry, 

Sycamine, Silkworm tree. Leaves the chief food of the silk- 
worm. 

b. M. nigra L. Southern Russia and Persia, widely cult. Black 

Mulberry; Ger. Maulbeerbaum; Fr. Murier; Sp. Moras. Fruit 
esculent: juice, Succus mororum, refrigerant. Bark of root 
tffinicide. » 

c. M. riibra L. Ontario to S. Dakota, south to Florida and Texas. 

Red Mulberry, American Mulberry. Properties of (b. ) 

1365. MUCtJNA, Adans. 1768. Cowhage. Papilionaceae* 

From vernacular, Brazil. Syn. Carpopagon, Dolichos, 
Stizolobium, P. Br. 1756, in part. Climbers with thick 
leathery pods. About 25 species, tropical regions of Old and 
New Worlds. 



254 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS^ 

a. M. priiriens (L.) DC. (D. pruriens, L., S. pruriens Medic, C. 
pruriens Roxb., M. prurita Hook.). East aud West Indies. 
ASecds are called Sea-beans, Asses' -eyes, Donkey' s-eyes. Hairs 
from the pods, Cowhage (Cowage, Cowetch); Setae v. Lanugo 
siliquae hirsutae; Ger. Kratzbohnen, Kuhkratze; Fr. Pois 
velas, Pois a gratter; Sp. Pica-pica; formerly reputed anthel- 
mintic, (b) M, lirens Medic. (S. urens Pers. ) of S. America 
has the same properties. 

1366. MUILLA, S. Wats. Muilla. Liliaceae. 
Anagram of Allium. Syn. Allium!, in part. Perennial 

herbs resembling Allium but without the characteristic odor of 
that genus. Three species, Pacific coast of U. S. 

1367. MUSA, L. - Banana. - Musaceae. 
Syn. Ensete, in part. Gigantic herbs, the leafstalks forming 

a trunk often more than a foot in diameter. About 25 species, 
tropical regions. 

a. M, Chineiisis Sweet (M. Cavendishii Lamb., M. regiaRumph., 
M. nana Lour.), Chinese Banana; (b) M. paradisaica 
L., Plantain, Adam's Apple; (c) M. sapientum L., Common 
Banana (many varieties), Adam's Fig, (d) M. Simiarum 
Rumph. (M. corniculata Lour., M. acuminata Coll.), Pisang. 
These closely related species yield valuable esculent fruits. 

«. M, textilis Nee. Philippine Islands. Abaca, Abaka. Fibre 
from leaf stalks is Manila Hemp, (f) M. Eiisete.L F. Gmel. 
(E. edule Bruce) of northeastern Africa, Bruce's Banana, is 
often planted for ornament in California and the southern States. 
Fruit in these species not edible. 

1368. MUSCARI, Mill. Grape Hyacinth. Liliaceae. 

Late Latin, said to mean "musky". Syn. Hyacinthu«if, in 
part. Bulbous scapose herbs. About 40 species, Old World; 
2 adv. in U. S. (a) M. botryoides (L. )Mill. (H. botryoides 
L. ). Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S., is the Common Globe 
Hyacinth, Pearls-of-Spain, Blue-bell*. (b) M. comosum 
Mill. Europe. A cultivated variety is called Feather Hya- 
cinth, Purple-tassels, Purse-tassels, Tuzzimuzzy. 

1369. MDSENI6pSIS, C. & R. Museniopsis. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "resembling Musenium". Herbs. One spe- 
cies in Texas. 

1370. MUSiSEON, Raf. 1820. Musineon. Umbelliferae. 

Greek name of "Fennel" . Syn. Adorium Raf. 1825, Muse- 
nium, Nutt. 1840; Seseli, in part. Resiniferous perennials. 
Three species, northeastern U. S. 

1371. MUTISIA, L. f. - Mutisia. - Compositae. 

Named for Jose Celestino Mutis, South American botanist, d. 
1808. Erect or climbing shrubs, many highly ornamental. 
About 36 species. South America. 

a. M. riciaefolia Cavan. Chili. Flowers anti-spasmodic, sedative, 
cardiac, tonic. 



i 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 255 

1372. MYGINDA, Jacq. 1760. Myginda. Celastraceae. 

Syn. Crossopetalum, P. Br. 1756, Rhacoma, L. 1759. 
Shrubs. About 8 species, warmer regions, New World: 4 in 
U. S. 

1373. MYOSITIS, L. Forget-me-not, etc. Boraginaceae. 

From Greek, "mouse-ear". Low herbs with flowers in one- 
sided racemes. About 35 species; 4 in U. S. Syn. Scorpion- 
grass, Mouse-ear. 

a. M. paliistris (L. ) Lam. (M. scorpioides, var. palustris L. ). 
Europe and Asia, cult, and nat. in U. S. Forget-me-not, 
Mouse-ear, Scorpion-grass, Marsh Scorpion-grass, Snake-grass, 
Caterpillars, Love-me. 

1374. MYOStJRUS, L. Mouse-tail. Ranunculaceae. 

From Greek, "Mouse-tail", alluding to form of receptacle. 
Low annual herbs. About 6 species, America and Australia; 5 
in U. S. (a) M. miuimiis L. , Small Mouse-tail, is called also 
Blood-strange. 

1376. MYRICA, L. Wax Myrtle, etc. Myrtaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of Tamarisk. Syn. Gale, Adana, 
Shrubs or small trees. About 35 species; 7 in U. S. 

a. M. Carolinensis Mill. Canada to Florida. Waxberry, Bay- 

berry, with other synonyms of (b). Fruit abounds in wax, 
formerly used for candles, etc. 

b. iVi, cerifera L. Maryland to Florida, west to T-^xas and 

Arkansas. Wax Myrtle, Bay berry. Tallow Bayberry, Candle- 
berry, Candle-berry Myrtle, Waxberry, Tallow shrub; Ger. 
Wachsmyrtel, Wachsbaum, Wachsgagel; Fr. Arbre k suif; Sp. 
Arbol del la cera. Fruit source of American vegetable wax or 
tallow (^myrtle wax, bayberry tallow), which is said to have 
astringent and mildly narcotic properties. 

c. M, Gale L. (G. Belgioa Dum. ) . Europe, Asia and N. America, 

south to Virginia, Michigan and Washington. Sweet Gale, 
Burren Myrtle, Bog or Devonshire Myrtle, Dutch or Moor 
Myrtle, Bay-bush, Fern Galef, Meadow Fern*, Gall-bush, Gold- 
en Osier, Golden Withy, Gonle, Goyle, Meadow-bura, Moss 
Wythan, Sweet Willow, Wild Suraacf; Ger. Gagel, Brabanter 
Myrte; Fr. Piraent royal, Galeodorant. Leatrs and 6mc/s altera- 
tive, tonic, vulnerary. 

1376. MYRIOPYLLUM, L. Water Milfoil. Haloragidaceae. 

From Greek, "myriad leaved". Aquatic herbs. About 20 
species; 11 in U. S. (a) M. spicatuni L. may serve as a type 
of the genus. Spiked Water-Milfoil, Meakin, Navelwort, Wa- 
ter Navelwort. 

1377. MYRISTICA, L.1742. Nutmeg. Myristicaceae. 

From Greek, "tit for anything". Syn. Palala, Kumph. 1741. 
Aromatic trees. About 90 species, tropical Asia and America. 

a. W. Bicuhyba Schott. (M. officinalis Mart.).] Brazil. Seeds 
source of Becuiba Tallow. 



256 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. M, frag'rans Houtt. (P. fragrans (Houtt. ) O. Kze., M. moschata 

Thunb., M. aromatica Swz., M. officinalis L. fils.). Molucca 
Islands, now cult, in many tropical countries. Nutmeg tree. 
Seeds, Nutmegs; Myristica. U. S. P., Br. Semen myristicae 
P. G., Nux moschata, Nuces nucistc^; Ger. Muskatnuss, Mos- 
chatenuss, Myristicasamen; Fr. Muscade (Codex), Noix mus- 
cade; Sp. Nuez mosedda. AriUoidoi fruity Mace; Macis. U. S.P.; 
Arilliis myristicae, Flores macidis; Ger. Muskatbliithe, Muskat- 
blumen; Fr. Macis (Codex), Fleur de Muscade; Sp. Macias. 
Aromatic, carminative, narcotic. From nutmegs is obtained 
the volatile oil of Nutmeg and the expressed oil, Nutmeg butter. 
Mace also yields volatile oil. 

c. M, fatiia Houtt. Molucca Islands. The seerfs are the Long, Wild 

or Male Nutmegs of commerce. 

d. M. Otoba Humb. & Bonp. Northwestern S. America. Seeds 

source of Otoba butter. 

1378. MYRRHIS, Scop. 1772. Sweet Chervil. Umbelliferae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Lindera, Adans. 1763. Aro- 
matic herbs. Perhaps only one species. See Glycosma, 

a. M. odorata Scop. Europe and Asia Minor. Sweet Chervil, 
Sweet Angelica, Sweet Bracken, Sweet Cicely (of Europe), 
Sweet Cess or Cisley, Sweet Fernf, Sweet Humlock, Myrrhf, 
Spanish Chervil; Ger. Korbelkraut. Root aromatic, carmina- 
tive; used also in salads, etc. 

1379. MYRSIINE, L. - Myrsine. - Myrsinaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of Myrtle. Trees or shrubs. About 
80 species, warmer regions of Old and New World; 1 in U. S. 

1380. MYRTUS, L. - Myrtle. - Myrtaceae. 

The ancient Greek name of (a). Shrubs. About 100 spe- 
cies, mostly of S. America, some of Australia and Asia. 

a. M. commiinis L. Western Asia, nat. in southern Europe. 
Myrtle, Common Myrtle (Mirtle, Mirtil), Bridal Myrtle, 
Dutch Myrtle, Jew's Mvrtle; Ge.; Fr. Myrte. Leaves arom- 
atic, astringent, antiseptic, (b) M. Arragon Kunth of Mexico 
is there used as a substitute for the European Myrtle. [Sever- 
al species of Myrtus yield edible fruits, e. g. (c) M. iiiiin- 
miilaria Poiret of Ch>li and Falkland Islands, Cranberry 
Myrtle; (d) M, tomentosa Ait. of India and China, and (e) 
M, tJgni Mol., the Chilian Guava.] ;J 

1381. NABALUS, Cass. Rattlesnake-root, etc. Clclioriaceae. 

From vernacular Indian name. Syn. Prenanthes, Harpalyce, 
in part. Perennial herbs with heads consisting of a few ligul- 
ate liowers. About 20 species, America and Asia; 11 in U. S. 

a. ]S. albus (L.)Hook. (P. alba L. (Kew), H. album Don). 
Canada to Georgia and Kentucky. Rattlesnake-root, White 
Lettuce, Cancer- weed, White Canker- weed, Lion's-foot. Root 
bitter, tonic, reputed antidote to snake poison. 



SCIE.NTIFlf AND TOPULAK. 2o7 

b. N. altisiinns (L. ) Hook. [P. altissima L. (Kew)]. Tall White 
Lettuce, Lion's-foot, Rattlesrake-root, Bird-bell. Properties 

of (a). 

e. N. serpentariiis (Pursh) Hook. (P. serpentaria Pursh (Kew), 
N. Fraseri DC. ). Ontario to Florida. Gall-of-the-earth, Rat- 
tlesnake-root, Lion's-foot, Snake Gentian, White Lettuce, 
Canker- weed. Properties of (a). 

1382. NAIAS, L. Water-Nymph. Naiadaceae. 

From Greek, ''water-nymph". ' Submerged aquatic plants. 
About 10 species; 5 in U. S. 

1383. NAMA, L. 1753. Nama. Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, a "stream", alluding to the habitat. Syn. 
Hydrolea L. 1762. Perennial herbs, some shrubby, with blue 
flowers. About 15 species, warmer regions, both hemispheres; 
4 in U. S. 

IS AM, see METROSIDEROS. 

1384. NAPAEA, L. Glade Mallow. Malvaceae. 
Frona Greek, a ''wooded vale", alluding to the habitat. A 

perennial herb with small white dioecious flowers. One spe- 
cies, eastern LT. S. 

1385. NARCISSUS, L. Narcissus. Amaryllidaceae. 

The ancient Greek name, "narcotic". Syn. Jonquilla, Scap- 
ose herbs from coated bulbs. About 20 species, mostly Furop- 
ean. 

a. N. Pseiido-Narcissiis L. (J. bicolor Raf. ). Europe. Daflb- 
dil (Dilly, Daflbdilly, Averil), Trumpet Daffodil, Bell-flower, 
Chalice- flower. Cowslip, Yellow Crowbells, Easter or Yellow 
Lily, Lide-Lily, Queen Anne's flower; Ger. Gelbe Narcisse, 
Aftbdil; Fr. Narcisse des pres, Porillon. ^{(/6 and/ower emet- 
ic, antispasmodic. 

Common in cultivation are also (b) N. Jonquilla L., south- 
ern Europe, Jonquil, Yellow Jack; (c) N. Biilbocoduim 
L., Mediterranean region, Hoop-petticoat Daffodil; (d) N. 
iucoinpai'abilis Mill. (N. aurantius Schult. ), Europe, some- 
times called in England Butter- and- eggs or Eggs-and-bacon ; (e) 
N. poeticiis L. (J. poetarumHaw. ), Europe, Poet's Narcis- 
sus, Asphodel, AVhite-dillies, Laus-tibi, Sweet-Nancy, White- 
Nancy; (f) N. TazettaL. (N. polyanthos Loisel., J. Tazetta 
Raf.), Europe, Polyanthus Narcissus. Var. orlentalis (N. 
orientalis L. ) is the Chinese Sacred Lily or New-year's Lily. 

1386. NARDOSTACHYS, DC. Spikenard. Valerianaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Valeriana, in part. A fra- 
grant herb. One species. 

a. N. Jatamansi (Roxb. ) DC. (V. Jatamansi Roxb. ; includes 
N. grandiflora DC). Himalaya mountains. Spikenard (of 
the ancients). East Indian or True Spikenard, Nard, Jatamansi. 
Boot, Nardus indica, Spica nardi; aromatic, bitter, antispasmo- 
dic. 



258 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1387. NAREGAMIA, W. & Arn. Goanese Ipecac. Meliaceae. 
Shrub. One species; (a) X. alata W. & A. (X. dentata 

Miq. ). West Indies. Goanese Ipecacuanha. Boot and stalk 
emetic, nauseant, expectorant. 

1388. NAUMBEROIA, Moench. Tufted Loosestrife. Primiilaceae. 
Syn. Lysimachia, in part. Marsh herb with yellow flowers 

in axiUary spikes. One species, circumpolar; northern U. S. 

1389. NAYARRETIA, E. &Pav. (Navarettia).Polemoniaceae. 
Named for Dr. Navarrete, Spanish physician. Syn. Gilia, 

in part. Annual herbs with small flowers in dense clusters. 
About 24 species, all of western U. S. (a) N. squarrosa 
(Esch. ) Hook. & Am., is called Skunk-weed in California. 

1390. NECTANDRA, Roland. Bebeeru, etc. Laiiraceae. 

From Greek, ''nectar stamen". Syn. Ocotea, in part. 
Trees. About 70 species, warmer regions of New World. 

a. N, Puchury-major Nees (O. Puchury major Mart. ) and (b") IS, 
Fuchury-minor Nees (O. Puchury-minor Mart.). Brazil. 
Brazilian Sassafras. Seeds {Cotyledons), Pi chury beans. Sassa- 
fras nuts, Brazilian beans, Pichurim, Puchurim; Semen v. Fabae 
V. Cotylse pichurim; Ger. Pichurimbohne, Sassafrasniisse; Fr. 
Feve pichurim, Noix de sassafras; aromatic, stimulant. Bar!: 
aromatic, astringent, febrifuge. 

c. N. Rodioei Hook. (N. Rodiei Schomb. ). British Gniana. 

Greenheart tree, Bebeeru tree. Bark, Bebeeru or Bibiru bark; 
Cortex nectandrw, Cort. beberu v. bibiru; Ger. Bibinirinde; 
Fr. iScorce de bebeeru; antiperiodic, tonic; source of alkaloid 
bebeerine. Starchy seeds, although bitter, used for food. Tim- 
ber used in ship-building. 

d. N. Sp. indet. Coto bark and Para- coto bark are derived from 

trees, natives of Bolivia, that have been referred doubtfully to 
this genus. Both are aromatic and astringent, used in bowel 
troubles. See Drymis. 

1 391. KELUMBO, Adans.Lotus Lily, Water-beau.Ny mphaeaceae* 

From vernacular, Ceylon. Syn. Nelumbium, Willd; Nym- 
iphsea, in part. Aquatic plants with large peltate leaves and 
showy fragrant flowers. Two species, one of Old World, the 
other American (U. S. ). 

a. N. liitea (Willd.) Pers. (Nelumbium luteum Willd.). New 

England to Michigan; south to Florida and Indian Territory. 
American Lotus Lily, Great Water-lily, Water Lotus, Great 
Yellow Lily, American Nelumbo, Water Chinkapin, Wan- 
kapin, Yoncopin. Seeds, Duck Acorn, Water-nut, Battle-nut, 
esculent. 

b. N. Nelumbo (L. ) Karst. (Nym. Nelumbo L., Nym. nucifera 

Gaertn., Nelumbium speciosum Willd. ). Egypt to Japan, E. 
Indies and Australia, adv. in southern U. S. Sacred Lotus, 
Indian or Egyptian Lotus, Egyptian Bean, Sacred Bean, Pytha- 
gorean Bean, Jamaica Water-lily. Rhizome and seeds esculent, 
the former, source of Chinese arrowroot. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 259 

1392. NEMACAULIS, Xutt. Nemacaulis. Polygonaceae. 

From Greek, "thread stem". Annual herb. One species, 
California. 

1393. NEMACLADUS, Nutt. Nemacladus. Lobeliaceae. 

From Greek, "thread branch". Annual herbs. Three 
known species, California to N. Mexico. 

1394. NEMASTYLIS, Xutt. Nemastylis. Iridaceae. 
From Greek, "thread style". 8yn. Eustylis, Engelm. & Gr.; 

Ilia, in part. Bulbous herbs with nearly regular perianth. 
About 10 species. New World; 4 in U. S. 

1395. NEMOPHILA, Nutt. Nemophila. Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "grove loving" . Syn. Elllsia, in part. Fra- 
gile annuals. About 12 species, all of U. S., mostly in Cali- 
fornia, (a) N. iiisignis Dougl. is called Baby-eyes; (b) N. 
aurita Lindl. is called Love-grove. 

1396. NEM6SERIS, Greene. Nemoseris. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "thread Endive". Syn. Rafinesquia, Nutt. 
Stout annuals with white flowers. Two known species, Cali- 
fornia to New Mexico. 

1397. NE0WASHIN0T6NIA, Sudw. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, "new Wa8hino:tonia". Svn. Washingtonia, 
Wendl. 1879, not Raf. 1818, Pritchardia, Drude 1889. Large 
fan-palms. Two species, southern California and southward. 
(a) N. ftlamentosa (Wendl.) Sudw., Washington Palm, 
is our largest native Palm. Seeds used for food by aborigines. 

1398. NEPENTHES, L. Pitcher-plant. Nepenthaceae. 

Greek name of a narcotic drug, "sorrow removing". Syn. 
Phyllamphora, Lour. Climbers, the leaves having pitcher-l'ike 
appendages. About 40 species, tropical regions of Old World. 

1399. NEPETA, L. - Catnep. - Labiatae. 
The ancient Latin name of Catnep. Herbs. About 130 spe- 
cies, Europe and Asia; 1 nat. in U. S. 

a. N, Catdria L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Catnep (Cat- 
nip), Catmint, Catrup, Cat's- wort. Field Mint; Ger. Katzen- 
minze, Katzenkraut; Fr. Cataire, Chataire, Herbe aux chats, 
Menthe des chats. Herb antispasmodic, carminative, emmena- 
gogue. 

1400. NEPHELILM, L. 1767. Litchi, etc. Sapindaceae. 

Ancient Latin plant name, from the Greek. Syn. Diphero- 
carpus, Llanos 1759, Litchi. Small trees producing edible 
fruits. About 20 species, southern Asia, East Indies and Fiji 
Islands. 

a. N. lappaceiim L. India. Rambutan (i. e. "hairy" ), Rampos- 

tan. Fruit esculent, highly esteemed. 

b. N. Litchi Cambess. (N. LichiSteud. , L. Chinensis Sonner. ). 

South China, Cochin China and Philippine Islands. Litchi, 
Litschi, Leechee, Li'tchi, La'tji. A favorite fruit in China. 



260 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. N. Loiigan Cambess. India to southern China. Longan, 
Fruit, called by the Chinese lung-yen, i. e. dragon's-eye, es- 
culent. 

1401. NEPHI16lEPIS, Schott. Polypodiaceae. 

From Greek, "kidney scale" , from form of indusiura. Sto- 
loniferous ferns. About 12 species; 2 in southern U. S. 

1402. NEPTUNIA, Lour. :^eptunia. Mimosaceae. 

Named from the aquatic habitat of one species. Herbs or 
under shrubs. About 12 species, tropical regions; 4 in U. S. 

1403. KERIUM, L. Oleander. Apocynaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Oleander. Shrubs. Two 
or three species, Asia. 

a. N. Oleander L. (O. vulgaris Medic.)- Mediterranean region 
and cult, as an ornamental shrub in sub-tropical regions. 
Oleander, Rose Laurel, Rose Bay, South Sea Rose, probably 
the "Willow" of Scripture; Ger. Rosenlorbeer; Fr. Laurier 
rose, Laurose; Sp. Adelfo. Plant has poisonous properties. 
The Sweet Oleander of India is (b) N. odorum Ait. (N. 
odoratum Lam., O. Indica Medic. ). 

1404. NESAEA, Comm. (Nessea.) Nesaea. Lythraceae. 

From name of a sea nymph. Herbs or shrubs. About 25 
species, mostly of Africa; 1 in U. S. 

1405. NESLIA, Desv. Ball Mustard. Cruciferae. 

Named for J. A. N. de Nesle, French botanist. Hispid herb 
with small globose silicles. One species, Europe and eastern 
Asia, adv. in U. S. 

1406. NESODRABA, Greene. Nesodraba. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, "island Draba" . Syn. Draba, in part. Herbs. 
Three species in western U. S. 

1407. NESTR^NIA, Raf. 1836. Nestronia. Santalaceae. 

From the Greek name of Daphne. Syn. Darbya, A. Gray 
1846. Low dioecious shrub. One species, southeastern U. S. 

1408. NEYIUSIA, A. Gray (Neviusa). Neviusia. Rosaceae. 
Shrub with large white flowers. One species, southeastern 

U. S. 

1409. NICOLLETIA, A. Gray. (Nicollettia). Compositae. 

Named for J. N. Nicollet, astronomer and explorer. Peren- 
nial herbs with large heads of purple or flesh-colored flowers. 
Two species, southwestern U. S. 

1410. NICOTIANA, L. - Tobacco. Solanaceae. 

Named for Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal about 
1560. Narcotic herbs, some shrubby, one a tree. About 50 
species, mostly American; 11 in U. S. 

a. N. riistica L. Canada and eastern U. S.. cult, in Turkey, 
India and elsewhere. Wild Tobacco, Indian Tobacco, Real 
Tobacco, Syrian Tobacco, Wit. Furnishes most of the tobacco 
of Turkey, the Philippine J slands and India. Projverties of ( b ) . 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 261 

b. N. Tabaeum L. Tropical America, now widely cultivaied. 
Tobacco, Virginia Tobacco, Dninkwort. The dried leaves, 
Leaf Tobacco; TalDacum. U. S. P., Tabaci folia Br., FoJia Nico- 
tiana P. G. ; Ger. Tabak; Fr. Nicotiane, Tabac (Codex), seda- 
tive, nauseant, sternutatory. The Shiraz tobacco of Pereia is 
derived from (c) N. Peisica Lind. Some of the Havana to- 
bacco is obtained from (d) N. repanda Willd. In the north- 
west (e) N. multivalvis Lind. is used, in Missouri (f) N. 
quadrivalvis Pursh. 

1411. J^ICtELLA, L. Fennel-flower. Kaiiiinciilaceae. 

Annuals with dissected leaves. About 25 species, Mediter- 
ranean region and western Asia. 

a, N. Damascena L. Levant to southern Europe. Fennel-flower, 

Bishop's- wort, Devil-in-a-bush, Love-in-a-mist, Love-in-a-puz- 
zle, Eagged-lady. Seecd^ used like those of (b). 

b. N. sativa L. Mediterranean region. Black Cumin, Black 

Caraway, Fitch (of Scripture), Roman Coriander, Nutmeg- 
flower, Fennel-flower, Gith, Git; Ger. Schwartzkiimmel; Fr. 
Quatre epices. Seeds, semen nigelli v. melanthii v. c umini 
nigri, pungent, aromatic, carminative, used like Caraway seed. 

1412. NISS6lIA, Jacq. Nissolia. Papilionaceae. 

Trees or shrubby climbers. About 8 species; warmer regions 
of New World; 2 in U. S. 

1413. IS'ITROPHILA, Wats. Nitrophila. Cheiiopodiaceae. 

From Greek, "alkali loving". Low, somewhat succulent, 
herb. One species, western U. S. 

1414. NOLINA, Michx. Nolina. Liliaceae. 
Herbs with small flowers in terminal panicles. About 15 

species, Mexico and adjacent region; 9 in U. S. 

1415. NOPALEA, Salm-Dyck. Nopalea. Cactaceae. 
Syn. Cactus, Opuntia, in part. Succulent thorny plants. 

About 3 species, tropical America. 

a. N. cochenilllfer (L. ) Lyons (C. cochenillifer L., O. coccinel- 
lifera Mill., N. coccinellifera (Mill.) Salm-Dyck.). Mexico 
and West Indies. Cochineal Cactus. See Opuntia. 

1416. NOTHOCALAIS, Greene. False Calais. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "spurious Calais". Syn. Troximon, in part. 
Scapose herbs with solitary large flower heads (yellow). Three 
known species, central and western U. S. Called also False 
Dandelion. 

1417. NOTHOLAENA, E. Br. Notholaena. Polypodiaeeae. 

(Written also Nothochlaena). Small rock-ferns. About 
40 species; 14 in U. S. 

1418. IV0TH0SC6rDUM, Kunth. Nothoscordum. Liliaceae. 
From Greek, "false garlic". Scapose herbs resembling 

Allium, but without the odor. About 10 species, mostly of 
tropical America; 1 in U. S. 



262 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1419. NYCTAGrlNEA, Choisy,. Xyctaginea. Nyctaginaceae. 

Named from resemblance to Nyctago of Jussiea. now called 
Mirabilis. Prostrate hairy annual with rose-colored flowers. 
One species, Texas. 

1420. NYMPHAEA,L.1753. Yellow Pond Lily. Nympbaeaceae. 

From Greek, "nymph" plant. Syn. Nuphar (Kew), Sibth. 
& Sm. 1806, Nyphar, Xymphozanthus. Aquatic plants with 
cordate floating leaves and yellow flowers. About 8 species, 
north temperate zone; 6 in U. S. 

a. N. adveiia Soland. (Nuphar adrena K. Br. (Kew), Nuphar 

lutea Walt. , not. L. ). Canada to Florida, Avest to Rocky Moun- 
tains. Yellow Pond Lily, Common or Large Yellow Pond Lily, 
Spatter-dock, Beaver Lily, Beaver-root, Cow Lily, Dog Lily, 
Frog Lily, Horse Lily, Bull-head Lily, Bonnets, Kelp*. 
Rhizome astringent, emollient; abounds in starch. 

b. N. liitea L. ( Nuphar luteum Sibth. & Sm. (Kew), Xymphozan- 

thus vulgaris Bich. ). Europe. European Yellow Pond Lily, 
Cambric-leaf, Can Dock, Clote-leaf, Flatter Dock, Water-blob, 
Water-car, Water Coltsfoot, Nenuphar, Brandy-bottles (the 
fruit), also most of the synonyms of (a); Fr. Nenuphar jaune 
^ Codex). i2/iizome astringent, demulcent. 

c. N. polysepala ( Engelm. ) Greene [Nuphar polysepalum Engelm* 

(Kew)]. Northwestern V. S. Western Yellow Pond Lily> 
Giant or Larger Yellow Pond Lily, Wankapin*. Seeds esculent. 
(d) N. rubrodisca (Morong) Greene of northeastern U. S., 
Red-disked Pond Lily is called Can Dock; (e) N. sa^ittaefolia 
Walt., southeastern IT. S., Arrow-leaved Pond-lily, is called also 
Alligator-bonnets. 

1421. NYSSA, L. Tupelo, Ogeechee Lime, etc. Cornaceae. 
The name of a water nymph, nurse of Bacchus. Trees or 

shrubs. About 7 species, eastern N. America and eastern and 
central Asia; 4 in U. S. 

a. N. aquatica L. [N. uniflora Wang. (Kew)]. Virginia to Flo- 

rida, west to Missouri. Large Tupelo, Swamp Tupelo, Cotton 
Gum-tree, Tupelo, Black or Sour Gum. 

b. N. Ogeche Marsh. (N. capitata Walt., N. Oye-chee Steud. ). 

Gulf states. Ogeechee Lime, Gopher Plum. 

c. N. sylvatica Marsh. [N. multi flora Wang. (Kew)]. Ontario to 

Florida, west to Texas and Michigan. Pepperidge, Sour Gum, 
Tupelo, Swamp Hornbeam, Black Gum, Yellow Gum, Beetle- 
bung, Hombine, Hornpine, Hornpipe. Fruit acid. 

1422. OBOLARIA, L. Pennywort. (irentianaceae. 

From Greek, obolus, a coin, the leaves being round. A 
perennial herb with scanty foliage. One species, southern U. S. 

1423. 6CIMUM, L. (Ocymum). Basil. Labiatae. 
The classical name. HerlDs. About 35 specie^, warmer 

regions especially in Africa and Brazil ; 1 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAE. 263 

a. 0. BasilicumL. ( including O. majnsHort. ,(). medium Mill, and 
O. minimum L. ). Asia and Africa, cult, in gardens. Sweet 
Basil [Basil, from the Greek, means royal], Basil, Common 
Basil; Ger. Basilienkraut; Fr. Basilic (Codex); Sp. Albal>aca. 
Herb has ordinary properties of mints; used as a pot herb, for 
seasoning^, etc. Several other species have similar properties, 
e. g. : (b) 0. sanctum L., southern Asia and Australia, (c) 
0. viride Willd. of tropical Africa, perhaps a variety of the 
following, in Sierra Leone called Fever-plant, and (d) 0. gra- 
tissiimim L., Southern Asia. 

1424. OCOTEA, Aublet. - Ocotea. - Laiiraceae. 

From vernacular, Guiana. Syn. Oreodaphne, Nees; Lauras, 
Xectandra, Persea, in part. Aromatic trees or shrubs. About 
200 species, mostly of tropical America, some African; 1 in Flor- 
ida. See Nectandra. 

a. 0. Guiauensis, Aublet. (O. opifera Mart., Oreodaphne opifera 
Xees). Brazil. Canella de cheiro. Bark employed in treat- 
ing abscesses. Fruit yields a fragrant volatile oil. 

1425. ODONTITES, Gmel. Ked Bartsia, etc. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Greek, "toothache" remedy. Syn. Euphrasia; Bart- 
sia, in part. Annual herbs. About 20 species, Mediterranean 
region; 1 nat. in U. S. 

a. 0. Odontites (L. ) Wettst. (E. Odontites L., B. Odontites Huds. ). 
Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Red Bartsia, Red Eye-biight. 

1426. 0D0NT6sT0MUM,Tor. Odontostomum.Haemodoraceae. 
From Greek, "tooth mouth". Bulbous herb with white 

flowers in panicled racemes. One species, Pacific coast (U. S.). 

1427. OENANTHE, L. Water Hemlock, etc. Umbelliferae. 

Ancient Greek plant name, "wine flower". Syn. Phellan- 
drium, in part. Herbs, mostly of marshes. About 40 species, 
widely distributed; 2 in U. S. 

a. Oe. crocdta L. Europe. Hemlock Water-dropwort, Belder- 
root, Ben dock, Biller, Dead-tongue, Five-fingered root, Meadow 
Saffron*, Hemlock Drop wort. Hemlock Water-drop, Water 
Hemlock, Water Lovage. Plant an active poison. The Eu- 
ropean (b) Oe. flstulosa L., Common Water Hemlock; Ger. 
Rebendoldenkraut, is less poisonous. 

c. Oe. Phellandriiim Lam. (P. aquaticum (L. ). Europe and 
northern Asia. Fine-leaved Water Hemlock, Death-in, Edge- 
weed, Horsebane, Phellandrium, Water Dropwort, Water Fen- 
nel; Ger. Wasserfenchel, Rossfenchel, Pferdfenchel: Fr. Phel- 
landrie aquatique (Codex), Fenouil d'eau. Fruit, Fructus 
Phellandrii, P. G., Sem. foeniculi aquatici; diaphoretic, diuretic, 
expectorant. 

1428. OENOTHERA, L. Evening Primrose. Onagraceae. 

From Greek, "wine scent" (?), the root said to have a vinous 
odor. Herbs Avith yellow nocturnal flowers. About 20 species, 
Isew World; 5 in U. S. See Anogra, Galpinsia, Gaurella, 
Hartmannia, Kneiflia, Lavauxia, Megapterum, Meriolix, 
Onagra, Pachylophus, all formerly referred to this genus. 



264 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

142J). OLDENLAjNDIA, L. Bluets. Rubiaceae. 

Named for H. B. Oldenland, Danish botanist. Syn. Hed- 
yotes, in part. Small herbs. About 175 species, warmer 
regions, especially of Asia; 4 in U. S. 

a. 0. umbellata L, (H. umbellataLam.). India. Shaya, Chaya, 
Indian Madder plant. Lecwes expectorant. Boot, vShaya root, 
Chay or Choy root, Indian Madder; yields a valuable red dye. 

1430. OLE A, L. - - Olive. - Oleaceae. 
The classical name, whence our word ' 'oil" . Trees or shrubs. 

About 36 species, C)ld World and Oceanica. 

a. 0. Europaea L. (O. Oleaster HofFm., O. communis Steud., O. 
officinarum Cranz., O. lancifolia Moench) Southwestern Asia, 
now widely cultivated in sub-tropical countries. Olive. The 
wild tree is called Oleaster; numerous varieties are distinguish- 
ed, the names being Spanish, Italian or French. Leaves and 
bark febrifuge. Fruit esculent, source of Olive oil (sweet oil); 
Oleum Olivae, U. S. P. 

1431. OLEARIA, Moench 1802. Daisy tree, etc. Compositae. 
Syn. Eurybia, Cass. 1820. Shrubs, some trees or herbs. 

About 85 species, Australia and New Zealand. 

a. 0. argophjila F. Muell. (E. argophylla Cass.). Tasmania. 
Silver-leaved Musk tree. Foliage has a musky odor. (b. ) 0. 
stellulata DC. (E. lirata DC. ), Tasmania, is called Daisy tree. 

1432. OLIGOMERIS, Cambess. Oligomeris. Resedaceae. 

From Greek, "few parts". Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 5 
species, mostly of S. Africa; 1 in U. S. 

1433. OLNEYA, Gray. Tesota, etc. Papilionaeeae. 

Named for Stephen T. Olney, botanist of Rhode Island. A 
small tree, one species, 0. Tesota Gray, southwestern U. S., 
called Iron wood (Arbol de hierro)and Tesota. 

1434. OMPHALEA, L. Ouabe, etc. Euphorbiaceae. 

From Greek, "navel" plant, alluding to form of anthers. 

Climbing shrubs or small trees. About 12 species, tropical 
America, one in Madagascar. 

a. 0. didndra L. West Indies. Ouabe, West Indian Cob-nut; 

Fr. Noisettier. Seeds edible, source of Ouabe oil. 

b. 0. oleifera Hemsley. Central America. Seeds source of Tam- 

bor oil which is purgative like Castor oil. 

1435. 0MPHAL{)DES, Moench. Venus' Navel wort .Boraginaeeae. 
* From Greek, "navel like", alluding to shape of seeds. Syn. 

Omphalium. Herbs. About 20 species, northern hemisphere; 
2 in U. S. 

1436. 6NAGRA, Adans. Evening Primrose. Onagraeeae. 

From Greek, "wild ass". Syn. Oenothera (Kew), in part. 
Herbs with yellow nocturnal flowers. About 12 species, chiefly 
North America; 8 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 265 

a. 0. biennis (L.) Scop. (Oe. biennis L.). Labrador to Florida, 
west to Kocky Mountains. Common Evening Primrose, Wild 
or Field Evening Primrose, Night Willow-herb, Fever-plant, 
Four-o'clock*, King's Cure-all, Tree Primrose, Large Eampion, 
Scabish*, Scurvish; Ger. Nachtkerze; Fr. Onagre. Plant 
mucilaginous, alterative. Var. graiuliflora Lindl. is the Com- 
mon Evening Primrose of gardens. * 

1437. 0N6bRYCHIS, Gaertn. Sanfoin. Papilionaceae. 

Herbs or shrubs. About 70 species, Europe and southern 
Asia. 

a. 0. viciaefolia Scop. (O. sativa Lara. ). Europe to Central Asia. 
Sanfoin, Cinquefoil, Cockscomb*, Cock's-head plant. Everlast- 
ing-grass, Hen"s-bill, Lucerne*, Medick Fitch; Fr. Esparcette. 
A valuable fodder plant. 

14S8. ONOCLEA, L. Sensitive Fern, etc. Polypodiaceae, 

Ancient Greek plant-name, ''close vessel". Syn. Struthiop- 
teris, in part. Ferns with segments of the fertile fronds enclos- 
ing the sori. Three species, 2 in U. S. (a) 0. sensibilis L. 
is called Sensitive Fern ; ( b ) 0. Struthiopteris ( L. ) Swz. 
(Osmunda Struthropteris L., S. Germanica VVilld.) is called 
Ostrich Fern. 

1439. ONONISj L. (Anonis). Rest-harrow. Papilionaceae, 

Ancient Greek plant-name, "ass" weed. Herbs. About 60 
species, Europe and Mediterranean region. 

a. 0. arvensis L. Europe. Rest-harrow, Bomariskie, Cam- 

mock Whin, Cat Whin, Lady Whin (Scotland), Land Whin, 
Ground Furze, Hen Gorse, Horse's -breath, Lewte, Wild Lico- 
rice*, Sit-fast, Steadfast, Rashburn, Ramsey, Rassels, Stainch. 

b. 0. spinosa L. Europe. Rest-harrow, Stay-plow, Cammock*, 

Petty Whin; Ger, Hauhechel, Ochsenbrechkraut; Fr. Bugrane, 
Bougrane. Root, Radix Ononidis, P. G., Rad. restis bovis; 
diuretic, lithontriptic, alterative. 

1440. 0X0p6rD0N, L. Cotton Thisile. Compositae. 

The ancient Greek name, "asses' flatus". Thistle-like plants 
with decurrent leaves. About 12 species, Old World. 

a. 0. acanthium L. Europe and Asia, cult, in IT. S. Cotton 
Thistle, Argentine Thistle; Crab-, Down-, Musk-, Oat- or Queen 
Mary's Thistle, known in England as Scotch Thistle, see 381 
(b);"Ger. Eseldistel, Krebsdistel. 

1441. ONOSMA, L. Onosma. Boraginaceae. 

From Greek, "ass smell". Syn. Maharanga DC. Bristly 
or hoary herbs. Adout 70 species. Mediterranean region to 
India. The roots of (a) 0. echioides L., Europe (Ger. Lot- 
wurz) and of (b) 0. Emodi Wall (M. Emodi DC), India, 
yield a red dye. 

1442. ONOSMODIUM, Michx. False Gromwell. Boraginaceae. 

From Greek, "resembling Onosma". Syn. Lithospermum, 
in part. Hispid or hirsute herbs. About C species, N. Amer- 
ica; 5 in U. S. 



266 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. 0. Virpniannm (L. ) DC. (L. Virginianum L. ) Eastern U. S, 
False Gromwell, Virginia False Groruwell, Wild Job's-tears, 
Necklace- weed, Pearl-plant, Gravel- weed. Root and seeds re- 
puted diuretic, lithontriptic. 

1443. 0(p6PSIS, Greene. Oonopsis. Coiiipositae. 

From Greek, ^^e^g like", alluding to the involucre. Syn. 
Aplopappiis, Bigelovia, in part. Perennial herbs with small 
flower heads. Four known species, central IT. S. 

1444. OPERCULINA, S. Manso. Turpeth root. Convolvulaceae. 

Syn. Convolvulus, Ipomcea, in part. Herbaceous vines. 
About 10 species, tropical Asia and East Indies. 

a. 0. Turpethum (L.) Peter (I. Turpethum K. Br. (Kew), C. 

Turpethum, L. ). India and East Indian islands. Root, 
Turpeth-root, Vegetable Turpeth (Turbith), Indian Jalap; Fr. 
Turbith vegetal (Codex); purgative. 

1445. 0PHI0GL(3SSUM, L. Adder's-tongue. Ophio^-lossaceae. 

From Greek, ^'serpent's tongue", alluding to the fructification. 
Somewhat fleshy plants with a single sterile frond, the sporan- 
gia in a spike. About 12 species; 8 in U. S. (Other names 
are Adder's- spear. Adder's Fern, Adder' s-grass, Edder's-tongue, 
Serpent' s-tongue, Snake' s-tongue. ) 

1446. OPHIORHIZA, L. (Ophiorrhiza). Rubiaceae. 
From Greek, ''snake- root". Syn. Mungos, Adans. Peren- 
nial herbs or shrubs. About 50 species, tropical Asia, Aus- 
tralia and Fiji Islands. (a) 0. miiiigos L. East Indies. 
Mungo, Indian Snakeroot, Earth-gall. Root bitter, reputed 
antidote to snake-poison. 

1447. Op6pANAX, Koch. Opopanax. Umbelliferae. 

Greek name of the exudate, "all-healing juice". Syn. 
Ferula, Pastinaca, in part. Perennial herbs. About three 
species, Europe and Asia. 

a. 0. Opopanax (L.) Lyons (P. Opopanax L., O. Chironium 
Koch, not Guss., F. Opopanax L,, not Spreng.). Southern 
Europe. Gum-resino-us exudate, Opopanax, Hercules' All-heal; 
Fr. Opopanax (Codex); Sp. Opoponaso; resembles Ammoniac, 
See Dorema. 

.1448. OPULASTER, Medic. 1799. Nine-bark, etc. Rosaceae. 

From Greek, "star Opulus", the fruit being star-shaped. 

Syn. Phys ocarpa, Paf. 1836, also Spirsea and Neillia, in 

part. Shrubs with palmately lobed leaves and white flowers in 

corymbs. About 5 species, 1 of Mantchuria; 4 in U. S. 

1449. OPl^NTIA, Mill. Opuntia, Prickly Pear, etc, Cactaceae. 
Ancient Greek name, from that of a town. Syn. Cactus, in 
part. Succulent thorny plants with jointed branching stems. 
About 150 species. New World; 52 in IT. S. 

a. 0. Opuntia (L. ) Coult. (C. Opuntia L., O. vulgaris Mill.). 
Massachusetts to Florida and Mexico. Eastern Prickly Fear, 
Prickly-pear Cactus, Indian Fig*, Barbary Fig, Devil' s-tongue, 
Hedgehog Thistle. Fleshy stems discutient. Fruit edible. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 267 

b. 0. Tiina (L.) Mill. (C. TunaL. ). West Indies and tropical 
America. Prickly Pear. (It is the fruit of this species more 
particularly that is known as Prickly Pear or Indian Fig; Ger. 
Indische Feige, Spanierfeige; Fr. Figue de Barbaric). Fruit 
esculent, yields a red dye. This species is more particularly 
the food plant of the cochineal insect, which also thrives, how- 
ever, on Nopalea cochenillifer (q. v.) as also on (c) O. Ficus- 
Indica Mill, of Central America; (d) 0. Hemaiidezii DC. of 
Mexico and less commonly on (a). 

1450. ORCHIS, L. - Orchis. - Orchidaceae. 

Ancient Greek name. Terrestrial orchids, some highly 
ornamental. About 80 species, north temperate zone; 2 in U. S. 

a. 0. latifolia L, Europe, Marsh Orchis. The branching tubers 
of this species, of (b) 0. maculata L. and of (c) N. sambu- 
ciua L., constitute the variety of salep formerly known as 
Radix palmae-Christi. See Habenaria and Cunopsea. 

d. 0. iiiasculaL. Europe. Male Orchis, Adam-and- Eve, Bloody- 
butcher, Dead-men' s-tingers (Shakespere), Crake-feet, Cuckoo 
Orchis, Drake' s-feet, Gandergoose, Gethsemane, Red-granfer- 
gregors, Gramfer-greygles, Greycles, Kettle-case, Man-Orchis, 
Long-purples, Red-butcher, Skeatlegs, Soldier' s-jacket, Spree- 
spinkle, Standerwort. Tubers constitute the official Salep, 
Tubera Salep P. G. , Radix salep; Fr. Salep (Codex); demul- 
cent, nutrient. Salep (simple tubers) is obtained also from (e) 
0. Mono L., and (f) 0, iistulata L. See also Anacamptis, 
Eulophia and Platanthera. 

g. 0. spectabiliS L. Canada to Georgia, west to Nebraska. 
Showy Orchis; Gay, Purple or Spring Orchis, Preacher-in-the- 
pulpit. 

1461. OREASTRUM, Greene. Mountain Aster. Compositae. 

From Greek, "Mountain Aster". Syn. Aster, in part. 
Herbs resembling Aster. Three species in U. S. 

1452. 0RE0BR6mA, Howell. Oreobroma. Portulacaceae. 

From Greek, "mountain food". Syn. Calandrina, Lewisia, 
Talinum, in part. Herbs. Ten species in western U. S. 

1453. OREOCARYA, Greene. White Forget-me-not. Boraginacpae. 
From Greek, "mountain nut". Syn. Eritrichium, Krynitzkia, 
in part. Hairy herbs. About 16 species, all of \J. S., mostly 
southern, extending into Mexico 

1454. OREODAX, Willd. (Oreodoxa)RoyalPalm,etc.Sabalaceae. 
From Greek, "mountain glory" , Syn. Areca, Oenocarpus, 

in part. Tall palms with smooth trunk. About 6 species, 
tropical America; 1 in Florida, 

a. 0. oleracea (Jacq. ) Mart. (A. oleracea Jacq.). West Indies. 

Cabbage Palm, ^ud (cabbage) esculent. Pithy wood yields 
Sago. 

b. 0. r^gia H. B. K. (Oe. regius Spreng. ). Tropical America to 

Florida. Royal Palm. The foregoing are among the most 
stately and ornamental of all palms. 



268 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1455. OREOXIS, Raf. Oreoxis. Umbelliferae. 

Syn. Cvmopterus, in part. Herb. A single species, western 
U. S. 

1456. ORIGANUM, L. Marjoram, etc. Labiatae. 
From Greek, ''mountain joy". Syn. Majorana, in part; 

Perennial herbs, some shrubby. About 30 species, Old World. 
1 adv. in U. S. 

a. 0. Creticum Sieber (?). Southern Europe. Spanish Hop: Ger. 

Spanischer Hopfen, Kretischer Dosten, Kandischer Mairan. 
Htrh of this and some allied species yields Cretan oil of Origa- 
num or Spanish Hop oil, used to relieve tooth-ache. 

b. 0. Dictamims L. Levant. Dittany of Crete; Ger. Kretischer 

Diptam, Diptamdosten ; Fr. Dictame de Crfete (Codex). 

«. 0. Majorana L. (M. hortensis Moench). Southern Europe 
and western Asia, widely cult. Sweet Marjoram, Knotted 
Marjoram; Ger. Meiran, Mayran, Majoran, Wurstkraut; Fr. 
Marjolaine (Codex); Sp. Almoraduz, Mejorana. Herh, Herba 
majoranse, H. amaraci, H. sampsuchi; stomachic, carminative, 
used as a condiment. 

<d. 0. vulgare L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Common or Wild 
Marjoram (Marjerira, Margerome, Majoran; from ancient Greek 
name). Pot Marjoram, Winter Marjoram, Mountain Mint, 
Origanum (Aryans, Organ, Organy, Orgament), W'^inter-sweet; 
Ger. Dosten, Brauner Dosten, Wilder Majoran, Gemeiner 
Wohlgemuth; Fr. Origan vulgaire (Codex). Herh source of 
oil of Origanum; carminative, anodyne, emmenagogue. 

1457. 0RM6SIA, Jacks. Bread-tree. Papilionaceae. 

Trees. About 20 species, tropical regions, Old and New 
World. (a) 0. dasycarpa Jacks. West Indies. Jamaica 
Bread-tree, Necklace-tree, Large Coral-bean (Jamaica). 

1458. 0RNITH6GALUM, L. Star-of-Bethlehem. Liliaceae. 
From Greek, "bird milk". Scapose herbs from coated bulbs. 

About 75 species. Old World; 2 nat. in U. S. 

a. 0. umbellatum L. Mediterranean region, nat. in eastern U. S. 
Star-of-Bethlehem, Star-flower, Summer-snowflake, Eleven-o'- 
clock-lady, Ten-o'clock, Sleepy-Dick, Nap-at-noon, John-go-to- 
bed-at-noon. Bulbs of this and allied species, esculent, prob- 
ably the "dove's dung" of Scripture. 

1459. OROBANCHE, L. Broom-rape. Orobanchaceae. 

From Greek, "choke vetch". Syn. Aphyllon, in part. 
Parasitic, nearly leafless plants. About 90 species. Old World 
and western America; 8 in U. S. See Conopholis and Leptam- 
nium. 

a. 0. minor Sutt. Europe, nat. in eastern U. S. , parasitic on roots 
of clover. Lesser Broom-rape, Clover Broom-rape, Devil' s- 
root, Hell-root, Herb-bane, Shepherd' s-pouch*, Strangle-tare. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPUI-AR, 26S- 

1400. OROCHAENACTIS, Coville. Orochaenactis. Compositae. 

From Greek, "mountain Chaenactis". Syn. Chaenactis, in 
part. Viscid low annual. One species, California. 

1461. OROGENIA, Wats. Orogenia. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "mountain born". Herbs, related to Erigenia. 
Two or three species, western U. S. 

1462. OROXIA, Greene. Oso-berry. Drup.iceae. 

Syn. Nuttallia, Tor. & Gr. Small tree, foliage yielding- 
much hydrocyanic acid. One species, California. 

1463. OR6nTIUM, L. (iolden-club. Araceae. 
Greek name of a water plant from the river "Orontes". 

Aquatic herb. A single species, eastern U. S. 

a. 0. aquaticiim L. Massachusetts to Louisiana, mostly near 
the coast. Golden-club, Tawkin, Water Dock, Tuckahoe. 
Seeds and rldzomes formerly eaten by aborigines. 

1464. Or6pHACA, Britton. Milk Vetch. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "mountain Vetch". Syn. Phaca, Astragalus^ 
in part. Canescent or villous herbs. Three known species, 
northwestern U. S. 

1465. ORTHOCARPLS, Nutt. Orthocarpus. ScrojHiulariaceae. 

From Greek, "erect fruited". Herbs. About 30 species. 
New World; 27 in U. S. 

1466. ORTHOSIPHON, Benth. Java Tea. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "straight tube". Herbs or undershrubs. 

About 30 species, India and tropical America, (a) 0. stamin- 
eus Benth. East Indies. Java Tea. Leaves diuretic, demul- 
cent. 

1467. ORYCTES, Wats. Oryctes. Solanaceae. 

From Greek, • 'plowshare' ' or ' 'furrow' ' . Low annual. One 
species, Nevada. 

1468. ORYZA, L. - - Rice. - - Gramineae. 

The Greek name of (a). Coarae grasses. About 10 species^ 
southern Asia. 

a. 0. sativa L. (O. officinalis Wall., O. communissima Lour., O. 
paulstris Salisb. ). Southern Asia, widely cult, in sub-tropical 
regions. Rice; Ger. Reis; Fr. Riz (Codex); Sp. Aroz. The un- 
husked rice is called 'paddy. One of the most important of all 
food plants; source of rice starch. 

1469. OSBERTIA, Greene. Osbertia. Compositae. 

Herb. One species, western U. S. 

1470. OSMANTHUS, Lour. Fragrant Olive, etc. Oleaceae. 
From Greek, "fragrant flower" . Syn. Olea, in part. Shrubs 

or trees. About 10 species, N. America, western Asia and 
Polynesia; 1 in U. S. 



270 PLANT NAAIES AND SYNONYMS 

a. 0. fragrans (Thunb.) Lour. (Olea fragransThunb.). China. 
Fragrant Olive. Flowa^s used to perfume tea. The American 
Olive of southeastern U. S., (b) 0. Americanus v^. ) B- ^ H* 
(Olea Americana L. ), is called also Devil-wood, the wood hard 
to split. 

1471. OSMl^NDA, L. Flowering Fern. Osinimdaceae. 

Dedicated to Osmunder, a Scandinavian deity. Marsh ferns, 
fertile fronds or portions of frond greatly modified, justifying 
the popular name. About 6 species, north temperate zone; 3 in 
U. S. 

a. 0. cinnamomea L. Canada and eastern U. S. Cinnamon Fern, 

Swamp Brake, Fiddle-heads, Bread-root. 

b. 0. regdlis L. Europe, Asia, Canada, U. S. east of Kocky 

Mountains, Mexico. Royal Fern, Buckhorn Brake, Royal Brake, 
Royal Osmund, Regal Fern, King Fern, Flowering Fern, 
Royal Flowering Fern, Snake or Ditch Fern, Tree Fern*, 
Buckhorn Male-fern, Hartshorn bush. Lady Brake, Flowering 
Brake, Herb Christopher*, St. Christopher' s herb. Bog Onion*, 
Osmund- the- waterman; Ger. Konigsfarrn, Traubenfarrn. Rhi- 
zome tonic, astringent, demulcent. 

1472. 6STRYA, Scop. Hop-LLornbeam. Betulaceae. 

The classical name. Syn. Carpinus, in part. Trees with 
heavy hard wood. Four known species, N. temperate zone; 2 
in U. S. 

a. 0. Virgiiiiaua (Mill.) Willd. (C. Virginiana Mill., O. Virgi- 
nica Willd.). Canada and eastern U. S. Hop-hornbeam, 
Ironwood, Deer-wood, Lever-wood, Hardback*, Black Hazel, 
Indian Cedar. Bark bitter tonic. 

1473. OUROUPARIA^ Aubl. 1775. Gambir. Rubiaceae. 
Syn. Uncaria, Schreb. 1789, Uncinaria, Reichb. 1841; Nauc- 

lea, in part. Shrubby climbers with hooked spines. About 35 
species mostly of India, one of S. America. 

a. 0. Granibier (Roxb.)Bai 11. (U. Gambler Roxb.,N. Gambler Hun- 
ter). East Indies. An extract of the leaves and young shoots 
constitutes the tanning material gram6ir (gambler), called also 
terra japonica and pale catechu. Catechu pallidum. Catechu, Br. 
and P. G. ; Ger. Gambir Catechu, Gutta Gambir; Fr. Gambir 
cubique; astringent. See Acacia Catechu. Gambir is prepared 
also from (b) 0. acida (Roxb. ) Lyons (U. acida Roxb. ) of 
Pulo Penang and neighboring islands. 

1474. OWENIA, F. Muell. Plum*, Wild Apple. Meliaceae. 
Named for Richard Owen, naturalist. Trees. About 6 spe- 
cies, Australia, (a) 0. cerasifera F. Muell. is called Sweet 
Plum, Rancooran; (b) 0. veiiosa F. Muell. is called Sour 
Plum, Pyddharr, Tulip-wood. 

1476. OXALIS, L. Wood Sorrel. Oxalidaceae. 

N From Greek, "sour". Syn. Oxys, Adans. Herbs, often 
bulbous, with digitate (commonly trifoliate) leaves. About 
250 species, chiefly of warmer legions; 20 in U. S., including 
some naturalized. 



i 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 271 

a- O. Aeetoselhi L. (Oxys Acetosella Scop.)- Europe, Asia, 
northern Africa, N. America, south to N. Carolina and Michi- 
gan. Wood Sorrel, White or True Wood-sorrel, Wood-sour, 
Wood-sowerJ, Alleluia (AUolida, Lujula), Cuckoo-bread, 
Cuckoo-flower, Cuckoo' s-meat. Cuckoo-sour, Cuckoo's or Gowk's 
Clover, Hearts, Ladies' Clover, Laverocks, Sour or Sleeping 
Clover, Sleeping- beauty, Sheep Sorrel, Sour Trefoil or Trifoly, 
Shamrock, Stub wort. Green-sauce; Ger. Sauerklee, Hasenklee; 
Fr. Alleluia, Surelle, Pain de coucou ; Sp. Acederilla, Socoyol. 
[Many of above synonyms apply equally to other species]. 
Plant, as in other species, acidulous, diuretic, antiscorbutic; 
contains oxalic acid, and so may be poisonous. 

b. 0. stricta L. (O. comiculatavar. strictaSav., Oxys striata All,). 
Canada aud Eastern U. S., nat. in Europe. Ladies' Sorrel, 
Upright Yellow Wood-sorrel, Sheep Sorrel, Sheep-poison, (c) 
0. corniculata L., Procumbent Yellow W^ood-sorrel, is not 
distinguished popularly from this species. The Index Kewensis 
includes both under the latter name. 

1476. 0XYC6CCUS, Hill. 1756. Cranberry. Yacciniaceae. 

From Greek, "sour berry". Syn. Schollera, Poth. not 
Schreb. ; Vaccinium, in part. Trailing or erect shrubs. Four 
species, northern hemisphere; 3 in U. S. 

a. 0. macrocarpus (Ait.) Pers. V. macrocarpon Ait, but Index 

Kew. makes this a synonym of (b), as also O. macrocarpus 
Turcz. ). British America south to N. Carolina, Michigan 
and Minnesota. American Cranberry, Large Cranberry, Bear- 
berry, with other synonyms of ( b ) . 

b. 0. Oxy COCCUS ( L. ) MacM. ( V. Oxycoccus L. , O. palustris Pers. 

(Kew), S. Oxycoccus Roth. ). Northern Europe, Asia and N. 
America, south to New Jersey and Michigan. European or 
Small Cranberry, Cranberry, Cramberry, Crane' s-berry, Marsh 
Cranberry, Crowberry, Marshberry, Moss-berry, Moor-berry, 
Bog-berry, Fen-berry, Sourberry, Sow-berryt, Swamp Redberry, 
Bogwort, Marshwort, Moonog, Moss-milion (i. e. Moss-melon); 
Ger. Moosbeere, Kesselbeere^ Sauerbeere, Kranichbeere. Fruit, 
Fructus oxycoccos, Baccse oxy cocci, acidulous, refrigerant, 
esculent. 

1477. OXYDENDRUM, DC. Sour-wood. Ericaceae. 
From Greek, "sour tree". Syn. Andromeda, in part. A 

tree with deciduous sour leaves. One species, eastern U. S. 

a. 0. arboreum (L.) DC. (A. arborea L. ). Pennsylvania to 
Florida. Sourwood, Soirel-iree, Elk-tree. Leavet refrigerant, 
diuretic. 

1478. OXYGRAPHIS, Bunge. Crowfoot*. Rauimculaceae. 

From Greek, "sharp style". Syn. Cyrtorhyncha, Ranun- 
culus, in part. Perennial herbs resembling Ranunculus. 
About 10 species, mostly Asiatic; 1 in U. S., viz. (a) 0. Cym- 
baldria (Pursh) Prantl. (R. Cymbalaria Pursh. ). 

1471). OXYPOLIS, Raf. 1825. Pig Potato, etc. Unibelliferae. 
Syn. Tiedemannia, DC. 1829, Archemora, DC. 1829; Oenan- 
the, Peucedanum, Slum, in part. Perennial marsh herbs from 
tuberous roots. Four species, all of U. S. 



^ 



272 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. 0. ftliformis (Walt.) Brit. (Oe. filiformis Walt., Ox. tereli- 

foliaKaf. ). Southeastern U. S. False Dropwort, Oxypolis^. 

b. 0. rigida ( L. ) Raf. ( S. rigidum L. , A. rigida DC. , P. ternatuin 

Nutt. (Kew), A. ternata Nutt. ). Eastern U. S. Cowbane, 
Hemlock Dropwort, Water Dropwort, Pig Potato. 

1480. OXYRIA, Hill. Moiintaiu Sorrel. Poljgonaceae. 

From Greek, "sour". Syn. Acetosa, Rumex, in part. 
Fleshy herbs with acid foliage. Two known species, north 
temperate zone; 1 in U. vS. 

a. 0. digyna (L. ) Hill (R. digynus L., A. digyna Mill., O. renifor- 
misHook. ). Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, south to 
New Hampshire and Colorado. Mountain Sorrel, Round-leav- 
ed Sorrel, Sour Dock, Boreal Sour Dock. 

1481. OXYSTYLIS, Tor. & Frem. Oxystylis. Capparidaceae. 

From Greek, ''sharp style". Herb with small yellow flowers. 
A single species, California. 

1482. OXYTENIA, Nutt. Oxytenia. Compositae. 

From Greek, "pointed", alluding to the leaves. Shrubby 

plant resembling Artemisia. One species, California to Colo- 
rado. 

1483. OXYTHECA, Nutt. Oxytheca. Polygonaceae. 

From Greek, "pointed case". Annuals resembling Eriogo- 
num. About 10 species, N. America; 8 in western U. S. 

1484. OXy'tRIA, Raf. 1836. Oxytria. Liliaceae. 
Syn. Schoenolirion, Tor. 1855. Scapose herbs. About S 

species, southwestern U. S. 

1485. PACHYLOPHUS, Spach. Scapose Primrose. Onagraceae. 

From Greek, "thick crest". Syn, Oenothera (Kew), in 
part. Scapose herb with white or pink flowers. One species^ 
central U. S.^ 

1486. PACHYSANDRA, Michx. Pachysandra. Buxaceae. 
From Greek, ' 'thick stamen' ' . Monoecious perennial herbs. 

Two species, one of Japan, one of southeastern U. S. ; (a) P. 
prociimbens Michx. Alleghany Mountain Spurge. 

1487. PACHYSTIMA, Raf. (Pachystima). Celastraceae. 

Syn. Oreophila, Nutt. Evergreen shrubs. Two species, both 
of U. S. 

1488. PAEONIA, L. - Peony. - Ranunculaceae. 

The ancient Greek name, from Pjson, the physician of the 
gods. Herbs, some shrubby. About 10 species, north temper- 
ate zone; 1 in U. S. 

a. P. Moutan Simson. Japan and China. Tree Peeony, Botan 
(Japan), Moutan (China-meu-tang, King of flowers). 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPILAR. 273 

b. P. officinalis L. Southern Europe, cult, in gardens. Peony 
(Piany, Pianet, Piney),Chesse8t, Naupie, Sheep-shearing Eose; 
Ger. Gichtrose, Pfingstrose; Fr. Pivoine officinale (Codex); Sp. 
Peonia. Root antispasmodic. The Chinese Peony of gardens 
(White or Fragrant Peony) is (c) P. albillora Pall. 

1489. PALAFOXIA, Lag. Palafoxia. Compositae. 

Named for Jose Palafox, noted Spanish general. Herbs, 

some shrubby, with purple or white flowers. About 4 species^ 
N. America; 2 in southwestern U. S. 

1490. PALAQUIUM, Blanco 1837. Gutta-percha tree. Sapotaceae. 

Syn. Dichopsis, Thw. 1864; Isonandra, in part. Trees with 
milky sap. About 30 species, East Indies. 

a. P. Giitta (Hook f.) Burck. (I. Gutta Hook, f., D. Gutta B. & 
H. ). East Indies. Taban or Gutta-taban tree. Concrete exud- 
ate, Gutta percha,Gummiplasticum, Gummigettania; Ger. Fr. 
Gutta-percha (Codex); used for splints, etc. 

1491. PALILRLS, Juss. Christ's Thorn. Rhamuaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Zizyphus, in part. Thorny 
shrubs. Two species, Mediterranean region and Asia. 

a. P. aculeatus Lamb. (P. Spina-Christi Mill., P. vulgaris Steud., 
Z. Spina-Christi Georgi, Z. Paliurus Willd.). Southern 
Europe to India. Christ's Thorn, Christ-thorn; Fr. Porte- 
chapeau. Seeds yield a dye. Perhaps the plant from which 
the "crown of thorns" was plaited. 

1492. PALMERELLA, Gray. Palmerella. Lobeliaceae. 

Named for the discoverer. Dr. Edward Palmer. Herbs. Two 
species, southwestern U. S. 

1493. PANAX, L.( Panacea). Ginseng. Araliaceae. 

Ancient Greek plant-name, "all healing^". Syn. Aralia, 
Ginseng, in part. Perennial herbs from thickened roots.' 
About 10 species, North America and Asia; 2 in U. S. 




tic, esteemed by the Chinese almost a panacea, especially as 
an aphrodisiac. 

b. P. quinqiiefoliiis L. (G. quinquefolium Wood, A. quinquefolia 

Dec. & Planch. (Kew), P. Ginseng C. A. Meyer, not Nees.,P. 
Ninsi Thunb. not L.). Quebec to Alabama, west to Nebraska. 
Ginseng, American Ginseng, Jinshang (U. S. ), Ninsin* Sang, 
Red-berry, Five-fingers, Garentoquen (Iroquois), Grantogen- 
Ger. Amerikanische Kraftwurzel, Schinseng, Fr. Ginseng. 
Root aromatic, stimulant. 

c. P. trifoliiis L. (A. trifolia Dec. & Planch. (Kew), G. trifolium 

Wood.). Canada and eastern LI. S. Dwarf Ginseng, Dwarf 
Ground-nut. 

1494. PANCRATIUM, L. Sea Dafl^odil, etc. Amaryllidaceae. 

From Greek, all powerful". Bulbous herbs. About 12 spe- 
cies, Mediterranean region. 



274 PLANT NA]VIES AND SYNONYMS 

a. p. maritiuium L. Europe. Pancratic Squill, Sea Daffodil. 
Bvbib diuretic, emetic, expectorant. 

1495. PANDANUS, Kumph. 1781. Screw Pine. Pandanaceae. 
Syn. Keiira, Forsk. 1775, Athrodactylis, Forst. 1776. 

Shrubby or arboreous plants. About 50 species, tropical 
regions of eastern hemisphere and Oceanica. 

«u P. odorifera (Forsk.) Lyons (K. odorifera, Forsk. 1775, K. 
odora Thunb. P. odoratissima L. f., 1781 (Kew), P. verus 
Rumph., P. fascicularis Lara., A. spinosa Forst.). India, 
Australia and Oceanica. Fragrant -flowered Screw-pine or Pan- 
danus, Screw Pine, Umbrella-tree*, Hala (Pacific islands). 
Flowers yield Keora or Ketgee oil. Fruity called breadfruit*, 
edible, the chief food of natives of some of the Micronesian 
islands, ieafes (Lauhala) UNed for plaiting mats, fans, sugar- 
sacks, etc., as are those of ( b) P. ntilis Bory. in the Mauri- 
tius Islands. 

1496. PANICUM, L. Panic-grass, etc. Gramineae. 
Ancient Latin name of a grass, probably Sorghum. Annual 

or perennial graa^jes. About 300 species; about 100 in U. S. 

a, P. mildceiim L. (P. Miliare Lam.). Asia, now widely cult. 
Millet, Broom-corn Millet, Hirse, Warree (Hindustan), (b) 
P. frumentdceuin Boxb., the Shamalo or Shamoola of India, 
also yields a kind of millet. 

1497. PAPAVER, L. - Poppy. - Papayeraceae. 

The classical name. Herbs with milky sap; flowers showy. 
About 25 species, mostly of Old World; 10 indigenous and uat. 
inU. S. 

a. P, Argemoue L. (P. clavigerura Lam.). Europe, adv. in 

U. S. Pale Bough-fruited Poppy, Long Bough-fruited Poppy, 
Wind Bose, Headache. 

b. P. diibium L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Long Smooth-fruited 

Poppy, Blaver, Headache. 

c. P. Rho^as L. Europe, cult, and adv. in U. S. Corn Poppy 

(Puppy, Popple, Pope), Field or Red Poppy, Corn Bose, Cop- 
per Bose (Cuprose), Cockeno, Canker, Canker Bose, African 
Bose, Blind-eyes, Cheesebowl,Chasbow:f, Headache, HeadwarkJ, 
Thunder-flower; Ger. Klatschrose, Klapperrose, Feldrose: Fr. 
Coquelicot (Codex), Pavot rouge; Sp. Ampola. Petals, Red- 
poppy petals, Rhoeados Petala, Br., Flores rhoeados, Fl. papa- 
veris erratici; anodyne. 

d. P. soniniferum L. (P. officinale C. C. Gmel., P. album Mill.). 

Mediterranean region, cult, in India and commonly in gardens. 
Opium Poppy, Cheesebowl (Chasbow), Push pole, Joan Silver- 
pin, Marble-flower, Ger. Mohn; Fr. Pavot blanc, Pavot oflicinal 
(Codex). Capsu/e.s ' of the white variety, B. soniniferum var. 
album DC, P. officinale Gmel.); Papaveris Capsulae, Br., 
Fractus Papaveris immaturi P. G., Papaver, U. S. P., 1870, 



i 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 275 

Codia; mildly narcotic. Seeds, Maw-seed, yield Poppy oil. 
Concrete exudation from unripe capsules, Opium. U. S. P., 
Meconium, Succas thebaicus; narcotic, anodyne, soporific. 
Source of Morphine, Codeine and other alkaloids. 

1498. PARAMERIA, Benth. Parameria. A pocyiiaceae. 

Shrubby climbers. About 5 species, East Indies, (a) P. 
vnlnerdria Radlk., Philippine Islands, is the source of Cebu 



1499. PARIETARIA, L. Pellitory. Urticaceae. 

The ancient Latin name, whence the English word Pellitory. 
Herbs. About 7 species; 3 in U. S. 

a, P. officinalis L. Europe. Wall Pellitory, Wall ParitoryJ, 
Pellitory-of-the- wall, Wallwort, Lichwort; Ger. Glaskraut; Fr. 
Pari^taire (Codex). Perce-muraille; Sp. Parietaria. Herb 
astringent, diuretic, lithontriptic. (b) P. Pennsylvdnica 
Muhl., American Pellitory, is called also Hammerwort and 
Helxine. 

1500. PARINARIUM, Aubl. Gingerbread-tree. Rosaceae. 
Syn. Parinari, Nonda. Trees, some having edible fruits. 

About 40 species, tropical regions, (a.) P. macrophyllum 
Sabine. West Africa. Gingerbread Plum. (b. ) P. Jjonda 
F. Maell. Australia. Nonda tree. Fmit edible. Ginger- 
bread-tree. 

1501. PARIS, L. Herb Paris. Convallariaceae. 

From Latin par ' 'equal" , all parts of the plant being in fours. 
Herbs with the leaves in a single whorl. About 6 species, 
Europe and Asia. 

u. P. qiiadrifolia L. Europe. Herb-Paris, Herb of Paris, Herb- 
truelove, Devil-in-a-bush, Fox-grape*, Leopard's-bane*, Four- 
leaved-grass, One-berry; Ger. Einbeere; Fr. Parisette. Plant 
reputed narcotic. 

1502. PARISHELLA, Gray. Parishella. Lobeliaceae. 

Herb. One species in California. 

1503. PARKIA, R. Br. African Locust. Mimosaceae. 

Trees. About 25 species, tropical regions of Old and ^ew 
World. 

A. P. bi^Iandiilosa W. & A. Africa, originally from India. 
African Locust, Niita or JNutta tree, Doura (of Soudan), Sou- 
dan Coffee. Seeds, and saccharine pulp surrounding them, escu- 
lent; a substitute for coffee. 



1504, 



PARKINS6nIA, L. Horse-Bean, etc. Caesalpinaceae. 

Named for John Parkinson, herbalist to James I. Trees. 
Aboat 7 species, tropical America, 1 of Africa; 1 in U. S. (a) 
P. acilleata L. West Indies, Mexico and southern U. S. 
Retama, Horse-bean, Jerusalem Thorn ( Jamaica) . ^arA; febri- 
fuge. 



276 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYJIS 

1605. PARNASSIA, L. Grass of Parnassus. Saxifragaceae. 

The ancient Greek name, plant of "Parnassus". Scapose 
herbs with white or yellowish flowers. About 12 species, north 
temperate and arctic zones; 8 in U. S. Synonyms are White 
Buttercup, White Liverwort. 

1600. PARONYCHIA, Adans. Whitlowwort. Caryopliyllaceae. 

Greek plant name, "whitlow plant". Syn. Anychia, in part. 
Tufted perennials. About 40 species; 15 in U. S. Synonyms 
are Nailwort and Knot-grass*. 

a. P. argyrocoma (Michx. ) Nutt. (A. argyrocoma Michx. ). 
Maine to Georgia. Silver Whitlowwort, Silver Chickweed^ 
Silver-head. 

1607. PAROSELA, Cav. 1802. Parosela. Papilionaceae. 

Anagram of Psoralea. Syn. Dalea, Willd. 1808, not P. Br., 
1756. Herbs or shrubs with small purple, white or yellow 
flowers in spikes. About 110 species, New World; 46 in U. S. 

1608. PARRASIA, Greene. Parrasia. Criiciferae. 

Syn. Greggia, Gray 1852, not Engelm. 1848. Sub-shrubs. 
Two species, southwestern U. S. 

1609. PARRYA, R. Br. Parrya. Cruciferae. 

Low alpine herbs from thick perennial rootstocks. About 
15 species, northern hemisphere; 4 in U. S. 

1610. PARRYELLA, Tor. & Gr. Parryella. Papilionaceae. 

One species in U. S. 

1511. PARS6nS1A,P. Br. 1756, (notof R.Br. 1809). Lythraceae. 
Named for Dr. James Parsons, Scotch botanist. Syn., Cuphea, 
P. Br. 1756, also Ly thrum, in part. Herbs or shrubs. About 
180 species. New World; 5 in U. S. 

a. P. petiolata (L. ) Rusby (L. petiolatum L., C. viscosissima 
Jacq. ). Rhode Island to Georgia, west to Kansas. Blue 
Wax-weed, Clammy Cuphea, Tar-weed, Wax-bush, Wax-weed. 

1612. PARTHENICE, Gray. Parthenice. Compositae. 

Cinereous annual. One species, Colorado and Arizona. 

1613. PARTHENIUM, L. Feverfew, etc. Compositae. 

Greek plant name, "maidenly" or "pure". Syn. Hystero- 
phorus, Adans. Perennial herbs or shrubs. About 10 species, 
New World. 

a. P, Hysteropliorus L. (P. pinnatifidum Stokes). West Indies 

to southeastern U. S. Bastard Feverfew, Indian Mugwort, 
Wild Wormwood, W^hite-head (W. Indies), Brown-bush. 
Plant tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue. 

b. P. integrifolium L. (P. amplectens Raf. ). Maryland to 

Georgia, west to Texas and Minnesota. American Feverfew, 
Prairie Dock*, Cutting Almond, Nephritic plant, Wild Quinine. 
Plant bitter, diuretic, febrifuge. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 277 

1614. PARTHENOCiSSUS, Planch. 1887. Yitaceae. 

From Greek, "virgin's Cissus". Syn. Quinaria, Kaf. 1830, 
not Lour. 1790; Ampelopsis, Cissus, Hederaf, Vitis (Kew), in 
part. Climbing or trailing woody vines. About 10 species, 
Asia; one in N. America. 

a. P. quinquefolia (L.) Planch, (H. quinquefolia L., V. hedera- 

cea Willd. (Kew), A. quinquefolia Michx., C. quinquefolia 
Pers. ). Canada, eastern U. S. and Mexico, also in Cuba. 
Virginia Creeper, American Ivy, American-joy, FalBe Grape, 
Five-finger, Five-leaved Ivy, Five-fingered Ivy, American 
Woodbine, Woodbine*, Wild Woodbine, Wild Wood-vine, 
Woody Climber; Ger. Wilder Wein, Amerikanischer Epheu; 
Fr. Vigne vierge. Bark and twigs alterative, tonic, expectorant, 
diuretic. 

b. P. tricuspidata (Sieb. &Zucc. ) Planch. (A. tricuspidata S. & 

Z., V. inconstans Miq. (Kew), A. Veitchii of gardeners). 
Japan, widely cult, as an ornamental vine, Japanese Ivy. 

1516. PASSIFL(3rA, L. Passion-flower. Passifloraceae. 

Latin, * 'flower' ' of our Savior' s ' 'passion" . Herbaceous or 
woody climbers. About 250 species, tropical regions mostly of 
the New World; 9 in U. S. 

a. P. foetida L. Southeastern U. S., West Indies, etc. West 

Indian Love-in-a-mist, Wild Water-lemon. P/arjf expectorant, 
antispasmodic. 

b. P. hispida DC, (P. Marigouja Per.). Jamaica. Bull-hoof, 

Dutchman' s-laudanum. Flowers narcotic. 

c. P. incarndta L. Southeastern U. S. Wild Passion-flower 

or Passion-vine. Pla7it antispasmodic. Extract of joo^ used in 
treatment of ulcers, henaorrhoids, etc. Fruit edible, called 
May-pops. Similar medicinal properties belong to the Yellow 
Passion-flower, (d) P. Iiitea L., of southeastern U. S. 

e. P. laurifolia L. (P. tin! folia Juss.). West Indies to Brazil. 

Water Lemon, Jamaica Honeysuckle, Bay-leaved Passion-flower. 
Fruit edible. Leaven astringent, anthelmintic. 

f. P. quadrangularis L. Brazil, cult, in all tropical countries. 

Granadilla ( Diminutive of Granada, Spanish name of Pome- 
granate), Grenadilla. Fruit (i. e. pulp surrounding the seeds) 
esculent. Root narcotic. Many other species yield similar 
edible fruits, commonly known as granadilla, or in some cases, 
as water-lemon. The most notable are (g) P. edulis Sims, 
Brazil; (h) P. ligiilaris Juss., Mexico to Bolivia, of deli- 
cious flavor; (i) P. macrocarpa Masters, Brazil to Peru; 
fruit reaching eight pounds in weight; (j) P, maliformis L., 
West Indies to Brazil, Sweet Calabash, Sweet Water-lemon, 
Culupa, Curuba:}:. 

1616. PASTINACA, L. Parsnip. Umbelliferae. 

Latin name of Parsnip or Carrot, frompa^-^tw, "food". Syn. 
Peucedanum, in part. Herbs with fleshy roots and yellow 
flowers. About 7 species, Europe and Asia. 



278 PLANT NAMES AND'^YNONYMS 

a. P, sativa L. (Peucedanum sativum S. Benth. ). Europe and 
Asia, everywhere cult., nat. in U. S. Parsnep (Parsnip, Par- 
genep, Pastnip, Pasnet); The wild plant is known as Mad-nep, 
Mypes, Tank, Hart's-eye, Queen-weed. Root esculent. Seeds 
diuretic. 

1617. PATRINIA, Juss. Patrinia. Yalerianaceae. 

Karaed for M. Patrini, French botanist. Herbs with 
corymbed yellow flowers. About 8 species, Asia. (a) P. 
scabiosaefolia Link. Japan. Kesso. Moot antispasmodic. 

1618. PAULLINIA, L. Guarana, etc. Sapiiidaceae. 

Named for C. F. PauUini, German botanist, d. 1712. Shrub- 
by twining plants. About 125 species, mostly of tropical Amer- 
ica, one African. 

a. P. Cupdna Kunth (P. sorbilis 'Mart. ). Brazil. Crushed seeds 
moulded into cylindrical masses and dried constitute Guarana, 
U. S. P., Brazilian Cocoa; Pasta guarana, Pasta seminura 
paullinise; very rich in caflfeine, used as a beverage and as a 
nerve stimulant. 

1619. PAUL6wNIA, Sieb. & Zucc. !! Scrophiilariaceae* 
Named for Anna Paulowna, daughter of the Czar, Paul I. 

Syo. Bignoniaf, in part. Alarge tree resembling Catal pa. One 
species, Japan, nat. in southeastern U. S. Paulownia. 

1620. PAV6mA, Cav. Pavonia. Malvaceae. 
Named for Don Josef Pavon, botanical traveler in Peru. 

Herbs or small shrubs. About 70 species, wanner regions of 
America, a few in Asia; 4 in U. S. 

1621. PECTIS, L. - Pectis. - Compositae. 

From Latin pecten^ *'comb", alluding to the pappus. Sirong- 
scented herbs with small flower heads (yellow). About 50 spe- 
cies, warmer regions of New World, 12 in U. S. 

1622. PECTOCARYA, DC. 1840. Pectocarya. Bora^iiiaceae. 

From Greek, ''comb nut". Syn. Ktenospermum, Lehra. 1837. 
Low annuals with minute white flowers. About 6 species, New 
World; 4 in U. S. 

1623. PEDICULARIS, L. Lousewort. Scrophiilariaceae» 

Latin, "lousewort", the plants formerly believed to breed 
lice in sheep. Herbs. About 125 species, mostly of northern 
hemisphere; 33 in U. S. ; Ger. Lausekraut, Fr. Pediculaire. 

a. P. Canadt^iisis L. Canada to Florida, west to Colorado and 

south into Mexico. Wood Betony, Lousewort, High Heal-all, 
Beefsteak plant. Head Betony, Snaffles, Lousewort Foxglove 

b. P. paliistris L. Europe, Asia and northern N. America. Red- 

rattle, Cow's-wort, Marsh Lousewort. Similar to this species, 
but with smaller flowers, is (c) P. parviflora J. E. Smith of 
Oregon and British America. 

1624. PEDILANTHUS, Neck. Slipper Plant. Euphorbiaceae. 

From Greek, "sandal flower". Shrubs. About 15 species^ 
tropical America. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAB. 279 

a. P. tithjmaloides Poit. West Indies and S. America. Jew- 
bush, Slipper-plant, Slipper Spurge. Plant emelic, antisyphili- 
tic. 

1625. PEGANUM, L. Peganum. Zygopliyllareae. 

The Ureek nan)e of Rue, "solid'', alluding lo the fleshy 
leaves. Odorous herbs. About 5 species, warmer regions of 
New and Old World; 1 in U. S. 

1526. PELARGONIUM, L'Her. Geranium. Geraniaceae. 

From It reek, "siork plant", the beaked capsules reseuibling 
a stork's bill. lierb.s or shrubs with umbellate flowers. About 
400 species, Old World, mostly African. 

a. P. odoratissimiim Ait. South Africa. Nutmeg-scented Pelar- 
gonium or Geranium. Leavts yield a fragrant volatile oil often 
substituted J or oil of rose. From (b) P. radula (Cav. ) Ait., 
Rough Rose Geranium, and (c) P. capitattiiu (L. ) Ait., Eose- 
scemed Pelargonium or Geranium, similar oils are obtained, 
known as oil of Rose Geranium or oil of Pelargonium. See 
Andropogon. 

d. P. triste Ait. S. Africa. Night-scented Pelargonium. Tubers 
edible. Among the numerous cultivated Pelargoniums may be 
especially noted (e) P. graudiflorum Willd., the large- flowered 
Lady Washingi on Geranium, ( f ) P. peltiitliill Ait. , ivy-leaved 
Geranium and (g) P. zonale L'lier., the Common Horse- 
shoe Geranium. 

1527. PELLAEA, Link. Cliflf-Brake. Poljpodiaceae. 

From Greek, ''dark", alluding to the stipes. Syn. Fleris, in 
part. Rock-loving ferns. About 55 speiies; ]5 in U. S. (a) 
P, atropiirpiirea (L. ) Link. (Pter. atrof.urpurea L. ). Brit- 
ish America, south to Georgia and Arizona. Purple-stemmed 
Clift-brake, Clayton's Cliti-brake, Indian' s-dream. 

1528. PELTANDRA, Raf. Arrow- Arum. Arac<'ae. 
From Greek, "tshield stamen". Syn. Calla, Arum, Xantho- 

soma, in part, hog herbs with arrow-shaped leaves. Two 
species, both of eastern U. S. 

a. P. sag-ittaefolia (Michx. ) Morong (C. sagittaefolia Michx., P. 

alba Raf., X. sagittaefolia Chapm., not Schott. ). Virginia to 
Ilorida. White Arrow-arum, Arrow-leaved Spoon-flower. 

b. P. Virginica (L. ) Kunth (A. Virginicum L. ). Arrow Arum, 

Green Arrow- arum, Virginia Wake- robin, Tuckahoe*. Mhi- 
zonies acnd, abounding in starch, formerly used as food by the 
Indians. 

1529. PELTIPHYLLLM,Engelm. Saxifragaceae. 

From Greek, "shield leaf". One species in U. S. 

1530. PENAEA, L. Pensea. Penaeaceae. 

Named for Pierre Pena, French botanist, ]6th Century. Un- 
dershrubs. About 20 species, Africa. 



} 



280 PLANT NAMF^S AND SYNONYMS 

a, P. fucita L. (P, furcata Mur.. P. fnscata Aiict, not Poir., 
P. Sarci>calla L.) and (b^ P. iniicroiiata L. of central and 
southern Africa, are the reputed although improbable source of 
the exudate, Sarcocolla, Sarcocol, Anzeroot (Arabia), Gujara 
(Hindustan) ; ixer. Fleischleinigummi, Fischleimgumnii; Fr. 
Sarcocolle; reputed detergent, discutient, depilatory. 

1531. PESXISETUM, Pei-s. Egyptian Millet. Gramineae. 
From Latin, "feather bristle". Syn. Panicum, Penicillaria, 
in part. About 40 species, warmer regions. 

a. P. thyphoideuin Rich. (Pan. co?ruleum Mill., Penic. spicata 
Willd. ). Egypt to India, cult, in southern U. S. Egyptian or 
East Indian Millet, Cat-tailor Pearl Millet, Bajree (India), 
Egyptian Wheat. One of the principal cereals of India. In 
China (b) P, eereale Trin. is cultivated likewise. 

16S2. PENTACAENA, Bartling. Pentac«ena. Caryopliyllaceae. 

From Greek, "Five thorns". Tufted perennials with pun- 
gent subulate leaves. About 4 species, New World; 1 in south- 
western U. S. 

1533. PEXTACHAETA, Nutt. Pentachaeta. Compositae. 

From Greek, "F'ive awned". Low venial annuals. About 6 
species, southwestern U. S. 

1534. PENTHORUM, L. Ditch Stonecrop. Crassulaeeae. 

From Greek, "tive" and "rule", thepartsof the tlower being 
all in fives. Perennial herbs with flowei-s in secund cymes. 
Three known species, Asia and N. America; 1 in U. S. 

a, P. sedoides L. Canada and eastern U. S. Virginia Stone- 
crop, Ditch Stonecrop. Herb astringent. 

1535. PENTODOX, Hochst. Pentodon. Rnbiaeeae. 
From Greek, "five toothed". Syn. Oldenlandia, in part. 

Tender annuals. Two species, one in Africa, one in southeast- 
em U. S. to Cuba. 

1636. PENTSTEMON, Soland. Beard-tongue. Scrophnlariaceae, 

From Greek, "five stamens", the flowere having a fifth rudi- 
mentary stamen. Syn. Penstemon, Pentastemon. Peretmial 
herbs with showy flowers. About 110 species, North America; 
107 in U. S., mostly southweateni. 

1537. PEPER6mIA, Ruiz. & Pav. Peperomia. Piperaceae. 

From Greek, "pepper like". Fleshy herbs, some shrubby. 
About 400 species, warmer regions especiallv of New World; 2 
in U. S. 

1538. PERAMIUM, Salisb. 1812. Goodyera. Orchidaceae. 

Syn. Goodyera (Kew), R. Br. 1813, also Satyrium and 
Neottia, in part. Herbs with tufted basal leaves, the inconspic- 
uous flowei-s in bracted spikes. About 25 species; 3 in U. S. 

a. P. piibesceiis (Willd. ) MacM. (N. pubescens Willd., G. pubes- 
cens R. Br.). Canada and eastern U. S. Downy Rattlesnake 
Plantain, Net-leaf Plantain, Spotted Plantain, Rattlesnake- 
weed, Networt, Adder's Violet*, Ratsbane, Scrofula- weed. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 281 

P/an< reputed alterative. The smaller (b) P. repens (L. ) 
Salisb. (S. repens L., (x. repens K. Br.), Creeping or Lester 
Rattlesnake Plantain, is called also White Plantain, Smaller 
Net-leaf Plantain and Squirrel-ear. 

1689. PERAPHYliLLM, Xutt. Peraphyllum. Poniaceae. 
Shrubs, allied to Amelanchier. One species, central U. S. 

1540. PERfcSsKIA, L., not Veil. 1825. Bleo, etc. Cactaceae. 
Sjn. Pierescia, Peireskia. Leafy as well as thorny shrubs. 

About 15 species, tropical America. 

a. P. acubdta Mill. West Indies. Barbados or West Indian 
Gooseberry, Gooseberry shrub. Fruit edible. In New Granada 
the leaves of the Bleo, (b) P. Bleo DC, are used for salad. 

r 

1541. PEREZIA, Lag. Perezia. Compositae. 

Syn. Duraerelia, Less., not Lag.; Trixis, in part. Herbs or 
sub-shrubs. About 50 species, warmer regions of America; 5 
in U. S. 

a. P. adndta Gray (T. Pipitzahoac Schaf!ner.,D. Alamani DC. ). 
Central Mexico. Rhizome laxative. From this and other spe- 
cies is obtained pipitzahoic acid, called vegetable gold, which 
has purgative properties. 

1542. PERICOME, Gray Pericome. Compositae. 

From Greek, "hair all around", referring to the akenes. A 
strong-scented herb with yellow flowers. Arizona to New 
Mexico. A second species is found in Mexico. 

1643. PERILLA, L. Perilla. Labiatae. 
From vernacular, Hindustan. Syn. Ocimum, in part. An- 
nual herbs with colored leaves. Two species, natives of Asia. 

a. P. frut^scens (L. ) Brit. (O. frutescens L. 1753, P. ocimoides 
L. 1764). India, cult, in gardens and adv. in U. S. Perilla. 

•^v<gjl A variety with crisped leaves, P. frutescens Nankinensis (Lour. ) 
Brit., is called Beefsteak plant. «.j_»*« 

1644. PERIPLOCA, L. Climbing Dogsbane. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "twining". Twining vines. About 12 species, 
warmer regions of Old World, (a; P. Gra^ca L. Southern 
Europe. Milk-vine, Silk-vine, Climbing Dog's-bane. Plant 
used as a wolf poison. 

1646. PERITYLE, Benth. Perityle. Compositae. 

From Greek, "callous all around", of the akenes. Herbs 
with rather small flower-heads, white or yellow. About 12 spe- 
cies, Mexican border of U. S. 

1546. PERSEA, Gaertn, Avocado, etc. Lauraeeae. 

Greek name of some fruit-bearing tree. Syn. Laurus, Nota- 
phoebe, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 50 species, New 
W^orld; 3 in U. S. 

a. P. Borbonia (L. ) Spreng. (D. Borbonia L., P. Carolinensis 
Nees (Kew), L. Carolinensis Michx., L. Caroliniana Poir. , N. 
Borbonia Pax. ). Southeastern U. S. Ked Bay, White Bay, 
Isabel la- wood, False Mahogany, Tiss-wood. (b) P. pub^s- 
cens (Pursh) Sarg. of southeastern U. S. is called Swamp Bay. 



282 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. P. P^rsea ( L. ) Cockerell (L. Persea L., P. gratissimaGaertn., 
L, Indica Sieb., not L. ). Mexico to Brazil and Peru, cult, in 
all tropical countries. Avocado Pear, Avocado (Avicato, 
Avigato, Avocat, corrupted from Ahuaca or Aqnacata, verna- 
cular names), Alligator^ Pear, Holy-ghost Pear; Fr. Avoca tier. 
Fruit Vegetable butter, Midshipman's butter. Vegetable mar- 
row*; esculent. Seeds anthelmintic, anodyne. 

1647. PETALONYX, Gray. Petalonyx. Loasaceae. 

Herbs. Two species, Mexican border of U. S. 

1548. PETASITES, Gaerln. Sweet Coltsfoot, etc. Compositae. 

Ancient Greek plant name, meaning a "hat", from resem- 
blance of the leaves. Syn. Tussilago, I^ardosmia. in part. 
Scapose herbs from thick rootstocks. About 12 species, north 
temperate zone and northward; 4 in U. S, 

a, P. Petasites (L.) Karst. (T. PetasitesL., P. officinalis Moench, 
P. vulgaris Desf. ). Europe and northern Asia, adv, in U, S. 
Butter-bur, Butterfly Dock, Butter Dock, Kettle Dock, Batter 
Dock, Flea Dock, Bog Rhubarb, Poison Rhubarb, Pestilence- 
weed, Pestilencewort, Umbrella-leaf, Cleat, Eldin, Gallon, Ox- 
wort. Boot anthelmintic. Flowers diaphoretic. 

1549. PETERIA, Gray. Peteria. Papilioiiaceae. 

Shrubs with pinnate leaves. Two species, Mexican border of 

U.S. 

1560. PETIVERIA, L. Guinea-hen weed. Phytolaocaceae. 

Named for J. Petiver F. R. S., London apothecaiy, d. 1718. 
Undf rshrubs having a garlic-like odor. About 5 species, warm- 
er regions of America; 1 in U. S. 

a. P. allidcea L. Southeastern U. S., West Indies to Brazil. 
Guinea-hen weed (Jamaica), Strong-man's weed. P/a7i^ acrid, 
used as a counter-irritant for relief of toothache, etc. 

1551, PETRAD6rIA, Greene. Petradoria. Compositae. 

Syn. Solidago, in part. Herb. One species, western U. S. 

1562. PETROSELINUM, Hoffm. Parsley. Umbelliferae. 

Ancient Greek plant name, "rock parsley", whence the 
English word parsley. Syn. Carum, Apium, in part. Herbs. 
About 3 species, Mediterranean region. 

a. P. Petroseliiiuni (L. ) Lyons (A. Petroselinum L., C. Petro- 
selmum Benth. (Kew), P, sativum HofFm. ). Southern Europe 
to Asia Minor, and widely cult. Paisley (Perceley, Persel, Par- 
sil, Parcel), Apyum, March, Garden or Common Paiisley, Rock 
Parsley; Ger. Petersilie, Petersilge; Fr. Pereil; Sp. Peiegil. 
Fruit, Fructus petroselini, Fruct. (Semen) apii hortensis; source 
of apiol, an efficient emmenagogue. Boot diuretic. 

1553. PETUNIA, Juss. Petunia. Solanaceae. 

From petuv, a Brazilian name of "tobacco". Viscid pubes- 
cent herbs. About 12 species. South America. Two species are 
commonly cult, in gardens, (a) P. axillaris (Lam. ) B. S. P. 
[P. nyctaginiflora Juss. (Kew)], White Petunia, and (b) P. 
yioldcea Lindl., Purple (or often Variegated) Petunia. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 283 

1554. PEUCEDAMJM, L. Hog-Fennel, etc. Umb^liferae. 

The Greek name of an Umbelliferous plant. Syn. Atha- 
manta, Ferula, Oreoselinum, Selinum, iSmyrninm, Thysselinum, 
in part. Perennial herbs, nearly acaule>cent, from tuberous 
roots. About 125 species; 55 in U. S. See Anethum, Impera- 
toria and Selinum. 

a. P. ambigmira Nutt, Montana to Washington. Cowish, Tubers 

used for food by Indians. 

b. P. officinale L. Europe. Hog-fennel, Sow-fennel, Brimstone- 

wort, Sulphurwort, Sulphur-root, SuJphur-weed, Horestrang, 
Horet^trong, Hairstrong, Spreusidanyj; Ger. Haaretrangkraut, 
Schwefelwurz. -Rooi and ju/cc diuretic, antispasmodic, expec- 
torant. 

c. P. Oreoselinnni (L.) Moench (A. Oreoselinum L.,0.1egitimum 

Bieb., O. nigrum Delarb.). Europe. Mountain Parsley, 
Speedwell, Fluellin; Ger. Bergpelersilie. Seed and roo^ aroma- 
tic, aperient, deobstruent. 

d. P. palustre (L.) Michx. (Sel. palustre L.,T.palustre Hoffm.). 

Europe. Marsh Pars-ley, Marsh Smallage, Swamp Sow-fennel 
or Hng-fennel, Swamp Hairstrong; G<r. Sumpfsilge, Elsenich; 
Fr. Selin des marais. Persil des marais-. Hoot, Pad, olsnitii, 
pungent, acrid, formerly used in epilepsy. 

1555. PEUCEPHYLLUM, Gray. Peucephyllum. Compositae. 

From Greek, "Five-l*-aved" . Syn. Psaihyrotes, in part. 
Balsamic shrub. One species, Arizona to California. 

PEUMUS, seeBOLDU. 

1556. PHACA, L, | Milk Vetch*. Papilioiiaceae. 

Ancieut Greek name of Lentil. Syn. Astragalus (Kew), in 
part. Perennial herbs with inflated pods. Alaout 250 species, 
north temperate zone; 3 in U. S. (Heller), (a) P. loiigi- 
folia (Pursh) Nutt. (A. pictus var. tilifolius A. Gray) iscalled 
Bird-egg Pea. 

1657. PHACELIA, Juss. Pbacelia. Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, "fascicle", descriptive of inflorescence in some 
species. Syn. Eutoca, in part. Mostly annual herbs. About 
100 species, New World; 90 in U. S. 

1558. PHALACR^SERIS, Gray. Phalacroseris. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "bahl-headed Endive", A caulescent perennial. 
One species, California. 

1559. PHALARIS, L. Canary grass, etc. Oramlneae* 
Greek name of a kind of grass, "shining" . Robust grasses. 

About 10 species; 5 in U. S. 

a. P. aniudlnacea L. Europe, Asia and N. America. Reed 
Canary-grass, Daggers. Variety pieta, with variegated leaves,i& 
called Ribbon-grass, Painted-grass, Ladies' -laces, Bride' s-laces, 
London-lace. 



284 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. P. Cauari^nsis L. Europe and Canary Islands, where it is 
called Alpist, Canary-grass. Seeds, Bird-seed, much used as 
food for cage birds. 

1560. PHASEOLUS, L. (Phasellus). Bean. Papilionaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of a kind of Bean. Annual or peren- 
nial herbs, generally twining. About 70 species, warm and 
temperate climates; 10 in U. S. 

The following are important food plants, (a) P. derdsus 
Schranck, Brazil, Brazilian Bean; (b) P. luiidtus L., Tropi- 
cal America, now widely cult., Lima Bean, Carolina Bean, 
Sugar Bean, Butter Bean; (c) P. Max L. (P. Mungo L. 
(Kew), P. radicatus L. ), South Asia and tropical Australia; 
Green Gram (highly esteemed in India); (d) P.ndniiS L. 
[P. vulgaris L. var. (Kew)], Dwarf Field-bean; varieties 
are Dwarf Bush, Pea, Navy and Six- weeks Bean; (e) P. yul- 
garis L., India, early imported into Europe and now widely 
cult., Kidney- bean. Haricot, French String or Pole Bean; Ger. 
Gartenbohne; Fr. Haricot; Sp. Frigol, 

1561. PHEOOPTERIS, Fee. Beech Fern. Polypodiaceae. 

The Greek name, signifying "Beech fern". Syn. Polypo- 
dium, in part. Small or medium sized ferns. About 100 spe- 
cies; 6 in U. S. The Common Beech Fern is (a) P. Phegop- 
teris (L. ) Underw. ( P. polypodioides Fee). ( b ) P. Dryopteris 
(L. ) Fee (Polypodium Dryopteris L. ) is called Oak Fern or 
Pale Mountain Polypody. 

1562.PHELL6PTERUS,Benth.l867.Phellopterus.Umbelliferae. 
From Greek, "cork wing". Syn. Glehnia, F. Schmidt, 1867. 
Littoral herb. One species, Corea to Pacific coast U. S. 

1663. PHER6tRICHIS, Decne. Pherotrichis. Asclepiadaceae. 

One species, Mexico extending to U. S. 

1564. PHILADELPHUS,L.Syringa,MockOrange.Saxifragaceae 

Greek name of a sweet-flowering shrub, in honor of Ptolemy 
"Philadelphus". Shrubs with white fragrant flowers. About 
15 species, northern hemisphere; 6 in U. S. (Ger. Pfeifenstrauch; 
Fr. S^ringat). 

a. P. coronarius L. Europe, cult, and adv. in U. S. Garden 
Syringa, Mock Orange, Orange-flower tree. Not more orna- 
mental than our indigenous species. 

1566. PHILIBERTELLA, Vail. Philibertella. Asclepiadaceae. 

Diminutive from Philibertia. Syn. Philibertia, in part. 
Shrubby climbers. Six species in U. S. 

1566. PHIL6tRIA, Raf. 1818. Water-weed, yallisneriaceac. 

From Greek, "three loving' ', the leaves being often in whorls 

of three. Syn. Elodea, Michx. 1803, not Elodes, Adans. 1763, 

Udora, Nutt. 1818; Anacharis, in part. Water weeds. About 

8 species; 1 (or more) in U. S. 



SCIEXTIFIC AND POPULAR. 285 

a. p. Canadensis (Michi.) Brit. (E. Canadensis Michx. A. Cana- 
densis Planch. ). N.America, except extreme north, nat. in 
Europe. Water- weed, American AVater-weed (England), 
Ditch-moss, Water Thyme, Thyme-weed, Cat's- tails, Eaave, 
Babington's-curse (so called in England, because introduced by 
a botanist of that name. ) 

1567. PH1L6xERIIS, K. Br. Philoxerus. Amaranthaceae- 

From Greek, "drought loving". Herbs. About 6 species^ 
mostly South American; 1 in U. S. 

1568. PHL6mIS, L. Jerusalem Sage, etc. Labiatae. 
The Greek name of "Mullen", from resemblance of foliage. 

Herbs or shrubs, often with rugose puckered leaves. About 50 
species, Old World, (a) P. fruticosa L., southern Europe, 
is called Jerusalem Sage or Sage-leaf Mullen; (b) P. Herba- 
venti L., Mediterranean region, is Wind-herb; (c) P. Lych- 
nites L. , Europe, is Lampwick or Jupiter's- distaff 

1569. PHL6x, L. Phlox, Wild Sweet- William. Polemoniaceae. 

The Greek name of a plant with "flame" colored flowers. 
Ornamental herbs, with blue, purple, red or white flowers in 
terminal cymes. About 40 species, N. America and Russian 
Asia; 34 in U. S. (a) P. bryoides Nutt., Nebraska to W^yom- 
ing, is called Moss Phlox; (b) P. maciilata L., New Jersey 
to Minnesota and southward, is Wild Sweet-William, a name, 
however, applied to other species; (c) P. paniculata L., is the 
Common perennial Phlox of gardens; (d) P. speciosa Pursh, 
is the Pride-of-Columbia; (e) P. subuldta L., New York to 
Michigan and southward, is Ground or Moss Pink, W^ild Pink, 
Flowering Moss. The annual Phlox of gardens is derived 
from (f) P. Brummondii Hook, of Texas. 

1570. PHOENIX, L. Date Palm. Sabalaceae. 

The Greek name of (a). Palms with trunks covered with 
persistent leaf-bases. About 12 species, tropical Asia and 
Africa. 

a. P, dactylifera L. (P. excelsior Ca v. ) . North Africa to Persia 
and widely cult. Date Palm. Unripe fruit astringent. Ripe 
fruit esculent, (b) P. farinifera Roxb. of Singapore yields 
sago, (c) P. sylvestris Roxb. is the Wild Date of India, 
which yields date sugar (jaggery) and palm wine (toddy). 

1571. PHOLISMA, Nutt. Pholisma. Lenuoaceae. 

A leafless, succulent parasitic herb. One species, California. 

1572. PHORADENDRON, Nutt. Mistletoe. Lorauthaceae. 

From Greek, "thief tree". Syn. Viscum, in part. Leafy 
parasitic shrubs. About 80 species, New World; 4 in U. S. 

a. P. flavesceus (Pursh) Nutt. (V. flaveeceus Pursh.). New 
Jersey to Missouri and southward. American Mistletoe, Golden- 
bough. Plant ecbolic, antispasmodic, cardiac tonic. See Vis- 
cum, 

1573. PH6rMILM, Forst. Flax Lily. Liliaceae. 
Greek word for a "little basket". A shrubby plant. One 

or more species, New Zealand and Norfolk Islands. 



286 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. P. t^nax Forst. New Zealand and neighboring islands. Flax 

Lily, New Zealand Flax, New Zealand Hemp; Ger. Flachslilie; 
Fr. Lin (Chanvre) de la Nouvelle Zelande. Leaves yield a 
very strong fibre. Moot and leaf-bases vulnerary. 

1674. PHRYMA, L. Lopseed. Phrymaceae. 

An erect perennial shrub. One species, Canada and eastern 
U. S. 

1675. PHYLLANTHUS, L. Phyllanthus. Euphorbiaceae. 

From Greek, "leaf flower". Syn. Cicca, Emblica, in part. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. About 450 species, warmer regions of 
both hemispheres; 4 in U. S. 

-a. P. distichus (L.) J. Muell. (C. disticha L.). India. Tahiti 
Gooseberry, Star Gooseberry. Fruit esculent. Leaves diaphore- 
tic. Boot violently emetic. 

b. P. Emblica L. (E. officinalis Gaertn., C. Emblica Kurz). 

India. Unripe frail, Emblic Myrobtlans, White Galls; Myro- 
balani emblicae; Ger. Graue Myrobalanen; astringent. See 
Terminalia. 

<x P. Niuri L. and (d) P. Urinaria L., of India, are efficient 
diuretics. 

1576. PHYLL6dOCE, Salisb. Mountain Heath. Ericaceae. 
The name of a sea nymph. Syn. Andromeda, Menziesia, 

Bryanthus (Kew), in patt. Low shrubs. Three species, arc- 
tic and alpine regions of northern hemisphere; 1 in U. S. 

1577. PHYLLOSPADIX, Hook. Phyllo^padix. Naidaceae. 
Water weeds. Two species. Pacific coast, U. S. 

1678. PHYSALIS, L. Ground Cherry. Solanaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of (a), "bladdery''. Syn. Alkekengi, 
Tourn. Herbs with fruit enclosed in inflated calyx. About 
50 species, mostly American; 34 in U. S. 

a. P. Alkekengi L. (A. officinarum Moench). Mediterranean 

region eastward to Japan. Strawberry Tomato, Winter Cherry, 
Alkekengi, Bladder- herb. Fi^uit, Fructus v. Baccse alkeken- 
gi, Bacese halicacaKi; Ger. Judenkirschen, Blasenkirschen, 
Schlutten; Fr. Alkekenge coqueret (Codex); diuretic, refrig- 
erant. 

b. P. Periiviilna L. (A. pubescens Moench). South America, 

cult, in all sub-tropical countries. ( "ape Gooseberry, Peruvian 
Ground Cherry, Peruvian Strawberry Tomato, Husk Tomato, 
Poha or Paina of Hawaiian Islands. Fruit esculent, as also in 
(c) P. ixocarpa Brot. (P. aeqnata Jacq. ) of Mexico, Toma- 
tillo, Mexican Ground Cherry or Strawberry Totuaio; (d) P, 
Philadelphica Lam., eastern U. S., Philadelphia Ground 
Cherry; (e) P. pubescens L,, not Dunal, southern U. S. to 
California and S. America (also in InHia), Dwari Cape Goose- 
berry, Low Hairy Ground Cherry^, Dwarf Strawbe'ry Tomato; 
(f) P. viscosa L. 1753, not Pursh (P. Pennsylvanica L. 1763, 
not A. Gray), southeastern U. S. to S. America, Stellate 
Ground Ch«n*yg, Yellow Henbane. 



SCIEXTIFIC AND POPULAR. 287 

1679. PHYSAL6dES, Boehm. Apple of Peru. Solanaceae. 

From Greek, "resembling Physalis". Syn. Nicandra, Adans. 
1763; Atropa, in part. Robust herb with nodding blue flowers. 
One species, (a) P. phjsalodes (L. ) Brit. ( A. physalodes L., 
N. physaloides Gaert., P. Peruvianum Kze. ). Peru, cult, and 
adv. in U. S. Apple of Peru, Peruvian Bluebell. 

1680. PHYSARIA, A. Gray. Bladder-pod. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, "bladdery", alluding to the inflated fruit. 
Perennial herbs with yellow flowers. About 4 species, all of 
western U. S. 

1681. PHYSOSTEGIA, Benth. Lion's-heart, etc. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "bladder covering", alluding to inflated fruit- 
ing calyx. Syn. Dracocephalum, Prasium, in part. Perennial 
herbs with racemes of showy flowers. About 5 species, N. 
America; 4 in U. S. 

a. P. Yirginidna (L. ) Benth. (D. Virginianura L., D. speciosum 
Sweet). Canada and Eastern U. S. False Dragon-head, 
Obedient- plant, Lion' s-h eart. 

1582. PHYSOSTIGMA, Balfour. Calabar Beau. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "bladder stigma". Woody climbers. Two spe- 
cies, tropical Africa. 

a. P. venonosiim Balf. Western Africa. Calabar Bean, Ordeal 
Bean, Chop-nut; Ger. Calabarbohne, Ordealbohne; Fr. Fe^e de 
Calabar. Seed, Physostigna U. S. P., Physostigmatis Semen 
Br., Faba calabarica, a powerful poison, antagonizing atropine, 
anti-spasmodic, sedative. 

1683. PHYSl^RUS, Rich. Physurus. Orchidaceae. 

Terrestrial Orchids. About 40 species, warmer regions es- 
pecially of New World; 1 in U. S. 

1684. PHYTELEFHAS, Ruiz. & Pav. Ivory Palm. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, "ivory plant". Low palms with ample pinnate 
leaves. About 5 species, S. America. 

a. P. macrocarpa R. &P. Eastern slope of Andes. Ivory Palm. 
Seeds of this and of some other species constitute vegetable ivory, 
from which buttons, etc. are made. The fruit is called Negro- 
head, the seeds, Ivory-nuts, Corozo- or Taqua-nuts. 

1685. PHYTOLACCA, L. Poke-berry. Phytolaccaceae. 

From Greek and French, "Lacca plant", alluding to the 
crimson juice of the fruit. Perennial herbs or shrubs. About 
10 species, mostly tropical ; 1 in U. S. 

a. P. dioica L. Southern Europe to India. (A shade tree). 

Tree Poke, Bellasombra tree. Umbra tree. 

b. P. dec^^ndra L. Ontario and eastern U. S., west to Minnesota. 

Poke, Pocan, Scoke, Coakum, Garget, Pigeon-berry, Poke- 
weed, Virginian Poke, American Nightshade, Red ink plant, 
Red weed. Cancer Jalap, Foxglove*; Ger. Kermesbeere, Schar- 
lachbeere, Fr. Agouman, Morelle k grappes; Sp. Mazorquilla, 



288 PLANT NAMKS AND SYNONYMS 

Naraoll, Jabonera. Root, Phytolaccae Radix, U. S. P., Poke 
root. Fruit; Phytolaccae Fructus, U. S. P., Baccae solani 
racemoBi; Fr. Raisin d" Amerique; alterative, emetic, discutient. 
Young shoots used like asparagus, 

c. P. octandra L. (?) Mexico and West Indies. West Indian 
Foxglove, Calulu. Fruit in Mexico a substitute for soap. 

1586. PIAROPlIS,Ilaf. 1836. Water Hyacinth. Poutederiaceae. 

From Greek, "fat foot" . Syn. Eichhornia (Kew), Kunth. 
1843, Eicliornia A. Rich. ; Pontederia, in part. Aquatic herbs. 
One or two species; 1 in U. S. 

a. P. crdssipes (Mart.jRaf. (Pont, crassipes Mart., E. speciosa 
Kunth (Kew), E. crassipes Solms., Pont, azurea Hook.). 
Tropical America, nat. in Florida, where it impedes navigation 
of rivers. Water Hyacinth, Pitcher-plant*. 

1587. PICEA, Link. - Spruce. - Piiiaceae. 

Latin name of a conifer. Syn. Pinus, Abies, in part. Ever- 
green conical trees with pendulous cones. About 15 species, 
north temperate zone and northward; 8 in U. S. 

a. P. Canadensis (Mill.) B. S. P. (A. Canadensis Mill., Pinus 

alba Ait.,x\. alba Michx., not Mill., Picea alba Link). British 

America, south to New York, Michigan and Montana. White 

Spruce, Cat Pine, Cat Spruce, Pine Spruce, Sirgle or Skunk 
Spruce, Black Spruce^. 

b. P. Mariana (Mill.)B. S. P. (A. Mariana Mill., Pinus nigra 

Ait., A. nigra Desf., Picea nigra Link). Black Spruce, Spruce 
Pine, Blue or Double Spruce, White Spruce*, Spruce-gum tree, 
He-Balsam*, Juniper*. Hesinous exudate, Spruce gum, mas- 
ticatory. 

Other indigenous species are (c) P. Breweridna S. Wats.^ 
the highly ornamental Weeping Spruce of Oregon; (d) P. 
piingens Engelm. (P. Parryana Sarg. ), Blue or Colorado 
Spruce; (e) P. r libra (Lamb.) Link (P. rubens Sarg;.), 
Red Spruce of Canada and northeastern U. S. and (f) P. Sit- 
cli^nsis (Bong. ) T. & M., Sitka or Tideland Spruce, the lar- 
gest of the Spruces. 

1588. PICKERINGIA, Nutt. Pickeringia. Papilionaceae. 

Spiny shrub. One species, California. 

1589. PICRADENIA, Hook. 1833. Picradenia. Compositae^ 

From Greek, "bitter gland" . Syn. Actinella (Kew), Nutt. 
1818, not Pers. 1807; Hymenoxys, Cephalophora, in part. 
Bitter aromatic herbs with yellow flowers. About 20 species^ 
N. America; 16 in U. S., mostly in southwest. 

a. P. odorata (DC.) Brit. (H. odorata DC, A. odorata A. Gray.). 
Kansas to southern California and Mexico. Liraonilla, Fra- 
grant Picradenia. 

1590. PICRASMA, Blume 1815. Quassia. Simarubaceae. 

Syn. Aeschrion, Veil. 1827, Picrsena, Lindl. 1838; Quassia, 
Simaruba, in part. Trees. About 8 species, warmer regions^ 
Old and Xew World. See Quassia and Simaruba. 



SCTKNTIFR- AND POPT'LAK. 289' 

a. p. excelsa (Swz. ) Planch. (Q. excelsa Swz., Q. polygama 
Linds., Picra-na excelsa Lindl. (Kew), S. excelsa DC). 
West Indies. Quassia, Bitter Ash, Bitterwood tree, Lofty 
Quassia§ . Wood, Quassia wood, Jamaica Bitterwood ; Quassia, 
U. S. P., Quassia; lignum, Br., Lignum muscarum v. muscici- 
dum; Ger. Jamaika-Quassia; Jamaikanische Quassienholz, 
Fliegenholz; Fr. Quassie de la Jaraaique; Bitter tonic, insecti- 
cide, (b) P. qiiassioides (Ham.) Benn. of northern India 
has the same properties. 

PICRAMXU, see TARIRI. 

1591. PICRIS, L. Picris, Oxtongue. Compositae. 

From Greek, ''bitter". Syn. Helmintha, in part. Herbs 
with rather large heads of yellow flowers. About 35 species, 
Old World; 4 nat. in U. S. (a) P. echioides L., Europe, 
adv. in U. S., is called Bristly Oxtongue, Bugloss^, Bugloss 
Picris; (b) P. hieracioides L., Europe, nat. in U. S., is 
Hawkweed Picris, LangdebeefJ; Ger. Bitterkraut; Fr. Picride, 
Langue de boeuf. Plant very bitter. 

1592. PIERIS, D. Don. Fetter-bush, etc. Ericac«a«. 
Dedicated to the Muse, Pieris. Syn. Andromeda, Portuna, 

in part. Shrubs or small trees. About 12 species, northern 
hemisphere; 4 in U. S. 

a. P. Mariana (L.) Benth. & Hook. (A. Mariana L. ). Rhode 
Island to Florida. Stagger- bush, Wicke, Sorrel tree*. Plant 
poisonous to animals, (b) P. nitida (Bartr. ) B. & H. (A. 
nitida Bartr. ) of southeastern U. S. and Cuba is called Fetter- 
bush and Pipe-stem. 

1593. PILOCARPUS, Vahl. Jaborandi. Riitaceae. 
From Greek, "cap fruit". Shrubs with pellucid-dotted 

leaves. About 12 species, warmer regions of New World. 

a. P. Jaborandi Holmes. Brazil. Jaborandi, Pernambuco 
Jaborandi. Leaflet^: Pilocarpus, U. S. P., Jaborandi Folia, 
Br., Folia Jaborandi P. G., Jaborandi (Codex). [U. S. P. 
recognises also (b), Codex, (b) ''and allied species"]. Sialago- 
gue, mydriatic; more rich than the other species in pilocarpine. 
Other species also gathered as jaborandi are (b) P. pennatl- 
foliusLam., (P. SelloanusEng.), Rio Janeiro Jaborandi; (c) 
P. microphyllus Stapf. ; (d) P. spicatiis St. Hil.; (e) P. 
tracliyloplius Holmes, commercial jaborandi being a mixture 
of two or more of these. Leaves of the worthless Swdrtzia 
decipiens Holmes are said to be now often substituted for (c). 

1594. PIMESTA, Lindl. Allspice, Bay tree, etc. Myrtaceae* 
From the Spanish name. Syn. Pimentus; Amomis, Eugenia^ 

Myrcia, Myrtus, in part. Aromatic trees. About 5 species, 
tropical America. 

a. P. dcris (Swz.) Wight (Myrtus acris Swz., Myrcia acris, 
DC, E. acris W. & Am., P. citrifolia Kostel., A. acris, Berg. ). 
West Indies and Venezuela. Wild Clove, Bayberry, Jamaica 
Bayberry, Black or Wild Cinnamon. Leaves, source of oil Of 



290 TLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

Bay, Oleum Myrciae.'U. S. P., Oil of Myrcia;Ger. Myrcienoi 
Bayol; Fr. Essence de Myrcie Genuine Bay rum is distilled 
from the leaves. 

b. P. Pimenta (L. ) Lyons (Myrtus Pimenta L., P. Pimento 
Griseb., P. officinalis Lindl. (Kew), E. Pimenta DC, P. vul- 
garis W. & A.). West Indies and tropical America, cult, 
elsewhere in tropical countries. Allspice tree, Jamaica Pepper. 
The nearly ripe fruit Allspice, Pimento; Pimenta, U. S. P., 
Br., Semen v. Fructus amomi, Piper jamaicense; Ger. Nelken- 
pfeffer, Englisches Gewiirz, Neugewtirz; Fr. Piment de la 
Jamalque, Touie-epice; Sp. Pimienta gorda, Malaguecta; 
aromatic, stimulant, condiment; source of oil of Pimenta. 

1595. PIMPINELLA, L. Pimpernel, etc. Umbelliferae. 

The Latin name of (b). Syn. Anisum, Slum, in part. 
Perennial herbs. About 75 species, northern hemisphere and 
S. Africa; 2 in U. S. 

a. P. Anisum L. (A. vulgare Moench). Southern Europe to the 

Levant, also cult. Anise plant. Common Anise ( Aneys, Anny, 
Aunyle), Sweet Cumin. i^naV, A.nise, Aniseed; .^.tiisum U.S.P. 
Anisi Fructus, Br., Fructus v. Semen anisi vulgaris; Ger, Anis, 
Anissamen; Fr. Anis, Anis vert (Codex); carminative, stomach- 
ic; source of oil of Anise. 

b. P, Saxifraga L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Pimpernel (Pimpi- 

nel), Bennet, Burnet Saxifrage, Small Burnet Saxifrage, Small 
Saxifrage, Small Pimpernel, Break-stone, Old-man' s-play thing; 
Ger. Pimpernell, Bibernell; Fr. Grand Bocage, Boot, Radix 
Pimpinellae, P. G., aromatic, pungent, nauseant, 

c. P. Sisarum (L. ) Benth. (S. Sisarum L., perhaps also S. Ninsi 

L. ). Corea. Skirret, Selt-heal*, Ninsin, Booi a culinary 
vegetable (celery-like), also a substitute for ginseng. 

1596. PINAROPAPPUS, Less, Pinaropappus. Cichoriaceae* 

From Greek, "dirty pappus", Svn, Troximonf, in part. 
Perennial herb. One species, Texas to Mexico. 

1597. PINCKNEYA, Eichard. Fever-tree, Rubiaceae. 
Named for Gen, C, C. Pinckney, S, Carolina statesman. 

Syn. Cinchona, in part. Tree. One species, \j. S. 

a. P. piibens Michx. (P. pubescens Lara., C. Caroliniana Poir. ). 
S, Carolina to Florida. Fever-tree. Bark, Georgia bark, 
Carolina bark, Florida bark, Pinckney bark, Bitter bark; tonic, 
febrifuge. 

1598. PINELLIA, Tenore. Pinellia. Araceae* 
Herbs. About 4 species, western Asia, (a) P. tul>erifera 

Ten. Japan. Han-ge. Herb has properties of colchicum, 

1599. PINGUiCULA, L, Butter wort, LentilHilaceae* 

Latin dim, from pinguid "fat", the leaves unctions to the 
touch, Scapose herbs. About 30 species, cooler regions of both 
hemispheres; 6 in V. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 291 

a. P. vulgaris L. Xorthern Europe, Asia and X . America, south 
to Xew York and Minnesota. Butterwort, Bog Violet, Marsh 
Violet, Earning-orrass (i. e. Curdling-grass), Bean- weed. Rot- 
grass, Sheep-rot, Sheep-weed, Sheep-root, Steep-grass, York- 
shire Sanicle. 

1«00. PINITES, Goep.. Pinites. Pinaceae. 

A genus of extinct plants known only by their fossil remains. 
(a) P. succinifer Goeppert (Pitoxylumsucciniferum Kraus), 
The principal source of the Baltic Amber, a fossil resin; Suc- 
cinum, Ambra flava; Ger. Bernstein, Agstein; Fr. Succin, 
Ambre jaune. 

1601. PINUS, L. - - Pine. - - Pinaceae. 

The Latin name, of Celtic origin. Evergreen trees with 
needle-like leaves. About 70 species, northern hemisphere: 39 
m U. S. 

a. P. Cembra L. European Alps and northern Asia. Siberian 
Stone-pine, Swiss Stone-pine, Siberian Cedar. Seeda, Cembra 
nuts, Pine nuts, Zibel nuts; edible and rich in oil. Exudate is 
Riga balsam or Carpathian balsam. The Stone Pine of south- 
ern Europe, (b) P. Pi'iiea L., yields also edible nuts. Pine 
nuts; Fr. Pignons, Ital. Pinocchi. 

American species yielding edible seeds are (c) P. edulis 
Engelm,, Texas to Arizona, Xew Mexico Piny on (Sp. piiion); 
(d) P. cembroides Zucc, Arizona to Mexico, Stone-seed 
Piny on; (e) P. mouophjlla Torr. & Frem., Nevada Xut- 
pine. Soft-shelled Piny on; (f) P. Parryana Engelm., south- 
ern and lower California, and (g) P. Sabiiiiana Uougl., Gray- 
leaf Pine, Digger Pine, Nut Pine, the last formerly supplying 
the chief food of some of the aborigines. 

h. P. Lambertiaiia Dougl. Mountains of California and north- 
ward. Crreat Sugar-pine, Sugar Pine, Giant Pine, Shake Pine. 
The king of Pines, only surpassed in size by the giant Sequoia. 
Tree yields a saccharine exudate. 

i. P. paliistris Mill. (P. australisMichx. ). Virginia to Florida 
and Texas. Long-leaved Pine, Georgia Pine, Southern or 
Swamp Pine, Broom Pine, Fat Pine, Florida or Virginia Pine, 
Georgia or Texas Yellow Pine, Southern or Yellow Pitch-pine, 
Southern Haixi Pine. Long-straw Pine, Turpentine Pine, Yel- 
low Pine, White-rosin tree. Resinous exudate is White Turpen- 
tine, Turpentine gum or American Thus, from which is obtain- 
ed oil of turpentine and resin (Kesma, U. S. P., Rosin, Colo- 
phony). Timber hard, compact and durable. 

]. P. Pinaster Solander (P. maritima Poir. ). Southern Europe. 
Cluster Pine, Pinaster. Source of most of the French turpen- 
tine. The crude product, Bordeaux turpentine, is known in 
commerce as gallipot. From (k) P. Halepensis Mill. (P. 
maritima Lamb ), the Aleppo Pine, is obtained in Provence the 
Aleppo turpentine. From the resinous (1) P. Laricio Poir. 
of southern Europe, the Corsican Pine, is obtained the Austrian 
turpentine. From (m) P. Puniilio Haenke of central Europe 
is obtained Hungarian turpentine, Balsamum hungaricura, also 
a volatile oil called Oleum templinum; Grer. Krummholzol, 
Latschenol. 



292 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

n. P. poiiderosa Dougl. British Columbia and Montana, south 
to Texas and Mexico. Western Yellow Pine, Western Pitch 
Pine, Bull Pine, Gambler Parry's Pine, Long-leaved Pine (of 
the West), Red Pine (western), Trucker Pine. Timber light, 
strong and very durable. 

o. P. resinosa Ait. Canada and northeastern U. S. (.'anadian 
Pine, Red Pine (eastern), Norway Pine*. 

p. P, rigida Mill. Canada to Georgia and Kentucky. Pitch 
, Pine, Torch Pine, Sap Pine, Candlewood or Lightwood Pine, 
Hard or Yellow Pine, Black Norway Pine. Largely used for 
manufacture of tar. 

q. P. Strobus L. Canada, south to Georgia and Iowa. W^hite 
Pine, American White Pine, America,n Deal Pine, Soft Deal 
Pine, Northern Pine, Spruce Pine, Weymouth Pine. Ti.yiiber 
light, strong, easily worked and durable. 

r. P. sylvestris L. Europe and northern Asia. Scotch l*ine. 
Red Pine (European), Baltic or Norway Pine, Riga Pine, 
Scotch Fir, Foehre, Vippe, European or Red Deal. An im- 
portanl timber tree. Resinous exudate, Common Turpentine (of 
Europe), in England known as Common Frankincense; source 
of the Russian and German oil of turpentine. Leaves yield oil 
of Pinus Sylvestris, of agreeable fragrance. 

s. P. Taecla L. Delaware to Florida, west to Texas and Arkansas. 
Loblolly Pine, Old-field Pine, Frankincense Pine, called also 
Longshucks and Bastard, Foxtail, Indian, Longstraw, Prairie, 
Rosemary, Sap, Slash, Swamp, Torch and Virginia Pine. 
Largely used for manufacture of tar. Besinous exudate Amer- 
ican Thus. 

t. P. Teocotl Ch. & Schlecht. Mexico. Ocote Pine, Torch Pine; 
Source of Mexican Turpentine, Brea turpentine. 

1602. PIPER, L. - - Pepper. - - Piperaceae. 

The Latin name. Syn. Artanthe, Ottonia, Serronia, Steffen- 
sia. Mostly shrubby climbers, a few trees or tall herbs. About 
650 species, tropical regions. See Chavica, Cubeba and 
Methysticum. 

a. P. augustifolium R. & P. (A. elongata Miq., P. elongatum 

Vahl., Stef. elongata Kunth. ). Mexico to Brazil and Peru. 
Matico. Leaves, Matico. U. S. P., Maticae folia; Ger. Matico- 
blatter; Fr. Matico (Codex); Sp. Yerba (Palo) de soldado; 
astringent, terebinthinate, stimulant. 

b. P. Carpiinya R. & Pav. Chili and Peru. Leaves aromatic, 

stomachic, (c) P. Jabor^udi Veil. (Ser. Jaborandi Guill.^ 
O. Jaborandi Kunth). Brazil. Jaborandi (See Pilocarpus), 
according to Peckolt the true Jaborandi of Brazil, Yaguarundi 
(Paraguay). Root pungent, sialagogue. The following spe- 
cies are also known locally in Brazil as Jaborandi; (d) P. 
reticiilatum L. ; (e). P. iingiuciilatum R. &P. (P. nodosum 
Link.) and probably (f) P. citrifdlium Lam. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 293 

g. P. UIgriim L. India, cult, in many tropical countries. Black 
Pepper plant. Unripe fruit, Black Pepper, Common Pepper; 
Piper. U. S. P., Piper Nigrum, Br.; Ger. Schwarzer Pfefler; 
Fr. Poivre noir (Codex); Sp. Pimienta negra. White Pepper, 
Piper album, is the fruit deprived of epicarp and sarcocarp. 
Antiperiodic, counter-irritant, chiefly used as a stomachic stimu- 
lant and condiment; source of piperine, 

h. P. Novae- HoUaiidae Miq. Australia. Australian Pepper. 
Fruit a powerful stimulant of the mucous membrane. 

i. P. peMtiim L. and ( j ) P. uuibellatum L. Tropical America. 
Both plants called Caapeba and Periparabo, in the West Indies 
Lizard's- tail and Ass' -foot. Rhizomes diuretic. Leaves discu- 
tient. 

1003. PIRKJUETA, Aubl. Piriqueta. Tunieraceae. 

Syn. Turnera, in part. Herbs or shrubs. About 20 species, 
mostly of S. America, a few in Africa; 1 in U. S. 

1604. PIS6nIA, L. Cock-spur, etc. Nyctagiiiaceae. 

Named for Dr. William Piso, traveler in Brazil,* 17tli Century. 
Trees or shrubs with corky wood. About 60 species, mainly of 
tropical America and Pacific Islands; 3 in U. 8. 

a. P. aciileata L. Tropical America to southern Florida. Cock- 

spur, Fingrigo, used for hedges. 

b. P. obtusata Jacq. Tropical America to southern Florida. 

Beef-wood, Corkwood-, Loblolly tree. 

1605. PISTACIA,L. Pistachio, Turpentine tree. Aiiacardiaceae. 

From the ancient Greek name. Trees. About 8 species, 
north temperate zone. 

a. P. Leutiscus L. Mediterranean basin. Mastic tree. Balsam 
tree, Lentisk, Lentiscus. Resinous exudate, Mastic (Mastich), 
Scio Mastic; Mastiche, U. S. P., Br., Mastix, Resinamasticbe; 
Ger. Mastix; Fr. Mastic; masticatory (hence the name), used 
for map- varnish, etc. The Algerine or Barbarv Mastic is de- 
rived from (b) P. Atlaiitica Desf., Bombay Mastic from (c) 
P. iniitica F. & M. (P. Cabulica Stokes ) and (d) P. Khinjuk 
Stocks, northeastern India to Persia and Egypt. 

e. P. Terebinthus L. (P. terebinthina St. Lag. ). Mediterranean 

basin and eastwai-d. Turpentine tree. Resinous exudate, Chian 
Turpentine, Cyprian or Scio Turpentine, Alk, Alk gum, 
Terebinthina chia v. cypria. Has been recommended in can- 
cer. 

f. P, vera L. (P. terebinthus Mill., notL. ). Southern Europe to 

Persia. Pistachio-nut tree. /Seef/s, Pistachio-nut, Bladder-nut; 
Ger. Pimperniisse, Pistacien; esculent. 

1606. PISTIA, L. - Water-Lettuce. - Araceae. 
From Greek, liquid, alluding to habitat. A floating water 

plant. One species, widely distributed in tropical regions 
(U. S.). (a) P. stratiotes L. (with numerous svnonyms), 
West Indian Water-lettuce, Tropical Duckmeat or Duckweed. 



294 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1607. PISUM, L. - Pea. - Papilionaceae. 

The classical name. Herbs climbing by tendrils. Two spe- 
cies, natives of Asia. 

a. P. sativum L. Mediterranean region, now universally cult. 

Garden Pea, Common Pea, Field Pea. Varieties are Sugar 
Pea, String Pea, etc. Seeds esculent. 

1608. PITHE€0L6bIUM, Mart. 1837. Mimosaceae. 

From Greek, "ape's ear", from fancied resemblance of pods. 
Syn, Zygia, P. Br. 1756; Inga, Mimosa, in part. Trees with 
white flowers in globose heads. More than 100 species, tropi- 
cal America and Asia; 4 in U. S. 

a P. diilce Benth. Mexico, nat. in India, etc. Guamuchil, Ma- 
nila Tamarind (India). Seeds surrounded by an edible sweet 
pulp. 

b. P. Saiuau Benth. Brazil and Venezuela. Samang (Saman, 

Zamang), Genisaro, Kain tree. Saccharine podn fed to stock. 
(c) P. brevifolinm Benth,, Texas to Mexico, is called 
Huajillo; (d) P. flexicaule Coult., Texas to California and 
Mexico, is called locally Ebony; (e) P. Uuguis-cati (L. ) 
Benth. (M. Unguis-cati L., M. rosea Vahl.), Cai's-claw. 

1609. PLAGI0b6tHRYS, Fisch. & Mey. Boraginaceae. 

From Greek, "oblique pit". Syn. Eritrichium, Echidio- 
carya, Myosotis, in part. Annual herbs. About 15 species, 
western N. America; 13 in U. S. 

1610. PLANERA, J. F. Gmel. Planer tree. Ulmaceae. 
Named for Prof. J. J. Planer of Erfurt, d. 1-789. An Elm- 
like tree. One species, southeastern U. S. Syn. Water Elm. 

1611. PLANTAGO, L. Plantain. Plantagrinaceae. 

The Latin name. Herbs, mostly acaulescent, a few shrubby. 
Over 200 species; 20 in U. S. 

a. P. Corouopns, Lam. Europe. Hartshorn Plantain, Buck's- 

horn Plantain, Buck Plantain, Herb ivy, Star-of-the-earth. 

b. P. lauceolata L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. and widely 

elsewhere. Rib-grass, Ripple-grass, Ribwort, English Plantaii,, 
Snake Plantain, Black-jacks, Chimney-sweep, Clock, Cocks, 
Dogs-rib, Headsman, Hen-plant, Jack-straws, Kemp, Kemp- 
seed, Leechwort, Long Plantain, Ram's-tongue, Rat-tail, Way- 
bread, Windles; Ger. Spitzer Wegerich o. VVtgetritt, Fr. 
Plantain [Codex, the name including also (c) and (d)];Sp. 
Lauten. Herb, Herba plantaginis, haem6static, vulnerary. 
Seeds mucilaginous. 

c. P. major L. Em-ope and Asia, nat. in U. S. where it is said 

to have been known to the Indians as "White-man's-foot". 
Common Plantain, Plantain, Bird-seed Plantain, Round-leav- 
ed or Greater Plantain, Broad-leaf, Docr-yard Plantain. Hen- 
plant, Healing-blade, Kemp*, Lamb's-foot, Way-bread; Ger. 
Grosser Wegerich, Sauohr. Pro})ertie8 and uses of (b). 



SCIENTIFIC .\yiD POPULAR. 295 

«i. P. media L. Europe, adv. in U. S., Hoary Plantain, LamVs- 
tongae, Lamb' s-lettuce, Fire-leaves, Fire-weed (England), 
Healing-herb, etc.; Uer. Mittler Wegerich. Properties and 
uses of ( b ) . 

e. P. oviita ForsW. (P. decumbens Forsk.). Northern Africa. 

The P. Ispa^hiila Roxb. cult, in India, is believed to be a 
variety of this species. Seeds (of the variety), Spogel-seed, 
Ispaghul, Aspaghul seed; mucilaginous, demulcent, 

f. P. Psilliuui L. Mediterranean basin. Fleawort, Flea-seed or 

Branching Plantain. Seeds, Flea-seed; Ger. Flohsamen; Fr. 
Graines de puces; mucilaginous, demulcent. 

1612. PLATANUS, L. Plane-tree. Platanaceae. 

Ivatin from the ancient Greek name. Large trees with 

palmately lobed leaves and exfoliating bark. About 7 species, 
north temperate zone; 3 in U. S. 

a. P. occidentalis L. Ontario to Florida, west to Texas and 
Minnesota. The largest tree of eastern America. Buttonwood 
tree. Button-ball, Sycamore* False Sycamore, American Plane- 
tree, Water Beecht. The Californian Plane-tree is (b) P. 
raceiiiosa Nutt. The Plane-iree of Europe and Asia is (c) P. 
orientalis L., called also Chinar Tree. 

1613. PLATYSPERMUM, Hook, (not Hoffm. ) (!rucif«>rae. 

From Greek, "flat seed". Low annual herb. One species, 
Pacific coast of U. S. 

1614. PL AT YSTEMON, Benth. 1834. Cream-cups. Papaveraceae. 

From Greek, "flat stamen". Syn. Boothia. Dougl. 1834. 
Annual herb. One species, California . 

1615. PLECTRITES, D( . Plectrites. Yaleriaiiaceae. 

Syn. Valerianella, in part. Herbs. About 8 species, west- 
ern U. S. 

1616. PLEEA, Michx. Pleea. - Liliaceae. 

Herb. A single species, southern U. S. 

1617. PLEUR1C6SP0RA, Gray. Moiu.tropaceae. 

A small scaly herb. One species, California. 

1618. PLEUROGYNIA, Eschol. (Pleurogyne.) Geiitianaceae. 

From Greek, "rib stigma". Syn. Swertia, in part. An- 
nuals with rather large blue flowers. About 7 species, higher 
north latitudes, 2 in U. S. 

1619. PLUCHEA, Cass. Marsh Fleabane. Coinpositae. 

Named for the Abb^ N. A. Pluche of Paris, 18th Century. 
Syn. Baccharis, Erigeron, in part. Herbs, some shrubby, with 
small flower-heads. About 30 species, widely distributed; 6 in 
U. S. * -^ ' . 

a. P. eamphorata (L. ) DC. (E. camphoratumL.). Atlantic and 
Gulf coast of U. S., also in West Indies. Spicy Fleabane, 
Salt-marsh Fleabane, Plowman's- wort, Camphor plant, (b) 
P. odorata Cass., West Indies, is called Riverside Tobacco. 



296 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1G20. PLUMBAGO, L. Lead wort. Pliiinba^inaceae. 

Perennial herbs or shrubby climbers. About 15 species, 
northern hemisphere, 1 in U. S. 

a, P. Europaea L. Europe. Common Leadwort, Toothwort, 
Dentellaria; Ger. Bleiwurz. J?z?c6 epispastic, emetic, (b) P. 
rosea L., India, and (c) P. seaudeus L., San Domingo, called 
Herbe au diable, have the same properties. 

1621. PLUMERIA, L. (Plumieria, Plumiera). Apocynaceae. 

Named for M. Plumier, French traveler and botanist, d. 
1706. Ornamental shrubs, about 45 species, tropical America. 

a. P. riibra L. Tropical America. Jasmine tree, Eed Jasmine, 
Frangipane, Fraugipanni, Nosegay-tree, Ked Nosegay-tree, 
Snake-wood*, (b) P. acutifolia Poir is called in india Pa- 
goda tree, in Burmah Kambodja; (c) P. alba L. in West In- 
^ dies is called Pagoda-tree, While Nosegay-tree. 

1622. PLUMMERA, Gray. Plummera. Compositae. 

Named for its discoverer Miss Plummer (Mrs. J. G. Lem- 
mon). Strong-scented robust herb with yellow flowers. One 
species, Arizona. 

1623. PNEUMARIA, Hill. Sea Lungwort. Boraginaceae, 

From (rreek, "lungwort". Syn. Mertensia (Kew), Pul- 
monaria, Steenhammera, in part. A fleshy perennial herb, 
one species, north temperate zone (U. vS.). 

a. P. maritima (L. ) Hill. Pulm, maritima L., M. maritima 
S. F. Gray (Kew), S. maritima Eeichb.). Coasts of Europe, 
Asia aud N. America. Sea Lungwort, Sea Bugloss, Oyster- 
plant*. 

1624. PODISTERA, Wats. Podistera. Umbelliferae, 

Herb. One species, Nevada. 

1625. PODOPHYLLUM, L. Mandrake, etc. Berberidaceae. 

From Greek, "foot leaf". Herbs from perennial rootstocks. 
About 4 species, N. America and Asia; 1 in U. S. 

a. P. peltatiim L. Ontario to Florida, west to Texas and Minne- 
sota. May Apple, Wild Mandrake, American Mandrake, 
Mandrake, Wild Lemon, Ground Lemon, Hog Apple, Devil's 
Apple, Indian Apple, Kaccoon- berry, Duck's-foot, L'mbrella- 
plant, Vegetable Calomel. Rhizome, Mandrake-root; Podo- 
phyllum, U. S. P., Podophylli Rhizoma Br. ; Ger. Fussblatt- 
wurzel; Fr. Rhizome de podophyllum (Codex); cathartic, 
laxative, cholagogue. Active constituent, podophyllotoxin. 
Fruit edible, (b) P. Emodi Wallish of southern Asia has 
similar properties. 

1626. PODOSTEMMA, Greene. Podostemma. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, ''foot garland". Syn. Asclepias, in part. 
Herbs. Five species in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 297 

1627. PODOSTEMON, Michx. River-weed. Podostemaceae. 

From Greek, "foot stamen", the ovary being borne on a 
slender stalk. Aquatic or paludal plants. About 20 species, 
one in eastern U. S., viz. (a) P. Ceratopliyllum Michx., 
River-weed, -Thread-foot. 

1G28. PODOSTIOMA, Ell. 1817. Podostigma. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, ''stalked stigma". Syn. Stylandra, Nutt. 1818. 
Perennial herb. One species, southeastern U. 8. 

1629. POGOOYNE, Benth. Pogogyne. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "beard pistil". Aromatic low annuals. Five 

species, all of California. 

1630. POGONIA, Juss. Snake-mouth, etc. Orcliidaceae. 

From Greek, ''bearded". Syn. Arethusa, in part. Ter- 
restrial orchids. About 30 species; 5 in U. S. 

a. P. ophiogrlossoides (L. ) Ker. Eastern U. S. to Canada. Rose 
Pogonia, Adder's Pogonia, Snake-mouth, Adder's-mouth Po- 
gonia or Orchis, (b) P.triautliophora (Sw. ) B. S.P . (P. peu- 
dulaLindl.). Eastern U. S. Nodding Pogonia, Three-birds, 
c. P. verticillata ( Willd. ) Xutt. Eastern U. 8. and Ontario. 
Whorled Pogonia, Whorled Snake-mouth. 

1631. POGOSTEMON, Desf. Patchouli, etc. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "bearded stamen". Herbs, some shrubby. 

About 35 species, East Indies to Japan. 

a. P. Heyneaniis Benth. (P. Patchouly Pelletier, P. suavis Ten- 
ore). East Indies. Patchouli plant. Patchouli Balm. Vola- 
tile oil distilled from the plant is Patchouli (Patchouly) or 
Putcha-pat, much used in perfumery, 

1632. POINCIANA, L. (Poincea,Xeck.). Caesalpinaceae. 
Highly ornamental trees . About 6 species, tropical regions, 

(a) P. regia Boj. Madagascar, planted for ornament in all 
tropical countries. Royal Poinciana. 

1633. POLASISLi, Raf. Clammy-weed. Capparidaeeae. 

From Greek, "very unequal", referring to the stamens. 
Syn. Cleome, Jacksonia, in part. Strongly scented herbs. 
About 15 species, temperate and tropical regions; 4 in U. S. 

a. P. graveolens Raf. (C. graveolens Raf. (Kew. ), not L., C. 
dodecandra Michx. ). British America, south to New York, 
Kansas and Colorado. Clammy-weed, Worm-weed, False 
Mustard. Plant acrid, counter-irritant, vermifuge. 

1634. POLEMONIUM, L. Greek Valerian, etc. Polemoiiiaceae. 

Latin name of \ alerian, of Greek origin. Herbs, mostly 
perennial. About 20 species, north temperate zone; 16 in U.S., 
mostly western. 

a. P. caeriileiim L. Europe. Greek Valerian, Jacob' s-ladder, 
Ladder-to-heaven, Charity, Makebale; Ger. Speerkraut; Fr. 
Val^riane grecque. Properties of (c). (b) P. Vau Briiu- 
tiae Brit, of northeastern U. S., American Jacob' s-ladder, 
closely resembles this species. 



298 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. P, reptans L. Eastern U. S. Abscess-root, American Abscess- 
root, American Greek Valerian, Creeping Greek Valerian, 
Jacob' s-ladder*. Bluebell* Forget-me-not* Sweet-root; Ger. 
Geschwiirwurzel. Root alterative, astringent, diaphoretic. 

1635. POLIANTHES, L. Tuberose. Amaryllidaceae. 

From Greek, "white flowered" . Syn. Polyanthus, Tuberosa, 
Heist. Herbs from tuberous rootstocks. About 3 species, 
tropical America. 

a. P. tuberosa L. (T. arnica Medic). Mexico and widely cult. 
Tuberose, Mistress-of-the-night. Flowers fragrant, much used 
in perfumery. 

1636. POLIOMINTHA, Gray. Poliumintha. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "hoary Mint". Syn. Hedeomat, in part. 

Hoary suttrutescent plants. Three sj)ecies, Mexican border of 
U. S. 

1637. POLYCARPON, Loefl. All-seed. Caryopliyllaceae. 

From Greek, "manv fruited". Slender annuals. About 6 
species, widely distributed; 1 nat. in California, viz. (a) P. 
tetraphyllum L. from Europe, called All-seed. 

1638. POLYGALA, L. Milkwort. Polygalaceae. 

From Greek, "abounding in milk". Herbs, rarely shrubs. 
About 260 species; 44 in U. S. 

a. P. ainara L. Europe. Bitter Milkwort, European Bitter 

Poly gala; Ger. Kreuzblume, Kreuzwurz. Herb, Herba poly- 
galae, bitter tonic, stomachic. See (d). 

b. P. major Jacq. Southeastern Europe. Hungarian Milkwort. 

Root, Radix polygalse hungarica^. 

c. P. paiicifolia Willd. (P. uniflora Michx. ). British America, 

south to Georgia and Illinois. Fringed Milkwort or Folygala, 
Flowering Wintergreen, Gay-wings, May-wings, Babies'-feet, 
Babies' -toes. Babies' -slippers, Bird-on-the-wing, Dwarf Milk- 
wort, Indian Pink, Ladies' -slipper*, Little Pollom, Evergreen 
Snakeroot. 

d. P. poly gama Walt. (P. rubella Muhl. ). Canada and eastern 

U. S.* Bitter Milkwort, Pink Milkwort or Folygala, Racemed 
Milkwort, Centaury. Properties of (a), as have also: (e) P. 
Soopjiria Kunth., Southern U. S. and Mexico; (f) P. JJiit- 
tallii T. & Gr., eastern U. S., Nuttall's Milkwort, Ground 
Centaury, and (g) P. ' Tiridescens L. (P. sanguinea L., not 
Nutt. ). Canada and ea.stern U. S. Field or Purple Milkwort, 
Strawberry-tassel. 

h. P. Senega L. Canada to N. Carolina, west to Minnesota. 
Senega Snakeroot, Seneca Snakeroot, Seneca root, Rattlesnake 
root. Mountain Flax; Ger. Senegawurzel; Fr, Polygala de Vir- 
ginie (Codex). Root, Senega, U. S. P., Senegae Radix, Br., 
Rad. polygalse virginianae; acrid, stimulani, expectorant. A 
robust variety, Maryland to Tennessee and Michigan, is P. 
Senega latifolia T. & Gr. The White or False Senega root, 
having similar properties is from (j) P. Boykiiiii Xutt., 
southern and southwestern LT. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 299 

Other species of interest are (k) P. cruciata, eastern U.S., 
Cross-leaved Milkwort, Marsh Milkwort or Polygala, Drum- 
heads; (1) P. iiicarnata L., eastern U. S. to Mexico, Pink 
Milkwort, (American) Rogation-flower, Procession-flower; 
(m) P. Intea L., eastern l\ S., Orange Milkwort, Wild 
Bnch dor's- buttons. Yellow Milkwort or Polygala; (n) P. Ser- 
pen taria Eck. & Zey., South Africa, root regarded an alexi- 
pharmic; (o) P. veneiiosa Jnss., Java, acrid and poisonous, 
and (p) P. vulgaris L., Europe, European Milkwort, Cross- 
flower, Four-sisters, Gang-flower, Procession-flower, Rogation- 
flower, Robin's-eye. 

1639. P0LYG0NATU3l,Adans. Solomon' s-seal.Couvallarlaeeae. 
The Greek name, "many jointed". Syn. Convallaria, in 

part. Herbs with scarred rootstocks. About 20 species, north 
temperate zone; 2 in U. S. 

a. P. biflorum (Walt.) EH. (C. biflora Walt.). Ontario and 

eastern IJ. S. Hairy or Twin-flowered Solomon' s-seal. Dwarf 
Solomon' s-seal or Seal wort, Conquer-John . Rhizome of this and 
of ( b ) collected in America as Solomon' s-seal . 

b. P. comniutatiim (R. &S. ) Dietr. (P. giganteum Dietr. (Kew), 

C. commutata R. c^ S. ). Canada to Georgia, west to Louisiana 
and Utah. Great Solomon' s-seal. Giant or Smooth Solomon's 
seal, Sealwort, Drop-berry. 

c P. multifloriiui (L. ) All. (C. multiflora L. ). Europe and 
Asia. Many-flowered »Solomon' s-seal ^., David' s-harp, .Jacob's- 
ladder, Ladder-to-heaven, Scala coeii, Lily-of-the mountain, 
Fraxinelle, Drop-berry, Whitewort. Rhizome of this and of 
(d), Solomon' s-seal (of Europe), Our-Lady' s-seal. Lady' s-seal, 
Seal-of-heaven, White-root; Ger. Weisswurzel, Salomon's- 
siegel; Fr. Sceau de Salomon; formerly reputed to possess mar- 
velous healing virtues. 

d. P. offleiuale (L. ) All. (C. oflBcinalis L., C. Polygonatum L., 
P. vulgare Desf. ). Europe and Asia. True Solomon'.s-seal, 
Sealwort, with synonyms of ( c) ; Fr. Sceau de Salomon ( ( 'odex ) . 

1640. POLYOONELLA, Michx. Jointweed. Polyg:oiiaeeae. 

Latin, dim. of "Polygonum". Syn. Polygonum, (jonopy- 
rum, in part. Herbs with jointed stems. About 8 species, all 
ofU. S. (a) P. articiilata (L. ) Meisn., Coast Jointweed, is 
called also Sand-grass. 

1641. POLYGONUM, L. Knotweed, etc. Polygon aceae. 

The Greek name, meaning "many jointed'', ^yn. Listorta, 
in part. Herbs, some shrubby, with spiked, raeemed or capitate 
inflorescence. About 200 species, 66 in U. S. 

a. P. ampllibium L. Europe and British America, south to 

Kentucky, Colorado and California. Water Persicaria, Willow- 
weed, Willow-grass, Ground Willow, Red-shanks, Hearts- ease*. 

b. P. arifoliiim L. Canada and northea.stern U. S. Halberd- 

leaved Tear-thumb, Scratch-grass, Sickle-grass. The latter 
names apply also to (c) P. sagitatiiiii I^., Arrow-leaved 
Tear- thumb, a more common species. 



300 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. P. aviculdre L. Europe, Asia and N. America. Knot-grass, 

Door-weed, Door-grass, All-seed, Armstrong, Beggar-weed, 
Bird's-tongue, Bird-grass, Bird- weed, Centinode, Cow-grass, 
Crab-weed, Finzach, Goose-grass, Hog-weed, Iron-grass, Knot- 
wort, Male Knot-grass, Ninety-knot, Mantil, Pink-weed, Spar- 
row-tongue, Stone- weed, Swine' s-grass, Tacker-grass, Way- 
grass, Wire-grass*, Wire-weed. 

e. P. Bistorta L. (B. officinalis Eaf., B. major S. F. Gray). 

Europe and northern Asia. Bistort (i. e. twice bent), Snake- 
weed, Adders wort, Dragon wort, Easter- ledges, Easter-magi en ts, 
Astrology]:, Osterich, English Serpentary, Snakewort, Passions, 
Red-legs, Sweet Dock, Twice-writhen; Ger. Wiesenknoterich, 
Natterwurz, Knoterich; Fr. Bistorte (Codex), Couleuvrine. 
Bhizome, Bistorta, Bad. l3istort8e. Bad. columbinse; astringent. 
Similar properties belong to the indigenous (f) P. Virginia- 
num L., Virginia Knotweed, Virginia Bistort; also to the 
circumpolar (g) P. >ivipanim L. (B. viviparaS. F. Gray), 
Alpine Bistort, Serpent-grass. 

h. P. CouvolviiliiS L. Asia, nat. in Europe and U. S. Black 
Bindweed. Blackbird Bindweed, Climbing or Corn Bindweed, 
Ivy or Knot Bindweed, Bear-bind, Corn- bind, Devil' s-tether, 
With-wind, Climbing Buckwheat*. The name False Buck- 
wheat is given to the similar (i) P. cristdtum Engelm. & Gr.; 
(j)P. dumetoriiiii L. and (k) P. scaudens L. 

1. p. Hydropiper L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Water-pepper, 
Smartweed, Biting Knotweed; Biting Persicaria, Bite-tongue, 
Lake-weed, Pepper-plant, Red-knees, Red-shanks, Sickleweed*, 
Ciilrage, Ciderage, Arse-smart, Arsenickj. P/an^ acrid, diure- 
tic. 

m. P. orientale L. India, nat. in U. S. Prince's-feather, 
Gentleman' s-cane, Garden Persicary, Ragged-sailor. 

n. P. Persicaria L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Spotted Knotweed, 
Black-heart, Crab' s-claws, Heart-weed, Heart's-ease* (U. S.), 
Heart' s-ear, Lover' s-pride, Peachwort, Persicaria, Persicary, 
Pink-weed, Red-shanks, Red-weed, Willow-weed, Plumbago*. 

o. P. pimctatiim Ell. rP. acre H. B. K., P. Hydropiper Michx., 
not L. ). British America, U. S. throughout, and southward. 
American Smartweed, Dotted or Water Smartweed, Arsesmart, 
Arsmart, Hydropiper, Water-pepper, Turkey-troop. Herb ac- 
rid, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue. 

p. P. tinctorium Ait. Japan and China. Japanese Indigo plant, 
A source of indigo. 

1642. POLYMNIA, L. Leaf-cup. Compositae. 

Dedicated to the Muse Polhymnia. Perennial herbs, some 
shrubby. About 10 species, New World; 2 in L^. S. 

a. P. UvedAlia L. Eastern U. S. Yellow Leaf-cup, Bear's-foot, 
Yellow Bear' 8-foot, Large-flowering Leaf-cup, Uvedalia. Boot 
tonic, stimulant. 



SCIENTIFIC AXD POPULAR. 301 

1643. POLYPODIUM, L. Polypody. Polyiwdiaceae. 

Greek name of a kind of Fern, "many footed" . Ferns from 
creeping rootstocks. About 350 species; 11 in U. S. 

a. P, viilgdre L. Xorthem Asia, Europe and N. America. Com- 
mon Polypody (Polypod, Polypode, Polypoddy), Rock Brake-", 
Adder's Fern* Ever-fern, Golden Maidenhair*, Golden Poly- 
pody, Golden-locks, Moss Fern, Wall Fern, Wood Feni, Poly- 
pody of the Oak, Polypody of the Wall; Ger. Gemeiner Tiip- 
felfarn, Siissfarn, Engelsiiss; Fr. Polypode Commun (Codex). 
Rhizome, Radix polypodii, R. tiliculse dulcis; expectorant, 
diuretic. 

1644. POLIPORUS, Fries. Agaric, etc. Hymeiiouiycetes. 

From Greek, having "many pores". Syn. Boletus, in part. 
Fungi (toadstools), mostly of corky or woody texture. A few 
are edible. 

a. P. fomentarius (L. ) Fries (B. fomentarius L. ). Southern 
and middle Europe. Oak Agaric, Surgeon's Agaric, Spunk, 
Punk, Touchwood; Ger. Wundschwamm, Feuerschwamm, 
Zunder; Fr. Agaric de chene (Codex). Fungus absorbent, 
hemostatic, (b) P. ignarius (L. ) Fries (B. ignariusL.) and 
(c) P. margindtlis Fries, yield a similar Agaric, but harder. 

d. P. officinalis Fries (B. laricis Jacq., B. purgans Pers. ). Europe 
and northern Asia. White Agaric, Larch Agaric, Male Agaric, 
Purging Agaric, Amadou, German Tinder; Ger. Larchen- 
schwamm; Fr. Agaric blanc officinal, Polypore du Meleze (Co. 
dex); hemostatic, purgative in large, astringent in small doses, 

1645. POLYPREMUM, L. Polypremum. Logaiiiaceae. 

From Greek, "many stemmed". Obscure annual herb. One 
species, southern U. S. and Mexico. 

1646. POLYPTERIS, Nutt. Polypteris. Coiiipositae. 

From Greek, "many winged". Syn. Stevia, Palafoxia, in 

part. Rough herbs with pink or purple flowers. About 6 spe- 
cies. North America; 4 in U. S. 

1647. P0LY8TACHYA, Hook. Polystachya. Orchidaceae. 

From Greek, "many offshoots". Small epiphytes, mostly 
natives of Africa, a few in tropical America and Asia; 1 in U. S. 

1648. POLYTAESIA, DC. Polytsenia. Umbel liferae. 

From Greek, with "many fillets" (i. e. oil-tubes). Herb 
with yellow flowers. One species, east-central U. S. 

1649. POLYTRICHUM, L. Hair cap Moss. Musci. 
From Greek, "very hairy". Tall showy mosses, north tem- 
perate and arctic zones. About 10 in U. S. 

a. P. comniiine L. Europe and U. S. Golden Maidenhair, 
Bear Moss, Besom Moss, Golden Moss, Goldilocks, Silver 
Heather, Silver Ling; Ger. Golduer Widerthon. Plant, Herba 
adianti aurei, H. polytrichi; diuretic, as is (b) P. jimiperiniim 
Hedw., Europe and U. S., Hair-cap Moss, Bear's-bed, Ground 
Moss, May-queen Moss, Robin's Rye. 



302 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1660. PONTEDERIA, L. Pickerel- weed. Poiitederiaceae. 

Named for Prof. G. Pontedera of Padua, d. 1767. Aquatic 
herbs with spikes of bkie flowers. About 8 species, New World; 
1 in U. S. 

1651. PONTHIEVA, E. Br. Ponthieva. Orcbidaceae. 

Terrestrial orchids. About 15 species, New World; 1 in U. S. 

1652. p6pULUS, L. Poplar, Aspen, etc. Salicaceae. 

The classical Latin name, whence our word "poplar" . Trees 
with soft wood. About 25 species, northern hemisphere, es- 
pecially in higher latitudes; 11 in U. S. 

a. P. alba L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Abele (Abel, 

Arbell, Awbel, Abbey), Silver Poplar (Popple), Silver-leaf or 
White Poplar, Aspen Poplar, Great Aspen, White Asp, Dutch 
Beech, E-attler tree, White-bark. 

b. P. balsamifera L. British America and northern part of U. S. 

Balsam Poplar, Tacamahac. A variety, P. balsamifera candi- 
cans (Ait.) A. Gray, is known as Balm-of-Gilead. Leaf-buds 
resinous, aromatic, expectorant. 

c. P. deltoides Marsh (P. Carolinensls Moench, P. monilefera 

Ait., P. angulata Ait., P. Canadensis Desf.). Canada, south to 
Florida and New Mexico. Cottonwood, Necklace Poplar, 
Carolina Poplar, Yellow Cottonwood, Big Cottonwood, Cotton- 
tree, Italian Black Poplar, Carolina Poplar, Kiver or Water 
Poplar, Berrv-bearing Poplar. (d) P. beteropbylla L. in 
the eastern States and (e) P. acuminata Rydb. also (f ) P. 
aug'ustifolia James, in the west are also called Cottonwood, 
(g) P. tricbocarpba T. &G., California to Alaska, is called 
Black Cottonwood or Balsam Cottonwood. 

h. P. Eiipbratica Olivier. Northern Africa, east to Thibet and 
southern Siberia. Garab tree of the Arabs. The "willow" of 
Scripture (Ps. 137). 

i. P. tremuloides Michx. British America, south to Kentucky, 
New Mexico and California. American Aspen (Asp, Aps, 
Espen, Haspen), Mountain Asp, Quaking Asp, Auld-wive's- 
tongues, Trembling Poplar, Quiver-leaf, White or American 
Poplar. The Aspen of Europe, to which most of the above 
names were originally applied, is (j) P. tremiila L. The 
Great Aspen or Large-toothed Asj)en of the eastern U. S. is (k) 
P. graudideutata Michx. 

1. P. nigra L. (including P. dilatata Ait.). Europe. Black 
Poplar (Pipple, Popillary, Pepillary), Cat-foot Poplar, Old 
English or Willow Poplar, Cotton-tree. The variety Italica 
Du Boi (P. fastigiata Desf. ) is the well-known Lombardy Pop- 
lar, called also Black-lady or Water Poplar. 

1653. PORLIERIA, R. &Pay. (Porliera). Zygopbyllaceae. 

Named in honor of a Spanish botanist. Syn. Guaiacum, in 
part. Shrubs or trees with pinnate leaves. Two species, tropi- 
cal America; 1 in U. S., viz. (a) P. aug'ustifolia (Engelm. ). 
Texas to Mexico. Wood has properties of Guaiacum q. v. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 303 

1654. POROPHYLLUM, Vaill. Porophyllum. Compositae. 

From Greek, *'pore leaved", the leaves having pellucid dots. 
Herbs or sub-shrubs. About 30 species, New World; 3 in U. S. 

1655. PORTERANTHUS, Britton, 1894. Rosaceae. 
Named for Prof. T. C. Porter of Lafayette College. Syn. 

Gillenia, Moench 1802, not Gillena, Adans. 1763; Spiraea, 
in part. Perennial herbs with rather large white or pinkish 
flowers. Two species, both in U. S. 

a. P. stipulatus (Muhl.) Brit. (S. stipulata Muhl., G. stipulacea 

Nutt. ). New York to Louisiana and Indian Territory. Amer- 
ican Ipecac, Indian Physic, with other synonyms of (b). 

b. P. trifolijitus (L. ) Brit. (S. trifoliataL.,G. trifoliata Moench). 

New York to Georgia, west to Missouri. Indian Physic, Bow- 
man's- root, Indian Hippo, False Ipecac, Western Dropwort, 
Meadow-sweet*. Root emetic, expectorant. 

1656. PORTULACA, L. Portulaca, Purslane. Portiilacaceae. 

The Latin name, Fleshy herbs, blossomiug in brighi sun- 
shine. About 30 species, mostly of New World; 9 in U. S. 

a. P. grandiflora Hook. South America, cult, in gardens and 

adv. in U. S. Garden Portulaca, Sun plant, Showy Portulaca, 
French or Garden Purslane, Wax Pink, Mexican Eose, Rose 
Moss, Kentucky Moss. 

b. P, oleracea L. Tropical America, nat. in U. S. and widely 

elsewhere. Purslane, Purslain, (Pursley, Pussley). Used as 
a pot herb. Reputed vulnerary and antiscorbutic. 

1657. POTAMOGETON, L. Pondweed. Naidaceae. 
The Gr«-ek name of apond weed, **river inhabitant". Aqua- 
tic plants with leaves either floating or submerged. About 60 
well-detined species, temperate regions; 38 in U. S. The spe- 
cies are called also Water-spike and Pickerel- weed* 

a. P. natans L. Europe, Asia and N. America. Common Float- 
ing Pondweed, Deil's-spoons, Batter-dock, Flatter-dock, Fish- 
leaves, Tench-weed, (b) P. crispiis L. is called Curly-leaved 
Pondweed, Water Caltropsf, Muckweed; (c) P. liiceiiS L., 
Cornstalk-weed, Shining P(mdweed; (d) F. pectiuatus L., 
Fennel-leaved Pond-weed, Pond-grass. 

1658. POTENTILLA, L. Barren Strawberry, etc. Rosaceae. 
Latm, diminutive of poiens, ''powerful" (medicinally). Syn. 

Tormentilla, in part. Herbs or shrubs. About 150 species, 
nearly all of north temperate zone; 90 in U. S. 

a. P. Anserina L. Europe, Asia and N. America. Silverweed, 

Silver-feather, Wild Agrimonyf, Buttercup* Caraoroche, Wild 
Tansy, Goose Tansy, Goose-grass, Dog's Tansy (Scotland), 
Argentina; Ger. Giinserich, Silberkraut; Fr. Argentine (Codex) 
Anserine. Plant astringent, tonic. 

b. P. argentea L. Europe, Asia, Canada and northeastern U. S. 

Silvery Cinquefoil, Hoary Cinquefoil. Included in the Argen- 
tine of the French Codex. 



304 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. P. Canadensis L. (includes P. simplex Michx.). Canada and 

eastern U.S. Five-tingei', Common Cinquefoil (of America), 
Sinkfieldt, Star-Hower, Kiinning Buttercup. Eesembles (f) 
and used in its place. 

d. P. fruticosa L, British America, south to New .Jersey, Min- 

nesota, Arizona and California. Shrubby Cinquefoil, Hard- 
hack, Prairie- weed. 

e. P. Monspeli^nsis L. (P. Norvegica L. (Kew), P. hirsuta 

Michx.). Eurojie, Asia and N. America. Rough Cinquefoil, 
Barren Strawberry. 

f. P. reptans L. (T. reptans Stokes, not L. ) . Europe and Asia. 

Creeping Cinquefoil (Sinkfield), European Five-finger, Gold- 
en-blossom; Ger. Fiinffingerkraut; Fr. Potentille rampante, 
Quintefeuille. Plant, astringent, febrifuge. 

g. P. Tormentilla Neck. {,T. erecta L., T. officinalis Curt, P. 

officinalis S. F. Gray). Europe and northern Asia. Tormen- 
tilla (Tormentil, Thormantle), Septfoil (Setfoil), Blood- 
root*, Ewe Daisy, Shepherd 's-knot. Sheep 's-knapperty (Ire- 
land). Rhizome, Rad. Tormentilla?; Ger. Tormentillwurzel, 
Euhrwurzel, Heideckerwurzel, Blutwurzel; Fr. Tormentille; 
astringent, febrifuge. 

1659. PREMNA, L. Premna. Terbenaceae. 

From Greek, "stump''. Shrubs and trees. About 45 spe- 
cies, warmer regions of Old World. 

a. P. Taitensis DC. Tahiti to Fiji. Yaro. Bark one of the 
constituents of Tonga, a Fiji remedy for neuralgia, etc. 

1660. PRIMULA, L. Primrose. Primulaceae. 

The Latin name, "early" blooming. Perennial scapose 
herbs. About 150 species, mostly of northern hemisphere; 14 
in U. S. 

a. P. Auricula L. Southern Europe, cult, in gardens. Auricula 

(i. e. ursi auricula), Yellow Auricula (of Alps), Bear's-ear, 
(Bezor), French or Mountain Cowslip, Dusty-miller, Primmilyif:, 
Tanner' s-apron. 

b. P. elatior Hill. (P. veris L. in part). Europe. Oxlip, Great 

Cowslip, Cow-sinkin, Pagle (Paigle, Peagle). 

c. P. farinosa L. (P. Auricula Hill., notL.). Europe, Asia and 

northern N. America, south to Michigan. Mealy Primrose, 
Bird's-eye Primrose, Scotch Primrose, Bonny- bird-een. Powder- 
ed-beau. 

d. P. officinalis Jacq. (P. vulgaris Hill, not Huds., P. veris L., 

in part). Europe. Cowslip, English Cowslip, Cowslip Prim- 
rose, Culverkeys, Lady's-keys, Herb Peter, St. Peter's-wort*, 
Pagle (Paigle, Pagil), Pretty Mullen (Mullein), Palsywort, 
Polyanthus (Polander|), the last a cultivated variety; Ger. 
Primel, Peterschltissel, Himmelschliissel ; Fr. Primav^re JRoot 
Rad. paralyseos, Rad. arthritica, expectorant, antispasmodic. 
Flovjers nervine. 



SCIRXIJI-K; AMI) rOPULAR. 305 

1661. PRIOISOPSIS, Xutt. Prionopsis. tonipositee. 

From Greek, "saw like" , alluding to leaf maygins. Syn. Donia, 
Aplopappus (Kew), in part. Herb with large heads of yellow 
flowers. One species, Kansas to Texas. 

1662. PRIVA, Adans. Priya. Verbeiiaeeae. 

Perennial herb^. About 10 species, warmer regions of both 
hemispheres; 1 in U. S., viz. (a) P. eohindta Juss., Brazil 
to Florida, Styptic-bur, Velvet-bur. 

1663. PROSERPINACA, L. Mermaid-weed. Haloragidaceae. 

From Latin, "forward creeping". Aquatic herbs. Two 
species, both of eastern U. S. to AVest Indies. 

1664. PR0S<3pIS, L. Mesquit. Miinosaceae. 

Ancient Greek plant name, meaning a "face". Syn. Algaro- 
bia, Benth.; Acacia, Mimosa, in part. Trees or shrubs, usually 
thorny. About 20 species, warm or tropical regions; 3 in U. S. 

a. P. juliflora (Swz. ) DC. (M. juliflora Swz., Acacia juliflora 
Willd. Alg. juliflora Heyne; includes P. glanduloea Tor.). 
Southern U. S. to Mexico and West Indies. Mesquit (Mes- 
quit e, Mezquite, Meskit), Honey Mesquit, Honey-pod, Honey 
Locust* Locust Mesquit, C'ashaw, July-flower (Jamaica), Alga- 
roba (Algarroba). Saccharine pods (algarobo, i. e. carob) used 
for fodder. See Ceratonia. Flowers yield abundant honey. 
Gvmviy exudate, Texas Mesquit gum. The bark of the South 
American Algaroba, (b) P. diilcis Kunth (Alg. dulcis 
Benth.), Algarobilla bark, is used for tanning. 

c. P. odorata Tor. & Frem. (P. pubescens Benth.). Mexico to 
California. Screw Bean, Screw-pod Mesquit, Tornillo. 

1665. PR6tEA, L. Cape Honeysuckle, etc. Proteaceae. 

Named from Proteus of ancient mythology. Shrubs with 
flowers in dense cone-like heads. About 80 species, mostly of 
S. Africa, (a.) P. mellifera Thunb. Cape Honeysuckle, 
Honey-flower, Sugar- bush. The nectar used for coughs. 

1666. PROTIUM, Burm. 1768. Caranna, etc. Biirseraceae. 

Syn. Icica, Aubl. 1775, Dammara, Gaertn. 1791, not Lam. 
1786; Amyrif*, in part. Balsamic trees. About 50 species, 
tropical regions of Old and New World. 

a. P. Carjina (H. B. K.) March (I. Carana H, B. K., I. Caranna 

Auct. ). Brazil. Caranna tree. Oleoresin from this and other 
species is called Cai-anna. 

b, P. heptaphyllnm (Aubl.) March (I. heptaphylla Aubl., L 

Tacamahaca H. B. K. ). Northern S. America. Hyawa tree, 
Incense-wood. Resinous exudate, Tacaiftahac; Fr. Tacamahaca 
(R^sine), Tacamaque terreuse (Codex). Used like Burgundy 
pitch. 

e. P. IcicarJba (DC.) March (L IcicaribaDC. ) • Brazil. Source 
of Brazilian Elemi. 

1667. PRUNELLA, L. (Brunella). Self-heal. Labiatae. 
From Latin, "quinsy wort" . Herbs. About 5 species^ 

widely distributed; 2 in U. S. 



306 PLANT NAMES AND SYN0NY:\IS 

it. P. vulgaris L, (P. Canadensis Mill., P. officinalis Cranz). 
Europe, Asia and N. Amei'ica. Heal-all, Self-heal, Slougli- 
heal. All-heal, Hook-heal, Carpenter' s-herb. Hook- weed, Sickle- 
heal, Sickle-weed, Sicklewort, Blue-curl, Brownwort, Heart-of- 
the-earth. Pimpernel* Thimble-Hower; Ger. Braunelle, Braun- 
heil; Fr. Paquereite. Herb astringent, vulnerary. 

• 

1668. PEUNUS, L. Plum, Cherry, etc. Drupaceae. 

The ancient Latin name. Syn. Armeniaca, Cerasus, ia part. 

Shrubs or trees, mostly with td ble fruit. About 90 species, 

north temperate zone, also tropical America and Asia; 35 in 

U. S. 

a. P. Americana Marsh. New York to Florida, west to Colo- 

rado and Mortana; varieties cult. Wild Yellow or Red Plum, 
Gooise Plum, Horse Plum, Hog Plum, Native Plum, Plum- 
granite^:. Fruit escuh^nt. 

b. P. aagastifolia Marsh. (P. Chica^a Michx,). New Jei-sey to 

Florida, west to the Rocky Mountains; varieties cult. Chick- 
asaw Plum. Fruit edible, but small. 

c. P. Armeniaca L. (A. vulgaris Lam.). Eastern Asia, now 

widely cult. Apricot; Ger. Apricose; Fr. Abricotier. Fru.il 
esculent. Nearly allied to this is (d) P. Slbirica L. (A. Sibi- 
rica Pers. '), the Siberian Apricot. 

e. P, Avium L. (C. Avium Moench). Europe, sparingly nat. in 

U. S. Crab Cherry, Gaskins, Gean, Hawk-berry, Mazard, 
Merry, Black Merry, Marasca (a variety). Sweet Cherry; Ger. 
Susskirsche; Fr. Cerisier, /VMi^es-culent. Cultivated varieties 
are Black-heart, Bigareau, etc. From the fruit are prepared 
Kirschwasser, also Maraschino, Ratatia and other liqueurs. 

f. P. Ca'Olinidna (Mill.) \it. (L. Caroliniana Roem.). South- 

eastern U. S. Carolina or American Lherry-laurel, Mock 
Orange, Wild Orange*, Wild Peach, Winter Laurel. Proper- 
ties ot(i. ) 

g. P. Cerasus L. {C. vulgaris Mill. ). Western Asia; early intro- 

duced into Europe, now widely cult. Cherry, Agriot, Egriot, 
Griotte, Sour Cherry, Pie Cherry. Fruit esculent. Cultivated 
varieties are May Duke, Morel lo, etc. 

h. P. (lom^stica L. Asia, now widely cult. Plum, Horse Plum^ 
Hor>!e-gogs, Horse-jas:, Horse-jug, Green Gag^e ( brought to 
England by a Mr. Gage). Var. Damascena is the Damson 
i(i. e. Damascene or Damascus Plum), Daniasin ( Damas, 
Damselt); Ger. Pflanme, Zwetsche; Fr. Prunier commun (Co- 
dex): Sp. Ciruela. Dried fruity Prune; Prunum U. S. P., Br.; 
esculent, acidulous, laxative. 

i. P. Lauro-cerasus L. (C, Laurocerasus Lois., L. vulgaris Car., 
L. officinalis M. Roem. ). Western Asia to southern Europe. 
Cherry Laurel, Cherrv Bay; Ger. Kirschlorbeer; Fr. Laurier- 
cerise (Codex); Sp. Laurel-cerezo. Lenven, Laurocerasi Folia, 
Br., bitter, sedative, containing potentially hydrocyanic acid. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 307 

j. P. Mahaleb L. (C. MahalebMill. ). Southern Europe. Maha- 
leb Cherry; Ger. Weichselkii-sche. Used as a stock for graft- 



k. P. maritima Wang. (P. spha3rocarpa Michx. ). Atlantic 
coast, Virginia and northward. Beach Plum, Sand Plum. 
Fruit esculent. 

1. P. nigra Ait. (P. mollis Tor., C. nigra Loisel, P. Amer- 
icana r. & Gr., not Marsli.). Canada and northeastern U. S. ; 
varieties cult. Canada Pkun, Horse Plum, Red Plum, Wild 
Plum, Pomegranate*. Fruit esculent. 

m. P. Piidus L. (C. Padus Delarb. ). Europe. Bird Cherry, Hag 
Cherry, Hag-berry, (Eg^-berry, Eck-berry, Hack-berry, Heck- 
berry, Hic-berry), Fowl Cherry, Cluster Cherry, Cherry Bay; 
Ger. Faulbaum. Fruit scarcely edible. 

n. P. Pennsylvailica L. f. (C. Pennsylvanica Lois., P. lanceolata 
Willd., C. borealis Michx., P. persicifolia De-jf.). Canada aud 
eastern U. S. Pin Cherry, Bird Cherry, Fire Cherry, Pigeon 
Cherry, Red Chetry. Fruit small and sour. 

o. P. piiinila L. (C. pumila Michx,). New Jersey and north- 
ward on Atlantic coast, also near the great lakes. Dwarf 
Cherry, Sand Cherry, Beach Plum^'. Fruit acid. 

p. P. serotiua Erhr. (C. serotina Lois., P. Virginiana Mill., not 
L. ) . Ontario to Florida, west to Texas and Dakota. Wild 
Black Cherry, Cabinet Cherry, Choke Cherry*, Black. choke, 
Rum Cherry, Whiskey Cherry, Wild Cherry; Ger. Araerikanis- 
cher Ziersirauch; Fr. iJerisier de Virgiciie. Bark, Wild Cherry 
bark; frunus Virginia la, U. S. P. (a misnomer that ought to 
be corrected); Ger. Wild kirschenrinde; tonic, sedative. Fruit 
small, edible but harsh. 

q. P. spinosa L. Europe, sparingly nat. in U. S. Sloe (Slea, 
Sloo, Slon), Sloe-thorn, Black-thorn, Buck-thorn^, Black- 
berry*, Hedge-picks, Slone-bl )om, Snag-bush, Wild Plum; 
Ger. Schwarizdorn, Schlehe. A vr^riety, P. spinosa insititia 
(L.) A. Gray, is the Bullace; Ger. Haferschlehe, Kriechen- 
pflaume, perhaps the original of (h). 

r. P. Virginiana L. (C. Virginiana Lois.). Briti-^h America, 
south to Georgia and Colorado. Choke Cherry, Wild Cherry. 
Fruit very astringent, (s) P. ilicifolla (Nutt.) Walp. (C. 
ilicil'olia Nutt.) of California is called Islay, Holly Laurel and 
Evergreen Cherry; (t) P. subcordiita Benih., Oregon to 
California, is the Wild Plum of the Pacific coast; (u) P, um- 
bellata Ell., southeastern U. S., is the American Black Sloe. 

1(>69. PSACA.LIUM, Greene. P<acalium. Compositae. 

From Greek, a minute "drop", or "grain". Syn. Luina, in 
part. Herb. One species, western U. S. 

1670. PSATHYR6tES, Gray (Psathyrotus). Compositae. 

From Greek, "brittle", of the bran -hes. Syn. Tetradymia, 
Polydymia, Bulbostylis, in part. Low winter annuals. Four 
species, Arizona to Nebraska. 



308 ri.ANT XAMKS AND SYNONYMS 

1(>71. PSELDOCYMOPTERUS, Coult. & Rose. Lmbelliferae. 

From (jr reek, "fakeCvmopterus", Herbs, Three species, of 
western U. S. 

1672. PSEUDOMAOENNETUS, Rusch. Asclepiadaceae. 

Shrubby climber, perhaps referable to some other genus. 

(a) P. Equatorieiisis, Kusch, Peru to Ecquador. Cundu- 
rango bianco, Mata perro, Bark alterative. 

1673. PSEUDOPHOENIX, Wendl. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, * 'false Date". A small palm with pinnate 
leaves. One species, West Indies to Florida. 

1674. PSEtDOTSl^GA,Carr. False Hemlock- Spruce. Piiiaceae. 
From Greek, "false Tsuga". Syn. Pinus, in part. Trees 

resembling Hemlock Spruce. Two species, both of western 
U. S. 

a. P. taxifolia (Lamb.) Brit. (Pin. taxifolia Lamb., Ps. Douglasii 
Car. (Kew), B. mucronata (Raf, ) Sudw. ). Puget Sound to 
California. Douglas Spruce, Douglas Fir, Yellow or Red 
Fir, Oregon Pinef. Timber valnahle, especially for ship's masts. 

(b) P. macrocarpa (Torr. ) Lemmon, Big-cone Spruce, is the 
Hemlock tree of southern California. 

1676. PSIDIUM, L. Guava. Myrtaceae. 

From Greek, * 'pulpy", the name originally of the pomegran- 
ate. Syn. Guaiava, Adans. Trees or shrubs. About 100 spe- 
cies, tropical America; 2 nat. in U. S. 

a. P. Cattleiaiiuiii Sabine. Brazil, cult, in all tropical countries. 

Purple Guava, Strawberry Guava. Fruit esculent, agreeably 
acid. 

b. P. (xuajava L. (G. pyriformisGaertn., including P. pomiferum 

L. and P. pyriferum L. ). Tropical America, widely cult, and 
nat. in tropical countries. Guava, Common Guava, Bay Plum; 
Sp. Guayaba. FrwiY esculent, yielding a delicious jelly. Other 
species also produce esculent fruits. 

1676. PSILACTIS, Gray. Psilactis. Compositae. 

From Greek, "naked ray", the ray florets having no pappus. 
Annual herbs. Two species, Texas to California. 

1677. PSILOCARPHUS, Nutt. Psilocarphus. Compositae. 

From Greek, "bare chaff". Syn. Benzanilla, Micropus, in 
part. Woolly annuals. About 8 species, all American; 5 in 
U. S. (Pacific border). 

1678. PSIL<3STR0PHE, DC. 1838. Psilostrophe. Compositae. 

Syn. Riddellia, Nutt. 1841. Perennial herbs with rather 
small flower-heads (yellow). Three species, southwestern U. S. 
and Mexico. 

1679. PSORALEA. L. Psoralea. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "scurfy". Syn. Hedysarum, in part. Herbs 
or shrubs with flowers in racemes, spikes or heads. About 110 
species; 37 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAK. 309 

a. P. corjiifolia L. Arabia to India. Bauchee seed, Bawchang 

seed, Malay Tea. Herb and needs tonic, alterative. 

b. P. esciiletita Pursh. Manitoba to Texas. Indian or Missouri 

Bread-root, Prairie Apple, Cree Potato, Cree Turnip, Dakota 
Turnip, Tipsin, Tipsinna; Fr. Pomme blanche, Pomme de 
prairie. Tubers esculent, as are the smaller ones of (c) P. 
liypog:aea Nutt., Nebraska to New Mexico, Smaller Indian 
Bread-root. 

d. P. glandiilosa L. (P. lutea Mol. )• Chili. Jesuit's Tea*, 

Mexican Tea. Leaves used to prepare a beverage. 

e. P. peduiKMildta (Mill. ) Vail. (P. raelilotoides Michx. (Kew), 

II. pedunculamm Mill.). Southeastern U. S. Samson's 
Snakeroot, Bab's-root, Congo-root. Plant aromatic, bitter, 
tonic. 

Other indigenous species are (f) P. floribuiula Nutt. and 
(g) P. teiiuiflora Pursh, both called Scurfy Pea; (h) P. 
lauceoldta Pursh, Tumble-weed; (i) P. Onobrychis Nutt, 
Sanfoin Psoralea^, French-grass. 

1680. PSYCH6tRIA, L. 1759. Striated Ipecac. Riibiaceae. 

From Greek, "vivifying". Syn. Psychotrophum, P. Br.l756; 
Ronabea, in part. Shrubs or small trees. About 425 species, 
tropical America; 2 in U. S. 

a. P. emetica Mutis (R. emetica Rich.). New Granada and 
Peru. Moot, Striated Ipecac, Peruvian or Black Ipecac; eme- 
tic. See Uragoga. 

1(>81. PTELEA, L. - Hop-tree. - Riitticeae. 

The Greek name of the Elm. Shrubs or small trees, fruit a 
nearly orbicular samara. About 6 species, N. America; 4 in 
U. S. 

a. P. trifoliata L. Ontario to northern Mexico, through eastern 
U. S. Three-leaved Hop-tree, VV^afer Ash, Shrubby Trefoil, 
Ague- bark, Pickaway Anise, Prairie-grub, Quinine- tree, Sang- 
tree. Stinking Ash, Stinking Prairie-bush, Swamp Dogwood, 
Wing-seed; Ger. Hopfenbaum, Kleebaum;Fr. Orme h. trois 
feuilles. Leaves anthelmintic; Bark of root tonic, febrifuge, 
stomachic; /rw/< a substitute lor hops. 

1«S2. PTEROCARPIS, L. 1763, not L. 1747. Papilioiiaceae. 

From Greek, ''wing fruit". Syn. Lingoum, Adans. 1763. 
Trees. About 20 species, Asia, Africa and America. 

a. P. Drkco L. West Indies. Yields a variety of Dragon's- 

blood. 

b. P. eriliac«lis Poir. AVestem Africa. Molorapi, Comwood, 

Afrjcan Rosewood. Inspissated sap is African or Gambia Kino. 

c. P. Marsiipiiim Roxb. (L. Marsupium (Roxb. ) O. Kze. ). 

India. Kino tree, Amboyna Kino tree. Bastard Teak, Bija. 
Inspmated sap, KinO, U. S. P., Br., Gummi Kino; Fr. Kino de 
I'Inde; Sp. Goma quino; vernacular Vengay; A powerful as- 
tringent. 



310 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. P. santalinus L. f. (L. santalinum (L. f . ) O. Kze. ). India. 
The wood is Eed Sandalwood, Red Saunders, Eed Santal, Red- 
wood* Ruby-wood; tantalum rubram, U. S. P., Pierocarpi 
Lignum Br., Lignum santalinum rubrum; Ger. Rothes Sandel- 
holz; Fr. Santal rouge (Codex) ; Sp. Sandalo rojo. Yields a red 
dye. 

1683. PTEROCAI^LON, Ell. Indian Black- root. Compositae. 

From Greek, ''wing Ptem". Syn. Conyza, Chsenobolus, 
Gnaphalium, in part. Perennial herbs. About 10 species, 
America and Australia; 3 in southeastern U. S. 

a. P. pychnostachyuin Ell. (C. pychnostachya Michx., G. undu- 
latum \Valt, ). Southeastern U. S. Indian Black-root. Boot 
alterative, narcotic, (b) P. virgatnm DC. Texas, Mexico 
and West Indies. Jamaica Golden-locks, Golden-tuft, Golden 
Cudweed. 

1684. PTEROSPORA, Nutt. Pine Drops, etc. Monotropacoae. 

From Greek, "wing seeded". Syn. Monotropa, in part. 
Leafless saprophyte. One species, U. S. 

a. P. Aiidromedea Nutt. 1818. (M. procera Torr. 1818). British 
America, south to Pennsylvania, Arizona and Calitornia. Pine- 
drops, Albany Beech-drops, Giant Bird's-nest, False Crawley, 
Gall-of-the-earth. 

1685. PTEROSTEGIA,Fisch & Mey.Pterostegia.Polygonaceae. 
From Greek, "wing" and "covering". Herb. A single 

species, California. 

1686. PTILiMNIUM,Raf.l825.MockBi8hop-weed.Umbelliferae. 
Syn. Discopleura, DC. 1829; Ammi, Peucedanum, in part. 

Annual herbs. About 4 species, America and East Indies; 3 
in U. S. 

a. P. capillaceum (Michx.) Hollick (A. capillaceura Michx., 
D. capillacea DC). Atlantic and Gulf border of U. S. 
Mock Bishop-weed, Bolewort, Bullwort, Herb William, W^ood- 
nep. 

1687. PTILOCALAIS, Greene. Ptilocalais. Cichoriaceae. 

Syn. Microseris, in part. Herbs. Three species, western 
U. S. 

1688. PTILONELLA, Nutt. Ptilonella. Compositae. 

Syn. Blepharipappus, in part. Herbs. Two species, west- 
ern U. S. 

1689. PTIL6rIA, Raf. 1832. Ptiloria. Cichoriaceae. 

Syn. Stephanomeria, Nutt. 1841, also Lygodesmia, in part. 
Herbs with small heads of pink flowers. About 20 species^ 
western and central N. America; 18 in U. S. 

1690. PTYCH6tIS, Koch. Bishop' s-weed. Umbelliferae. 

Syn. Carum (Kew), Ammi, in part. Herbs related to Carum. 
A few species, Mediterranean region to India. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 311 

a. P. Coptlca (L. ) Lyons (A. Copticum L., C. Coplicum Benth. 
(Kew), C. Ajowan B^ntley, P. Ajowan DC.)- Hindustan. 
Ajowan, Ajouan, Ajava, Javanee; Fr. Ammi officinal (Codex). 
bruit aromatic, antispasmodic, used like caraway seed; contains 
thymol. 

1601. PULICARIA, Gaertn. Fleawort. Compositae. 

Latin, ''flt-awort". Syn. Inula, in part. Herbs. About 30 
species, mostly of Mediterranean region. 

a. P. djsenterioa (L. ) Gaerin. (I. dysenterica L.). Southern 
Europe. Fle.iwort, Fleabane, Fleabane-muUet, Cammock*, 
Herb Christopher*; Ger. Flohkraut; Fr, Pulicaire. Herb 

insecticide. 

1(>92. PULMONARIA, L. Lungwort. Boraginaceae. 

Latin, "lungwort". Hispid perennial herbs. About 6 spe- 
cies, Europe and Asia. 

a. P. officinalis L. Europe. Lungwort, Jerusalem Cowslip, 
Btigloss or Bedlam Cowslip, Spotted Lungwort St)Otted Com- 
frey, Spotted-Mary, Beggar' s-basket, Joseph-and-Mary, Sage 
of Belhlem, Saije cf Jerusalem; Ger. Lungenkraut; Fr, Pul- 
monaire officinale (Codex). Herb demulcent. 

1(>1>8. PULSATILLA, Adans. Pasque-flower. Kanimculaceae. 

Name unexplained. Syn. Anemone (Kew), Clematis, in 
part. Perennial scapo-<e herbs. About 18 species, noith tem- 
perate zone an(i northward; 2 in U. S. 

a. P. hir^iitissima (Pursh) Brit. (C. hirsutissima Pursh., A. 

patens (Kew ), var Nuttalliana A. Gray, A. Nuttalliana DC. ). 
Texas to Nebraska and Br'tii-h ( olumbia. American Pulsatilla, 
American or Nuttall's Pasque-flower, April-fool, Badger- weed, 
Easter-flower, Gosling, Hartshorn plant. Headache plant, 
May-fl»nver, Prairie Anemone, Prairie or Wild Crocus. Pro- 
perties ot (b). 

b. P. prateusis (L. ) Mill. (A. pratensis L.) and (c) P. Pulsa- 

tilla (L. ) Lyons ^A. Pulsatilla L., P. vulgaris Mill.). Eu- 
rope and northern Asia. Pulsatilla, European Pulsatilla or 
Pasque-flower, Dane's-blood. Easter-flower; Ger. Kiicheiischelle, 
Pulsatille; Fr. Anemone Pulsatille, Coqueiourd (Codex), Sp. 
Piilsatila. Tilt dowering herb of both species, Pulsatilla, 
U. S. P. ; alterative, antispasmodic. 

1004. PUNICA, L. 1753. Pomegranate. Piinicaceae. 

The Latin name, '*Carthagenian" fruit. Sy». Granalnm, 
St. Lag. 1880. Shrub. One species, northern Africa and west- 
ern Asia. 

a. P. Granatiim L. (G. Punicum St. Lag.). Pomegranate, 
Carthaegnian or Punic Apple, Garnet Apple, Balaiista, Balaus- 
tine; Ger. Granatbaum; Fr. Grenadier (Codex), Balustier; Sp. 
Granado. Bai^k of stem and root, Granatnm, U. S. P., Gran- 
ati Radicis Cortex, Br., Cortex Granati P. G. , Tsenicide, con- 
taining the alkaloid pelletierine. Rind of fruit Cortex psidii, 
Cort. malicorium; astringent used in tanning morocco leather. 
Flowers, Flores balaustii, Balaustia, astringeijt. Fruit acidulous, 
esculent. 



312 PLANT XAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1695. PUYA, Mol. (Puja). Puya. Bromeliaceae. 

From vernacular (Chili). Syn. Pourretia, K. & Pav. 

Shrubby or arborescent plants. About 5 species, Chili and 
Peru. 

a. P. lanugluosa Schult. (Pourretia lanuginosa 11. &P. ). Chili. 

Source of Chagual gum. , 

1696. PYROLA, L. VVintergreen, Shin-leaf, etc. Pyrolaceae. 

Laiin horn pyrus (Pear), from similarity of leaves. Peren- 
nial scapose herbs. About 15 species, northern hemisphere; 11 

in U. S. 

;i. P. elliptiea Nutt. British America, south to Maryland, Illinois 
and New Mexico. Shin-leaf, Wild Lily of-the-valley. (b) P. 
chlorjintha Swz. and (c) P. minor L. are also called Shin- 
leaf. 

d. P. rotiiudifolia L. Europe, Asia and northern N. America, 
south to Georgia, west to Minnesota. Kound-leaved VV^inter- 
green. False VVintergreen, Lartjer Wintergreen, Pear leaved 
Wintergreen, Canker Lettuce, Wild* or Indian Lettuce, Con- 
sumption-weed, Copper-leaf, Dollar-leaf, Liverwort Lettuce; 
Ger. Waldmangold; Fr. Pyrole. Leaves astringent, diuretic. 
The other species have similar properties. 

1697. PYROCOMA, Hook. Pyrocoma. Compositae. 

Syn. Aplopappus ( Kew), in part. Rigid perennial herbs; 
26 species in U. S. , PaciKc border. 

1698. PYRULARIA, Michx. Buffalo-nut, etc. Santalaceae. 

Latin, "pear like'. Syn. Hamiltonia, in part. Shrubs or 
small trees. Two species, one in Asia, one in U. S. 

a, P. piibera Michx, (P. oleifera A. Gray, H. oleifera Muhl. ). 
Pennsylvania to Georgia. Oil-nut, Buffalo-nut, Elk-nut. 
Seeds rich in oil. 

1699. PYRllS, L. (Pirus). - Pear. . Poinaceae. 
Latin name of the Pear. Trees or shrubs. About 12 spe- 
cies, Old World. See Cydonia, Mains, Mespilus and Sorbus. 

a. P, communis L. Europe and central Asia, and widely cult. 
Pear. In the wild state called Choke Pear; Ger. Bimbaura; Fr. 
Poirier. • Fruit esculent. 

1700. PYXIDANTHERA, Michx. Pyxie, etc. Diapensiaeeae. 

From Greek, "box anther''. Syn. Diapensia, in part. 
Dwarf evergreen shrub. One species; (a) P. barbulata 
Michx. (D. barbulata Ell.). New Jersey to N. Carolina. 
Flowering Moss, Pyxie, Pyxie Moss, Pine- barren Beauty. 

1701. QUAMASIA, Raf. 1818. (Quamassia). Liliaceae. 
From vernacular Indian name. Syn. Camassia (Kew), 

Lindl. 1832; Lemotrys, Scilla, in part. Scapose herbs from 
membranous-coated bulbs. About 5 species, all of U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 313 

a. Q. esculeuta (Ker.) Coville (C. esculenta Lind. (Kew), L. 
hyacintha Raf., S. Fraseri Gray, C. Fraseri Torr. ). Pennsyl- 
vania to Minnesota, south to Texas. Eastern Quamash or 
(Jamass, Wild Hyacinth. Bulb esculent. 

1702. QUAMOCLIT, Moench. Cypress vine. Convolyulaceae, 

Syn. Quainoclita; Ipomciea, in part. Herbaceous twiners. 
About 10 species, warm and tropical regions; 2 nat. in U. S. 
viz. (a) Q, coccinca (L.) Moench, Small Red Morning- 
gilory, American Jasmine; (b) Q, Qiiam<»clit (L. ) Brit. (Q. 
vulgaris Choisy), Cypress vine, American Ked Bell-flower, 
Indian Pink, Red Jasmine, Sweet- William (Barbados). 

1703. QUASSIA, L. - Quassia. - Simanibaeeae. 

Named for Quassi (or Choisi), a negro of Surinam. Trees 
with bitter bark and wood. Two species, one in Africa, one in 
tropical America. 

a. Q, aiiiara L. Surinam. • Surinam Quassia. Wood, Lignum 
Quassise P. G., in part (See Picrasma excel-sa), Lig. quassiae 
surinamensis; Ger. Quassienholz, Bitterholz, Fliegenholz; Fr. 
Quassie amere, Bois amer de Surinam (Codex); bitter, tonic. 

1704. (JUERCUS, L. Oak. Fa^aceae. 
The ancient Latin name, of Celtic origin. Trees or shrubs, 

fi-uit an acorn. About 200 species northern hemisphere; 66 in 
U. S. ; Ger. Eiche; Fr. Chene; Sp. Encina. 

a. Q. acuminata (Michx) Sarg. (Q. Muhlenbergii Engelm. ). 
Ontario and eastern U. S. Chestnut Oak. Chinkapin ( Chin- 
quapin) Oak. Yellow Chestnut Oak; Yellow, Pin, Scrub or 
Shrub Oak. Acorns edible, as are those of (b) Q. Michaiixli 
Nutt., Cow Oak, Basket Oak and (c) Q. priuuides VVilld., 
Scrub Chestnut Oak, also called Chinkapin Oak. See (m), (o) 
and (p). 

■<l. Q. aegilops L. South Europe to Syria. Acorn cupa, Valonia 
(Vallonea); Fr. Yallone, Gallon, also unripe acorns, Camata, 
Camatena, used in dyeing and tanning. 

€. Q. a^ifolia Nee. California and Mexico. Encino, Live Oak 
(of California), this name applying also to (f) Q. chrysolepis 
Liebm., a smaller tree, Maul Oak, Valparaiso Oak, and to (g) 
Q. oblongifoiia Torr., of southern California. See (v). 

h. Q. illba L. Canada and eastern U. S. White Oak, Stone Oak. 
Bark; i!l,uercus Alba, U. S. P., Cortex quercus, a powerful 
astringent. Timber strong and durable. Closely allied to this 
are (i) Q. minor (Marsh.) Sarg. (Q. albus minor Marsh., Q. 
obtusiloba, Michx. ), eastern U. S., Post Oak, Iron Oak, 
Brash Oak, Box White Oak, Rough White Oak, Turkey Oak, 
White Oak, and ( j ) Q. macrocarpa Michx. 1810 (Q. olivae- 
formis Michx, 1812), Canada to Texas, Mossy-cup Oak, Bur 
■Oak, Blue Oak, Over-cup Oak, Scrub Oak. The Over-cup 
Oak or Post Oak of the southeastern U. S. is (k) Q. lyrdta 
W^alt., called also Water White Oak and Swamp Post Oak. 



314 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

I. Q. coccifera L. Mediterranean region. Kermes Oak, Cochi- 

neal Oak. The food plant of the European cochineal or kermes 
inbect. [The historic oak of David or Abraham's oak is of this 
species], 

m. Q. Ilex L. Southern Europe. Holly Oak, Evergreen Oak; 
Fr. Chene vert (Codex). Acorns, Chestnut acorns, Ballota, 
edible. 

II. ^. Lusitanioa Lam. (Q. infectoria Oliv. ). Mediterranean 

region. Oall Oak. Excrescences caused by an insect, Nut^alls, 
Gall"., Oak-apples, Oak-warts; Galla, U. S P., Br., Galla 
halepense, Galla turcica v. levantica v. tinctoria v. qiiercina; 
Ger. Gallapfel, Galltn; Fr. Galle de chene d'Alep, Noix de 
galle d' Alep (Codex); Sp. Agallas de levante; varieties are 
Aleppo, Smyrna and Sorian galls; astringent, source of tannin. 
See (o) and (w). 

o. Q, lobata Nee. California. Sacramento White Oak. Exct^es- 
cences, Oak-balls, are California ^sutgalls. Acoins once the 
chief food of the aborigines. 

p. Q, Prinus L. Canada and northeastern U.S. Rock Chesinut 
Oak, Swamp or White Chestnut Oak, Mountain or Kock Oak, 
Tan-bark Oak. i^aj-A much used in tanning. Acorns edible. 

q. Q. Robur L. (Q.pedunculata Erhr. ). Europe and western 
Asia. European White Oak ( Wnke, Wuk, Yak), British Oak, 
English Oak; Ger. Steineiche, Somujereiche; Fr. Chenn Uanc 
(Codex). jBor/; official in British, German and French phar- 
macopoeias. See (h). Acorns (Yackrons) of this and other 
species, Jove's Nuts, Glandes quercus (tostae), a suhstiiute for 
Coffee (Eichelkattee). Timber used for shi])-buildiiig, etc. 
Allied to this is (r) Q. sessiliflora Marty n (Q. Robur Willd.). 
Durmast Oak, Bay or Marden Oak. 

8. Q. Sliber L. Southern Europe and northern Africa. Cork 
Oak, Cork-tree, European Alcornoque. Outer bark, corkwood, 
is common cork. Cork is procured also from (t) (^. occiden- 
tdlis Gay and from (u) ({, Pseudo-siiber Santi (Q. suber 
Kotscliy ). 

V. Q. Yirginidna Mill. (Q. virens Ait. ). Southeastern U. S. to 
Mexico and Cuba. Live Oak. Tiniber used in ship building. 

w. Q. Telutina Lam. 1783 (Q. tinctoria Bartr. 1791, Q. eoccinea 
var. tinctoria A. Gray). Canada and eavStern U. S. Black 
Oak, Dyer's Oak, Quercitron Oak, Female or Spotted Oak, 
Yellow-bark Oak. ^arA; yields the yellow dye quercitron (i. e. 
oak yellow). Galls called Oak-plums. 

Other notable species of eastern U. S. are (x) Q. eoccinea 
Wang., Scarlet Oak; Red, Black or Spanish Oak; (y) (^. 
Mar>ldn4liea Moench (Q nigra var. b, L. ), Black-Jack, Jack 
Oak, Barren or Iron Oak; (z) Q, n^na ( Mars^h. ) Sarg. (Q. 
ilicifolia Wang.), Bear Oak, Scrub Oak, Bitter or Barren Oak, 
Bitter-bush, Holly Oak, Dwarf Black Oak; (aa) Q. uigra L. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. «15 

(Q. aqnatica Walt. ), Water Oak, Black- Jack*; Barren, Duck,' 
Pi).s-uiu. Pniik or Spotted Oak; (bb) Q. Phellos L., Will<»w 
Oak, Peach Oak, Sand Jack Oak, and (cc) (^. rubra L., Ked 
Oak, Black Oak^, Cliaiiipion or Spanish Oak, 

1705. QUILLAJA, Mol. vQuillaia). Soap bark. Kosaceae. 
Fro»n vernacular QaUhti, Chili. Evergreen trees with thick 

veiny leaves. About 4 species. South America. 

a. Q. Sapoiuiria Mol. (Q. Molinse DC). Chili to Peru. Soap- 
baik tree, Soap tree, Quillaya (Quillai, Cullay). Bark, Soap- 
bark, Quillaja, r. S. P.; Ger. S<iienrinde, Panamarinde; 
detercrem, an einulsirier; contains saponin, {h) Q, snieg'ma- 
dei mos DC. also yields Soap-bark. 

1706. QUINCULA, Kaf. Qnincula. Solanaceae. 

Syii. Plivsalis (Kew), in part. Perennial scurfy iierb. One 
species, south wesiern L'. S. and Mexico. 

1707. JJAFFLESIA, R Br. Kafflesia. Rafflesiaceae. 

xSanied i"i>r Sir Siamlord Kaffles, its discoverer. Leafless 
and stetuiess parasites, the plant consisting practically of a 
single flower. Abuui 8 species, Sumatra and Java The flower 
of (a) K. Arnold! K. Br. (li. Titan Jack.) is a meter in 
diameter. 

1708. RAILARDELLA, Gray. 'Railardella. Compositae* 

Diminutive ot Railardia. Stemless perennial herbs. About 
4 sipfcies, California. 

1709. RAM6>'A, Greene. - Ramona. - Labiatae. 

Syn. Au'libertia, henth., in part. Shrubs or undersiirulw, 
closely allied to Salvia. About 10 species, all of California. 

1710. RA>1)IA, L. - Randia. - Riibiaceae. 

Named for Isaac Rand, botanist of London, 18ih Century. 
Trees or shrub-. About 100 species, tropical regions, especially 
of Asia and Airica; 1 in U. S. 

a. R, aculeata L. We<t Indies to Florida. Indigo-berry, Ink- 

berry. Fruit yields a blue dye. 

b. R. diimetoruni Lam. Africa to- Java. Malabar Ipecac. Fruit 

emetic, use<l to stupefy fish. 

1711. RANUNCULUS L. Crowfoot, etc. Raniinculaceae. 

Latin diminutive, **froglet'^ some species being paludal. 
Acrid herbs. About 200 species, temperate and cooler regions 
of both hetnispheres; 41 in U. S. Synonyms are Buttercup, 
Creesy, Gildcups, Golland. 

a. R. abortivus L. Canada and eastern U. S. to Colorado. Chick- 

en Pepper, Kidney-leaved Crowfoot^. 

b. R. acoiiitifoliiis L. Europe, cult, in gardens. Garden But- 

tercup. The dimble white variety is called White Bachelor's- 
buttons (Fr. Boutons d' argent), Fair-maids-of-France, Fair- 
maids-of-Kent. 



316 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. R. acris L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Tall or ^[eadow Butter- 

cup, Field Buttercup, Buttercup, Goldicup, Gold-knops, Gol- 
den-knop-*, Guilty-cup, King-cun, Blister-liower, Blister-weed, 
Butter Cfess, Butter Daisy, Crazy, Cuckoo-buds, Horse-gold, 
M:iry-bud.s (Shakespere), Paigle'^, Yellow-caul, Yellow' Cress, 
Yellow Gowan (Scotland); the double variety, Yellow Bache- 
lor's-buttons; Ger. Hahnenfuss; Fr. Kenoncule. Plant, as in 
most species, acrid, rubefacient, counter-irritant. 

d. R. arverisis L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Corn Crowfoot, Hun- 

ger-weed, Devil's-claws, Gold-weed, Hell-weed, Horee-gold. 
This species and (e) R, auricoiiius L., the European Goldi- 
locks, are but slightly acrid. 

f.. R. bulbosiis L. Europe, sparingly nat. in U. S. Bulbous But- 
tercup, Frogwort, Frostwort, Gill-cup, Meadow-bloom, Pale- 
wort, Pissabed, St. Anthony's Rape, St. Anthony's Turnip 
(i. e. Hog's Turnip), with most of the synonyms of (c). 

g. R* delphiiiifolius Torr. (R. lacustris Beck. & Tracy, R. mul- 

titidus Pursh, not Forsk. ). Ontario and eastern U. S. Yellow 
Water-crowfoot, Water Buttercup. 

h. R, repens L. Europe, nat, perhaps also indigenous, in U. S. 
Creeping Buttercup^, Meadow or Spotted-leaf Buttercup, 
Devil' s-guts. Granny-threads, Hod-the-rake, Lantern-leaves, 
Meg-many-feet, Ram's-claws, Sitfast, Setsicker, Tether-toad, 
with most of the synonyms of (c). Indigenous Buttercups are 
(i) R. fascicularis Muhl., Canada and northern U. S., Early, 
Dwarf, Low or Fuiied Buttercup, Cowslip* and (j) R, sep- 
tentrionalis Poir., Marsh, Swamp or Early Buttercup. 

k. R, sceleratiiS L. Europe, Asia and N. America, in swamps 
and ditches. Cursed Crowfoot; Celery-leaved, Marsh or Ditch 
Crowfoot, Water CeleryJ, Blisterwort, Biting Crowfoot, Ache*. 

1712. RAPHANUS, L. - Radish. - Criiciferae. 

From Greek. Herbs, mostly bieunial with showy flowers. 
About 6 species, Europe and temperate Asia; 2 nat. in U. S. 

a. R, Raphanistrum L. Europe and northern Asia, nat. in U. S. 

Wild Radish, Jointed Charlock, White Charlock, Cadlock, 
Skedlock, Curlock, Warlock, Krautweed, Black Mustard*, 
Rape*. Seeds pungent like those of mustard. 

b. R^ satlYiis L. Asia, widely cult. Radish, Common or Garden 
-Radish (Rabone, Rawbone, Reefort). Root antiscorbuiic, es- 
culent. Pods of some varieties used as salad. 

1713. RATIBIDA, Raf. 1818. Cone-flower. Compositae. 

Name unexplained. Syn. Lepachys (Kew), Raf. 1819;. Rud- 
beckia, in part. Perennial herbs with large flower-heads, rays 
yellow. About 4 species, all of U. S. ^ (a) R. column^ris 
(Sims) D. Don, Long-headed or Prairie Cone-flower, is also 
called Brush. 

1714. RAVEN ALA, Adans. 1763. (Ravanella). Musaceae. 
Syn. Urania, Schreb. 1789. Arborescent plants with huge 



SCIENTIFIC AND POrULAK. *>17 

leaves of lirm texture. Two species, S. America and Madagas- 
car, (a) R. Mada^ascariensis Sonuer. (U. speciosa VVilld, 
U. Ravenalia Rich.), is the Travelers tree of Madagascar. 

1716. RAZ0UM6fSKYA, Hoffrn. 1808. Loranthaceae. 

Named for Alexis Kazoumofski, Russian botanist. Syn. 
Arceuthobium, Bieb. 1819. Small or minute parasites on coni- 
ferous trees. About 12 species, all but two of N. America; 9 in 

U.S. 

1716. REMIOIA, DC. (upreabark. Rubiaeeae. 
Named for Dr. Remijo who first used the bark in place of 

Cinchona. Syn. Cinchona, in part. Trees. About 15 spe- 
cies, S. America. 

M. R. pediiiiculata Flueck (C. pedunculata Karst. ) and (b) R, 
Plirdieaiia Wedd. Colombia. Bark of both called Cuprea 
bark; contains quirine, 

1717. RESEDA, L. Mignonette. Resedaceae. 

The ancient Latin name, "avaunt", a word used in incanta- 
tions. Herbs. About 55 species, Old World; 3 nat. in U. S. 

a. R, Lut^ola L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Dyei-'s Rocket, Ash-of- 

Jerusalem, Dyer's- weed, Dyer's Mignonette, Italian or Yellow 
Rocket, Yellow-weed, Weld, Wild Woad, Wild- wood; Ger. 
Gelbkraut, Wau, Waid. Plant diaphoretic, diuretic. Yields 
a yellow dye, gaude, also a pigment called Dutch pink. 

b. R, odorata L. North Africa to Syria, cult, in gardens. Mig- 

nonette, Garden or Common Mignonette. 

1718. REVERCH6NIA, Gray. Reverchonia. Euphorbiaceae. 

Annual herb. One species, Texas. 

1719. REYNOSIA, Griseb. Darling Plum, etc. Rhaninaceae. 

Named for Prof. Alvaro Reynoso, chemist of Havana. A 
shrub producing an edible fruit. One species, (a) R. lati- 
folia Griseb., Florida and West Indies, Darling Plum, Red 
Ironwood, Bullet tree. 

1720. RHAMNIDIUM, Reiss. Black Ironwood. Rhamnaceae. 

From Greek, '*Rhamnus-like". Syn. Condalia, Rhamniis, 
Scutia, in part. Shrubs or small trees. About 7 species; warm- 
er regions ot America; 1 in southern Florida, viz. (a) R. 
f^rreum (Vahl. )Sarg. (C. ferrea Griseb.), Black Ironwood. 

1721. RHAMNUS, L. Buckthorn. Rliamiiaceae. 

From the ancient Greek name. Rhamnus is now made uni- 
formly feminine by botanists. Syn. Alaternus, Cervispina, 
Frangula, in part. Shrubs. About 75 species, temperate and 
warm regions; 15 in U. S. 

a. R. AlatermiS L. (A. Phyllica Mill. ). Europe, cult, in U. S. 
Evergreen Privet, Alaternus. Leuvet suppress secretion of 
milk. 



318 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. R, Caroliuidna Walt. (F. Caroliniana A. Gray, F. fragilis 
Kaf.). Southeastern U. S. Southern or Carolina Buckthorn, 
Alder Buckthorn, Bog Birch, Indian Cherry. Bark laxative. 
(c) R, alnifolia L'Her., uortliern [J. S. and northward, Alder- 
leaved Buckthorn, is called Dwarf Alder. 

d. R. cathartica L. (C. cathartica Moench). Europe, northern 
Africa to middle Asia. Buckthorn, Purging Buckthorn, Hart's- 
thorn, Rhineberrv, Rain-berry Thorn, Way-thorn; Ger. Kreuz- 
dorn, Hirschdorn; Fr. Neprun purgatif (Codex); Sp. Ramno 
caiartico, Espina cerval. Fruit, Fructus rhanini cathartici, 
Bac^jie spinae cervinse, Baccae domestical, hydragogne cathartic; 
source of sap green and bladder green, used in dyeing. ( Lokao 
or Chinese green in <jgo is a similar product obtained from (e) 
R. tinctoria Waldst. & Kit. (R. chlorophoraDecne. ) and (f) 
R. JDahiirica Pal. (R. utilis Decne. ). 

g. R. FrdngiilaL. (F. vulgaris Reich., F. Alnus Mill. ). Europe, 
northern Africa to middle Asia, sparingly nat. in U. S. Aider 
Buckthorn, Black Alder*, European Black Alder, Berry Alder, 
Arrow-wood, Butcher' s-prick iree, Alder Dogwood, Black Dog- 
wood; Ger. Faulbaum, Glatter Wegedorn, Pulverholz; Fr. 
Bourdaine, Bourgene. Bark (at least one year old ) ; Frangula, 
U. S. P., Rhamni Frangalse Cortex, Br.; laxative. Charcoal 
from the wood is used for gunpowder. 

h. R. infectoria L. (R. tinctoria Mutel. ). Mediterranean region. 
Fruit French berries, Yellow berries; Ger. Gelbbeeren; Fr. 
Graines d' Avignon; yield a green dye. The similar Persian 
berrie-i and Turkish berries are from (i) R. oleoides L. (R. 
amygdalina Desf. ), and ( j ) R, saxalllis L., also perhaps other 
species. 

k. R, Piirshiana DC. Northern California, northward. Bear- 
berry tree, Bearwood, Shittim-wood, Cascara Sagrada tree. 
Bark, Chiitain or Chittim bark, Cascara Sagrada, Sacred bark, 
Purshiana bark, Persian^ bark, Wahoi**; thamnus Purshiana, 
U. S. P.; laxative. The bark of (1) R. Califurnica Esch., 
the California Coffee-tree, is also gathered as Cascaia Sag- 
rada. Berries of this have been U'^ed as a substitute for Cof- 
fee, (m) R. Wiglitii W. & A. of the East Indies yields also 
a laxative bark. 

1722. RHAPHIDOPHILLA, Wend, c'c Drude. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, "Rhaphis-leaved". Syn. Chamterops, in part. 
A low fan-palm. One species, (a) R. hystl'ix (Fravser) W. & 
D., Florida to S. Carolina; Blue Palmetto. 

i728. RHEUM, L. Rhubarb. Polygonaceae. 

The Greek name, perhaps frotu Rfia the ancient name of the 
Volga. Stout herbs from thick rootstocks. About 20 species, 
A>ia. 

a, R. auvtnlle D. Don (R. Emodi Wall., R. WebbianumEoyle). 
Himalayan region. Yields medicinal rhubarb. 

h. R, hybridum Murray. Central Asia. This species may be one 
of those yielding commercial rhubarb. 



SCIEXTIFIC AND POPULAR. 319 

e. R. offlciuiile Baill. Central Asia. Chinese Rhubarb plant. 
Believed to be the source of the best Chinese rhubarb. Root 
Rhubarb; Rheum, U. S. P., Rliei Radix, Br.; Ger. Rhabarber, 
Echte Rhabarber; Fr. Rhubarbe de Chine (Codex); Sp. Rui- 
barbo. La.xative, cathartic, but also astringent. 

d. R, palmatum L. Central Asia, cult, in Europe. Rhubarb 

plant. Source of the Rus-^iau rhubarb formerly highly valued 
and of some of the European rhubarb; Fr. Rhubarbe de Mos- 
00 vie (Codex). Properties of (c). 

e. R. Rhaponticiim L. Eastern Europe and central Asia. Rha- 

pontic Rhubarb, Pie-plant, Wine Rhubarb; Ger. Rhapontik- 
rhabarber, Inlandische Rhabarber, Fr. Rhapontic (Codex, 
employed only in veterinary medicine). Root. Radix rhei indi- 
geni V. nostratis. Roots constitute French, English and Hun- 
garian rhubarb which are inferior to Chinese rhubarb. LeaJ 
sto Iks enculent. Some other species, as (f) R. imdulatum L. 
and (g) R. Tatarieum L. fil. are used in a similar manner. 

1724. RHEXIA, K. Meadow-Beauty. Melastomaceae. 

A Greek plant name, ineaning "brittle". Perennial herbs 
with showy flowers. About 10 species, all in U. S. 

a. R, vii'ginicji L. Eastern U. S. Meadow-beauty, Deer-grass, 
Handsome- Harry. 

1725. RHIN ACANTHUS, Xees. Rhinacanthus. Aeaiithaceae. 

From Greek, "nose Acanthus", alluding lo shape of flower. 
Shrubs. About 6 species, natives of India. 

a. R. communis Nees. (Justicia nasuta L. ). India to China. 
Ringworm-root. Leaves and root, containing rhinacanthin, used 
for cure of ringworm. 

1726. RHINANTHUS, L. Rattle-box, etc. Scrophiilariaceae. 

From Greek, "nose flower". Herbs. About 3 species, 
northern hemisphere; 1 in U. S. ^ 

a. R. Crista-Cralli L. [R. minor Erhr. (Kew)]. Northern 
Europe, Asia and X. America. Rattle, Rattle-box, Yellow or 
Penny Rattlo, Penny-grass, Rattle-bags, Money-grass, Yellow 
Cockscomb. Plant insectiiide. 

1727. RHIZ6pH0RA, L. Mangrove. Rhizophoraceae. 

From Greek, "root bearing". Trees with aerial roots. 
About 3 species, tropical coasts and rivt-r margins; 1 in U.S. 

a. R. Mangle L. (R. racemosa Meyer, R. Americana Nutt. ). 
Florida, and on tropical shores generally. Mangrove, Manque, 
Red Mangrove (a variety); Fr. Manglier. Bar/: astringent, 
febrifuge, used in dyeing and tanning. 

1728. RHODODENDRON, L. Rose-Bay, etc. Ericaceae. 
From Greek, "rose tree", name originally applied to the 

Oleander. Evergreen shrubs, with showy flowers. About 100 
species, northern hemisphere, especially iu Asia; 10 in U. S. 

a. R. Catawbiense Michx. Virginia to Georgia. Mountain 
Rose- bay, Catawba or Caroliua Rhododendron. Highly orna- 
mental. 



320 I'J-ANT NAMKS AX1> SYNONYMS 

b. R. chrysjlntheinum Pall. Siberia. Yellow Eliododendron^ 
Siberian Rose, Snow Rose; (rer. Sibirisclie Alpenrose. Leaves 
diuretic, narcotic, (cj R. ferru^iiieiiin h., Europe, Dwaif 
Rose-bay, has similar properties. 

d. R. luaximuni L. Canada to Georgia. Great Laurel, -Rose- 
bay, Wild Rose-bay, Rose Laurel, Big Laurel, Big-leaf Laurel, 
Deer Laurel, Horse or Mountain Laurel, Cow- plant. Spoon- 
hutch. Properties of (b). Wood used for engraving. 

1729. RH0D6RA, L. Rhodora, Lamb-kill. Ericaceae^ 
From Greek rhodm, a "rose". Syn. Rhododendron, in part. 

A shrub with deciduous leaves. One species, (a) R, Cana- 
densis L. (Rhododendron Rhodora J. F. Gmel. ). Canada 
and northeastern U. S. 

1730. RHlJS, L. 1753. Sumac (Sumach), etc. Anacardiaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Syn. Toxicodendron, Mill. 1759; 
Metopium, Styphonia, in part. Shrubs or trees with odd-pin- 
nate or trifoliate leaves, many poisonous. About 120 species,, 
warmer regions, especially of S. Africa; 19 in U. S. 

a. R, aromatica Ait. (T. crenatum Mill., R. Canadensis Marsh, 

not Mill. ). Canada and eastern U. S. Fragrant Sumac, 
Sweet-sfented Sumac. Root hark astringent, a remedy in 
eneuresis. 

b. R. Coriaria L. Europe. European Sumac, Tanner's Sumac;: 

Ger. Sumach, Schmack. 

c. R. glabra L. (T. glabra Mill.). British America, south to 

Florida and Arizona. Smooth Sumac, Mountain or Upland 
Sumac, Scarlet or Sleek Sumac, Pennsylvania or White Sumac, 
Senhalanac, Sumach, Shoe-make^, Vinegar tree. Fruit; Ehus 
glalDra, U. S. P., astringent, acidulous. 

«1. R. hirta (L.) Sudw. (Datisca hirta L. 1753, R. typhina L. 
1760). Canada and eastern U. S. Staghorn Sumac, Staghorn, 
American or Hairy Sumac, Virginia or Velvet Sumac, Vinegar 
tree. Properties of (c). The smaller (e) R. copallina L. of 
the eastern U. S. is called Dwaif, Black, Upland or Mountain 
Sumac. The Californian (f) R. integrifolia B. & H. (S.. 
integrifolia Nutt. ) is called Mahogany*. Leaves and hark of 
most species of Rhus are used in tanning. 

g. R. Metopium L. (M. Linnaja Engelm.,R. oxymetopium Griseb. ). 
Florida to West Indies and S. America. Mountain Manchineel, 
Coral Sumac, Bum-wood. Poison- wood. Properties of (h). 
Gummy exudate, hog gum, doctoi-'s gum, emeto-cathariic. 

h. R. rddicans L. (R. Toxicodendron Auct. (Kew), not L., T. 
vulgare Mill. ). British America south to Florida, Arkansas 
and Utah. Poison Ivy, Climbing or Three-leaved Ivy, Climath, 
Climbing or Trailing Sumac, Black Mercury, MarkeryJ, Mark- 
weed. Picry, Poison Oak, Poison-vine; Ger. Giftsumac, Gift- 
baum; Fr. Sumach veneneux; Sp. Zuraaque venenoso. Fre^h 
leaves; Rhus Toxicodendron, U. S. P., Folia toxicodendri; 
diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant to nervous system. The Poison 



S^FA'TIFIC AND POPlil.AR. 3215 

Oak of California, called also Yeara, is (i) R. diversfloba T. 
& Gr. (R. lobata Hook., notPoir.). The Poison Oak of the 
southern States is the more shrubby (j) R, Toxicodendron 
L. (T. magnum Sneud, ), the three species active skin poisons. 

k. R, semialdta Murr. China, Japan, nat. in Hawaiian Islands' 
Chinese Sumac. Excrescences on the leaves are the Chinese 
Nut-galls. The Japanese nutgalls are a similar product from 
(1} R. Japouiea Sieb. 

m. R. succediiueaL. Japan. Japanese Wax-tree. Fruit, source 
of Japan vegetable wax, (n) R. Chin^nsis Mill, in China 
furnishes a similar wax. 

o. R. yernicffera DC. (R. Vernix Thunb. not L. ). Japan. 
Japanese Varnish tree. Lacquer tree. Exudate constitutea 
Japanese lacquer. 

p. R. Vernix L. ( R. venenata DC. (Kew), T. pinnatum Mill.). 
Ontario and eastern U. S. Poison Sumac, Swamp Sumac^ 
Poison tree, Poison Elder, Poison Ash, Poison Dogwood, Swamp 
Dogwood. Properties of (h). 

1 731. RHYKCHOSIAjLour. 1790. Red-bead vine.Papilionacf ae. 

From Greek, '"snout", alluding to keel of corolld. Syn. 
Dolicholus, Medic. 1787; Glycine, Trifolium, in part. Peren- 
nial herbs. About 100 species, warmer regions; 14 in U. S. 
(a) R. phaseoloides DC. (R. precatoria DC.) of tropical 
America is the Mexican Rosary plant or Red-bead vine. 

1732. RIBES, L. (Ribesium). Currant, etc. (jrossulariaceae. 

Name of uncertain origin. Syn. Grossularia, Adans. Shrubs 
producing berries generally edible. About 60 species, north 
temperate zone, especially of New World and S. America; 47 

inU. S. • ■■■'' 

a. R. aureuni Pursh. U. S. west of the; Mississippi. Buffulo 

Currant, Flowering Currant, |,Clove Curriant, Golden or Missouri 
Currant. 

b. R. Cynosbati L. (G. Cynosbati Mill.). Canada to N. Carolina, 

west to Missouri and Manitoba. Wild Gooseberry, Prickly 
Wild Gooseberry, Dogberry. Fi-uit esculent. The Northern 
Gooseberry is (c) R. oxyacanlhoides L. ( R.hirtellum Micbx. ),, 
British America, south to Ohio and Colorado; Smooth. Wild 
Gooseberry, Hawthorn Gooseberry. The Eastern Wild Goose- 
berry or Smooth Gooseberry is (d) R. rotundifoHiini Michx., 
Massachusetts to N. Carolina. 

e. R. nigrum L. (G. nigra Mill.). Europe. European Black 
Currant, Blackberry*, Quinsy -berry; Ger. Gichtbeere, Ald- 
beere; Fr. Cassis (Codex). Leaves diuretic. Fruit antiscor- 
butic. The American Wild Black Currant is (f ) R, fl6ridum 
L'Her. (R. Pennsylvanicum Lam.), Canada to Kentucky, 
west to Nebraska. The Northern Wild Black Currant is. 
(g) R. Hudsoniannm Richards, British America to Colorado,. 



322 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

h. R, rdbrum L. (R. albinervum Michx. ). Europe, Asih and N. 
America, south to New Jersey, Indiana and Minnesota. Red 
Currant, Garnt^t-berry, Easpberryf, Wine-berry, Raisin tree, 
Eizzles, Rizzer-berry, Garden Currant; a cultivated variety is 
White Currant [The name Currant (i. e. Corinthian) was 
first applied to the seedless grape. See Vitis]; Ger. Johannis- 
beere; Fr. Groseillier rouge (Codex). Fruit, Ribia rubra, 
Ribesia rubra, acidulous, refrigerant, esculent. 

i. B. UTE-crispa L. (R. Grossularia L. (Kew), G. Uv»-crispa 
Mill. ). Europe and Asia, cult, and nat. in U. S. Garden Goose 
b»^rry, Feaberry (i. e. Feverberry), Fayberry, Feabes, Fabes, 
Fape8,Grozet or Groserts (Scoiliind) Gozelle, (toggles, Gaskins, 
Goose gogs, Carberry, Cat-berry, Day-berry, Eat-berry, Wine- 
berry, Honey-blob, Tea-berry, Berry tree; Ger. Krauselbeere, 
Stachelbeere; Fr. Groseille. Frait esculent. 

1733. RICHARDIA, L. not Kunth. (Ricardia). Rubiaceae. 
Syn. Richardsonia (Kew), Kunth 1818. Herbs. About 8 

species, warmer regions of New World; 2 in U. S. See Zante- 
deschia. 

a. R, sciibra L. (R. pilosa R. &P., Richardsonia pilosa H. B. K. 
(Kew), Richardsonia scabra St Hil.). Brazil, nat. in south- 
em U S. Mexican Clover, Spanish or Florida Clover, Water 
Par^ley*. Root, Undulated or Farinaceous Ipecacuanha, eme- 
tic. Plant valued for pasiure and fodder. Another Ipecacu- 
anha (small striated ) is believed to be derived from a Richardia. 

1734. RICIXELLA, C. & F. Ricinella. Enphorbiaceae. 

Latin, diminutive from "Ricinus". One species in western 
U. S. 

1735. RICINUS, L. Castor Bern Eupliorbiaceae. 

Latin, trom ancient Greek name of the plant, 'the name being 
applied also to an insect (tick) which resembles the seeds of 
this plant. Syn. Cataputia, Ludw. 1760. Herbaceous shrub, 
in warm climates even arborescent. One exceedingly variable 
species, Africa and Asia. 

a. R. coiumiinis L. (R. vulgaris Mill., R. medicus Forslc., C. 
minnr Ludw.). Southern Asia, nat. in all tropical countries, 
as in the Routhwrn U. S. Castor- oil plant, Pal ma Christi, 
Mexico seed, Man ''^-mother- wort, Oil-seed, Oil-nut, S edfast; 
Ger. Wunderbaum; Fr. Ririn (Codex); Oil from the seeds, Cas- 
tor oil; Oleum ricini, U. S. P., Oleu-a palmae Christi, Oleum 
castoris; cathartic. Leaves galactagogue. 

173t>. RIGIOPAPPUS, Gray. Rigiopappus. Compositae. 

From Greek, "stiff papf)U8". Slender annual with yellow 
flowers. One species, Pacific border of U. S. 

1737. RIViNA, L. (Rivinia). Hoop-withe. Phytolaccaceae. 

Named for A. Q. Rivinu><, German botanist d. 1723. Herbs, 
somewhat shrubby. About 10 species, warmer regions New 
World; 2 in U. S. 

a. R. hiimilis L. W. Indies and southeastern U. S. Blooi-berry, 
Rouge-berry, Rouge plant. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 325 

1738. ROBINIA, L. Locust tree. Papilionaceae . 

Named for Jean and Vespasien Robin, royal gardeners, Paris, 
17th Century. Syn. Pseudo- Acacia, Medic. Trees or shrubs 
with showy flowers in racemes. About 6 species, N. America; 
4 in U. S. 

«. R. Pseiidaeacia L. (P. vulgaris Medic, P. odorata Moench.). 
Southeasiern U. S. and much planted as a shade and timber 
tree. Locust tree, Yellow Locust, Black or Common Locust, 
Post or White Locust, Honey Locust*, North American Locust 
tree. Pea-flower Locust, Basiard or False Acacia, Silver-chain^, 
White Laburnum, Whya tree; Ger. Falsche Acazie; Fr. Robi- 
nier. Bark of root tonic, emetic, narcotic. Timber strong and 
durable. 

Other indigenous species are (b) R. hispida L. (P. hispida 
Moench). Ro^e Acacia, Moss Locust, Bristly Locust, and (c) 
R. viseosa Vent., Clammy Locust, Red-flowering or Rose- 
flowering Locust, Rose Acacia*. 

1739. ROCCELLA, DC. Archil, etc. Parmeliaceae. 

Probably from the Italian, Orcella. Lichens. 

A. R^ tinctoria Ach. Mediterranean region, Canary Tslands, 
Azores, etc. Archil Lichen, Orchil, Orchella, Canary Moss, 
Dyer's Moss, Cape- weed. From this and (b) R. fusiformis 
Ach., Angola- weed, Mauritius-weed, Flat Archil or Orchil, i» 
obtained litmus. See Lecanora. 

1740. ROMANZ6FFIA,Cham.(Romanzovia).Hydrophyllaceae. 

Named for Count Nicholas Romanzoff*. Delicate pale herbs. 
Two known species, Alaska to California. 

1741. ROMNEYA, Harv. Romneya. Papayeraceae. 

Glauc«»us herb. One species, California. 

1742. RORtPA, Scop. 1760 (originally Rorippa). Cruciferae. 

Syn. Nasturtium, R. Br. 1812; Armoracia Si^ymbrium, Coch- 
Icaria, Neobeckla, in part Herbs, more or less pungent. 
About 25 species, mostly of north temperate zone; 22 in IJ. S. 

:a, R. Armoracia (L. ) A. S. Hitchcock (C. \.rmoracia L. (Kew), 
N. Armoracia Fries., A. sat va Bernh. ). Europe, cult, and 
nat. in U. S. Hoiseradish; Ger. Meerrettig; Fr Raifort. Craa 
de Bretagne, Moutarde des moines; Sp. Rabau) rusticano. 
Fresh root pungent, diureti*', condiment 

b. R. Nasti'irtiuin (L.) Rusbv (S. Nasturtium L.,N. offi<^inale R. 
Br.). Europe, northern Asia. nat. m U. S. and widely else- 
where. Wa'er-cres", Comrao i or True Water-cres^ (Crashes, 
Carsous, Kars, Kar<e), Brown Cress, Water-grass (Ireland), 
Water-kers. Well-grass, Brook-lime, Eker. Tengtongues; Ger. 
Brntinenkresse; Fr. Cre<son de fontaine (Codex); Sp. Berro. 
Fresh plant antiscorbutic, used for salad. 

■c R. paliistris (L. ) Bess. (S. araphibiura var. palustre L., N. 
palustre DC. (Kew), N. tnrrestre R. Br.). Europe, Asia and 
N. America. Marsh or Yellow Water-cress, Yellow Wood- 
cress, Bell-ragges. This and other species have properties of 

(b). 



324 PJ.AXT XAMJ-l'^ AND SVNONV.MS 

1743. ROSA, L. - Rose. - Rosaceae. 

The ancient Latin name from the Ureek. Erect or climbing 
shrubs. A large genus. Northern hemisphere. 23 in U. S. 

a. R. canina L. Europe, northern Asia, nat. in U. S. Dog 

Rose, Canker Rose, Canker blooms (Shakespere), Wild Brier, 
Bird Brier, Cat-whin, Hip Brier, Brere Rose, Bramble Rose, 
Horse Bramble, Hip-tree, Hedge-peak, Lawyers, Soldiers, 
Bedeguar Rose; Ger. Hundsrose; Fr. Eosier sauvage, ^gl an- 
tler sauvage (Codex). Fruit (of this and allied species). Hips, 
Rose-hips; Rosfe Caninff FructusBr.,Cynosbata, Fructui cynos- 
bati, Cynorrhoda; Ger. Hagebutten, Hahnebutten, Hainbutten; 
Fr- Cynorrhodon (Codex); astringent, refrigerant. Excrescence 
from puncture of insect, Kose-gall, Bedeguar, Gallae rosa*, 
Fungus cynosbati, astringent. 

b. R. centifolia L. Western Asia, widely cult. Hundred-leaved 

Rose, Cabbage Rose, Provence Rose, etc. ; Ger. Centifolienrose; 
Fr. Rose h cent feuilles, Eose pale (Codex ) . Petals, Rose-leaves; 
Bosa Centifolia, U. S.P., Rosae Centifoliae Petala, Br., Flores 
rosaj P. G., Flores rosse pallidse v. incarnatse; Source of oil of 
rose, which is prepared also from petals of (c) and (e). 

c. R. Damascena Mill. [Perhaps not distinct from (b)]. Orient. 

Damascus or Damask Eoee; Fr. Rose de Damas, Rose des 
quatre saisons, Rose de Puteaux (Codex). 

d. R, G^Ilica L. Southern Europe and the Levant, also cult, in 

gardens. French Rose, Dutch Rose, Red Rose; Ger. Essigrose, 
Sammtrose, Zuckerrose; Fr. Rose rouge. Rose de Provins (Co- 
dex). Petah [ov unexpanded flower buds). Red-rose leaves; 
Rosa Grallica, U. S. P., Rosse Gallica? Petala, Br., Flores rosfe 
rubrae v. domesticse; astringent. 

e. R, moschata Mill. North Africa and south Asia, largely 

grown at Kesanlik. Musk Rose, soirrce of the Kesanlik ( Kis- 
anlik ) attar of rose. 

f. R. rubiginosa L. (R. micrantha Bor., R. Eglanteria Mill, not 

L. ). Europe to central Asia, nat. locally in U. S. Sweet 
Brier (Breer), Eglantine (Shakespere and Spenser), Eglantine 
Rose, Eglantere, Hip Brier, Kitchen Rose. Foliage fragrant. 

The more important of our indigenous species (Wild Rose) 
are, (g) R. Carolina L., Swamp Rose, Hip tree; (h) R. 
hnmilis Marsh (E. parviflora Erhr), Pasture Rose, Dwarf or 
Low Wild Rose, the common Wild Rose of eastern U. S. ; (i) 
R. bldnda Ait., Pale, Smooth or Meadow Rose; (j) R, nitida 
Willd., Shining or Northeastern Rose; (k) R. setigera 
Michx., Prairie Rose, Michigan Rose (although rare in Mich- 
igan), Climbing Wild Rose. Naturalized from China in south- 
eastern U. S. is (1) R. laeyisrata Michx (R. Sinica Ait.), 
Cherokee Rose, Jamaica Buckthorn. 

1744. ROSMARINUS, L. Rosemary. Labiatae. 

The Latin name, meaning "sea dew". Shrub. One species^ 
Mediterranean region. 



i^ 8CI ENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 326 

a, R. offlcindlis L. Mediterranean region, cult, in gardens. 
Rosemary, Garden Rosemary, Old-man; Ger. Kosmarin, Meer- 
thau; Fr. Romarin (Codex); Sp. Romero. Leaves; i osmari- 
nus, U. S P., Folia rosmarini, Fol. roris mariui, Fol. anthos; 
diaphoretic, carminative, emraenagogue. Sourceof oil of Rose- 
mary. 

1745. ROTALA, L. - Rotala. - Lythraceae. 

From Latin, "wheel", alluding to whorled leaves of some 
species. Syn. Ammannia, Boykinia, in part. Low annuals. 
About 30 species, warmer regions; 1 in U. S. 

1746. ROTHRdCKIA, Gray. Rothrockia. Asclepiadaceae 

One species in western U. S. • 

1747. ROUBIE VA, Moq. Cut-leaved Goose-foot. Cheiiopodiac«ae. 

Named for G. J. Robieu, French botanist. Syn. Chenopo- 
dium, in part. A strong-scented herb. One species, tropical 
America, adv. in U. S. 

1748. ROULINIA, Decne.,not Brogn. Roulinia. AsclepiadatM'ae. 

Twining herbs. About 12 species, tropical America; 1 in 
U. S. 

1749. RIjBIA, L. Madder plant. Rubiaceae. 
The Latin name, from ruber, "red". Perennial herbs from 

thickened roots. About 40 species, temperate and warm regions, 
both hemispheres. 

A, R. tiuctorum L. Mediterranean region. Madder plant, War- 
ence; Ger. Krapp, Farberrothe; Fr. Garance (Codex); Sp. 
Granza. Root, Dyer's Madder, yields a red dye, as does that 
of(b) R. cordifoiia L. (R. Mungista Roxb. ), of eastern Asia 
and Japan, Munjeet. 

1750. RUBUS, L. Blackberry, etc. Rosaceae. 
The ancient Latin name, from 7t/6cr, "red". Herbs, shrubs 

or trailing vines, generally prickly. About 250 species, widely 
distributed; 31 in U. S. 

a. R. Amcricdnus (Pers. ) Brit. (R. saxatilis var. Canadensis 

Michx., R. triflorujj Rich. ) . Canada and northeastern U. S. 
Dwarf Raspberry, Dewberry, Mulberry*, Pigeon-berry, Run- 
ning Raspberry, Swamp-berry. 

b. R. Canadensis L. Canada to Virginia, Louisiana and Indian 

Territory. Low Running Blackberry, Dewberry (of eastern 
U. S. ), Creeping Blackberry. See (p). The Dewberry of the 
southern U. S. is (c) R. trlvialis Michx., called also Low- 
bush Blackberry. Similar to these is (d) R. cuniefolius 
Pursh, Southeastern U. S., Sand Blackberry, Low or Knee- 
high Blackberry. The Dewberry of Europe is (e) R. ca^siiis 
L., called also Blackberry-token and Blue Bramble. 

f. R. Chamaemoriis L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America, 

south to New Hampshire, Cloud-berry, Averin, Knot-berry, 
Knout-berry, Dwarf Mulberry, Mountain Bramble, Mountain 
Raspberry, Baked-apple-berry, 



326 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

g. R. fruticosus L. Europe, north Africa to central and northeni 
Asia. Cofumon Bramble ( Brammle, Brimble, Brumble, Brum- 
mel ) or Blackberry of the Old World, Black boyd or Black- 
bide (Scotland), Bumble-berry, Ever-bramble, Gait-berry, 
Ladv' 8 garters. Mulberry Bramble, Scald-berry, Theve Thorn, 
Theif; Ger. Hrombeere; Fr. Ronce sauvage (Codex), Konce 
noir; Sp. Zarzamora. See (p). 

h. R. Idaeus L. Europe, west to Japan. European Raspberry, 
Ariiberry, llainberrv, Hindberry, Sivven; Ger. Himbeere; Fr. 
Friraboise (Codex); Sp. Frambue^a, Sanguesa. Fruit; Eubus 
Id>eus. U. S. i*. Allied to this is the American (i) R, occi- 
dentalis L. (R. Id^iens var. Americanus Torr. ), Blactc Ra-p- 
beny, Bla< k-cap, Wild Purple Raspberry, Blackberry*, the 
oritJfiiKil of the ruliiva ed Gregjj; and Hilborn raspberries. The 
Calif -rnia Raspberry is (j ) R. leiicoderiuis Doug'. See(n). 

k. R, odonttiis L. Canada to Georgia and Tennessee. Flower- 
ing Raspbr^rry, Purple or Rose F'lowering-raspberry, Thimble- 
l)erry. Mulberry*, in England called Virginia Raspberry. 
Similar to this are (1) K, parviflorus Nuti. (R. Nuikanus 
Mocino), British America and norihern U. S. . Salraou-beny, 
Thiitil)le-berry, White Flowering-raspberry, and (m) R, spec- 
tdbilis Pursh, the Salmon-berry of oaliforma. 

n. R, strigosiiS Michx, (R, Idaeus var. strigosus Maxim. ). Brit- 
ish Anier'ca, South to N. Lsirolina and New Mexico. Wild 
Red Raspberry American Red Raspberry, ilie original of the 
cultivated Cuihbert and Hansall raspb' rries. Fhe Purple 
W'ihl Rapberry o) north-eastern U. S. is (o R, iicglectli* 
Peck, whence the cnltivaied Carolina and (iladstone raspbei ries. 

p. R. Yillosiis Ait. Eastern U. S. American Blackberry or 
Bramble lligh-bush Blackberry, Finger-berry, Thimble-berry*, 
Cloud-berry*, Sow- tit. Fruit esculent. B(ir/c of root of ihis^ 
aUo I b) and (c^, Blackberry root; xiubus ' . S. P.. astringent. 
The Mouiuain Blackberry of the noriheastern U. S., witu lai- 
ger fruit, 's (q) R, Alleg'haiiiensis Porter (R. villosus var. 
m-'Utanua Porter, not R. nitrntanus Ort. ). The lalifomia 
Bla(!kberry is(r) R. ur>mus Cham. & Sch. See(b), (c), (d), 
(e) and (g). 

1761. RUDBECKIA, i.. Cone-flower. Coinpositae. 

Named for Glaus Rudbeck, f<mnder of botanic garden at 
Up-*ala d. 1702, Coarse herns with showy yellow- rayed flowers. 
About 27 bpecies, N. America; 22 in U. S., especially south- 
western. 

a. R. liirtH L. Western prairies, nat. in eastern U. S. Black- 

eyed- Su-^an, Brown-eyed Susan, Yellow Daisy, Brown- 1 )aisy^ 
Nigger Daisy, Ox-eye Daisy*, Golden- Jeru-<alem, Nigger-head» 
Brown- Betty, English Bull's-eye. 

b. R. lacmiiita L. Canada and eastern U. S. Thimble-weed, 

Till or Green-headed Cone-flower, Cone-disk Stmttower; Double 
variety in cultivation. Golden-glow. Plant diuretic, tonic. 

c. R, triloba L. New Jersev to Georgia, west to Missouri. Thin- 

leaved Cone-flower, Brown-eyed Susan. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 327 

1762. RUELLIA, L. Ruellia. Acauthaeeae. 

Named for Jean Ruel, French herbalist, d. 1537. Syn. Dip- 
teracanthiis, in part. Herbs or shrubs with showy Howers. 
About 200 species, tropical, mainly of New World; 9 in U.S. 

1763. RtJMEX, L. Dock, etc. Polygoiiacrae. 

The ancieni Latin name, "lance", from form of leaf. 8yn. 
Acetosella, Aceiosa, in part. Robust herbs, some ^hrubby. 
About 130 si)ecies; 28 in U. S., including naturalized s{»ecies. 

». R. Acetosa L. (AcetosamagnaGililb., A. ofHcinalis Uueld., A. 
pratt-nsis Mill. ). Europe, Asia, Biitish America, nat. in U. S. 
!St)rrel, Cock Sorrel. English ( ock Sorrel, Cireen or Meadow 
S arel, Bread-and-Lheese, Donkey s-oat.'", Kiichnn Soriel. Gin- 
ger-sauce, Ginger Son el, Redshank-, Shaip Dock, Erei.ch 
S urock (Sourack, Saroik, Snoiacks, Soriow), Sour-jirass, 
Sour-sauce (Sour-sabs, Sour-suds); Ger. Sanerampier; Fr. 
Oreille commune ((.odex); Sp. Acedera. Boot aslriuirent. 
Leaves acididous, refi'igerant, used as a pot herb, as are ihose 
of (b) K. luxiiriaus L. in Alrica. 

c. R. Acrtosella L- (Act tosel la vulgaris Four., Acetosa Acetosella 
Mill. }. Euro])e, Asja, and N. America. Sht-ep SoireJ, Field 
Sorrel, PIoi>e or Cow Soriel. ( ommon or GeiitUman's Sorrel, 
Mountain or Red-top Sorrel, T<>ad's Sorrel, Raniy-tanty, Sour 
I'ock, Sour gra^s, Sour Leek, Grt-en-.-auce, Red-weed. Pro- 
perties ol ( a j. l-'rench »Sorrel is the allied (d) R. hClitatllS 
L. (Acet'sa scutata Mill. ). 

e. R. iTispus L. British .America and U. S. throughou'. Yel- 

low Dock, Curled Dock, Nairow Lock, Son r 1)<k k*. Hoot "of 
this and o her species, notably (g) and (h)" ; Ramex, L. S. P., 
Rad. ruiuici^, Rad. lap^thi a uti v. oxylapalhi v. hy(lr"l«})athi; 
Fr. Grindwnizel, W aM-ermangoidwurzel; Fi-. I'atieJice (Codex); 
astringent, alleraiive, laxative, rese bling rhubarb. 

f. R. hymen OSepalllS Torr. Texas to Arizona and Mtxico, now 

extensively cult. Canaigre, Wild lie-plant. Boots used for 
tanning, astrmgent. 

g. R. obtusifoliiis L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Bitter 

Dock, Common Dock (of England) Broad-leaved or Blunt- 
leaved Lock, Butter Doc IN ( 'eavi s formedy used for wra|>}»ing 
buiter), ( elery-seedf. Properti« s of (e), the species n.ost used 
in Eu ope. (h) R. saiig:uiiieiiS L. Enro}ie. adv. in U. S. 
Bloody Lock, Blo< dwort. Red- veined l)o(*k. Olcoit-rooi, is also 
ustd, and in Europe u) R. aqudticilS L. and (j) R, Hydro- 
liipathiiiii Huds. 

k. R, PationtiaL. Europe, nat. locally in U. S. Patience Dock, 
Passionsj, Garden Patience, Monk's Rhubarb. The latter name 
is given in Scotland to (1) R. alpiuus L., called also Moun- 
tain Rhubarb. 

1764. RtJPPIA, L. Ditch-grass, etc. Naiadaceae. 

iNamtd for H. B. Rupp, German botanist, 18th CVniury. 
Slender-stemmed aquatic plants. About 4 species, widely dis- 
tributed; 2 in U. S. 



328 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. R. maritinia L. (R. spiralis L., R. rostellata K. B.). Brack- 
ish and salt water, widely distributed. Ditch-grass, Tassel- 
grass, Tassel Pond-grass, Tassel Pond weed, Sea-grass. PUmt 
reputed vulnerary. 

1755. Rl5SCUS, L. Butcher's Broom, Liliaceae. 
The ancient Latin name of (a). Evergreen plants, but with- 
out true leaves. About 5 species, Europe and northern Africa. 

a. R, aciileatiis L. (R. flexuosus M!ll. ). Mediterranean region 
to middle Europe. Butcher's Broom, Sweet Broom, Box Holly, 
Knee Holly, Knee Holm or Hulver, Briiscus, Horse-tongue, 
Pettigree, Prickly Box, Shepherd's Myrtle, Wild or Jew's 
Myriie; Ger. Mausdorn; Fr. Petit Houx, Fragon <5pineux 
(Codex), iiooi diuretic. .SAoo/a eaten like asparagus. 

1756. Rl^TA, L. - - Rue. - - Rutaceae. 

Latin, from Greek name of (a). Heavy-scented perennial 
herbs. About 50 species, Mediterranean region to central Asia. 

a. R, graveoleus L. Southern Europe to the Orient. Rue, Gar- 
den Rue, Herb-of-grace (Shakespere), Ave-graoe, Herb-of- re- 
pentance. Countryman's Treacle; Ger. Raute, Gartenraute; Fr. 
Rue (Codex); Sp. Ruda, Jyeat'es antispasmodic, emmenagogue, 
anthelmintic. 

1757. HABAL, Adans. Palmetto. Habalaceae. 

From vernacular, Mexico or S. America. Syn. Chamaerops, 
Corypha, in part. Fan Palme. About 7 species, New World; 
4 in U. S. 

a. S. Palmetto (Walt.) R. & S. (Cor. Palmetto Walt, Cham. 
Palmetto Michx, ), N. Carolina to Florida and Bermuda 
Islands. Cabbage Palmetto, Palmetto. 

h. S. Mexicaniiim Mart. (S. umbraculiferura Hort., not Mart.). 
Texas to Mexico and West Indies. Texas Palmetto, Royal 
Palmetto, Big-thatch, Bull-thatch. Our largest species. 

1758. SABBATIA, Adan«j. Marsh Pink, etc. Gentiaiiaceae^ 

Named for L. Sabbati, Italian botanist. Svn, Chironia, 
Gentiana, Swertia, in part. Annual or biennial herbs with 
pink, red or white flowers, some highly ornamental. About 14 
species, all in southern U. S. and Mexico. 

a. S. annularis (L. ) Pursh (C. angularis L. ). Eastern U. 8. 
American Centaury, American Red Centaury, Bitter-bloom, 
Bitter Clover, Rose Pink, Pink-bloom, Square-stemmed Sabba- 
tia?; Ger. Sabbatie; Fr. Centaur^e americaine. Herb bitter 
tonic. Similar properties belong to other species, notably (b). 
"S. Elliottii Steud. (Swertia differ mis L., Sab, paniculata Ell., 
not Pursh). Quinine-flower, Quinine-plant, Quinine-herb. 

1759. SACCHARUM, L. (Saccharifera). Gramineae, 
Latin word for sugar, from the Sanskrit. Compare jaggety, 

the palm sugar of Hindustan. Robust grasses with solid culms. 
About 12 species. Old World- 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR, 329 

a. S. officin^iim L. (S. officinale Salisb., Saccharifera officinalis 
Stokes). Southern Asia, now cult in all tropical countries. 
Sugar Cane. The most important of sugar-yielding plants. 

1760. SAOERl&TIA, Brong. Tia. Rhamnaceae. 

Named for Augustin Bageret, d. 1852. Shrubs. About 15 
species, warmer regions of Asia and N. America; 2 in U. 8. 

«. S« tll^ezans Brongn, China. Tia. Ijeaves used by poorer 
clsisses for tea, 

1761. SAGINA, L. Pearlwort, Pearl-weed. Caryophyllaceae. 

The ancient name of Spurry. Syn. Spergula, in part. I^ow 
herbs. About 10 species, northern hemisphere; 8 in U. S,; 
Ger. Vierling; Fr. Sagine. 

a. S. prociimbens L. Europe, Asia and N. America. Procum- 
bent Pearlwort, Bird's-eye, Break-stone, Make-beggar, Poverty, 

1762. 8A0ITTARIA, L. Arrow-head. "Alismaceae. 

From Latin, "arrow" leaf. Syn. Alisma, in part. Scapose 
aquatic or paludal herbs. About 80 species, warm and temper- 
ate regions; 25 in U. S. Typical species are, in America, (a) 
S. laitifolia Willd. (S. variabilis Engelm. ) and in Europe, 
(b) S. 8ag:ittaef6iia L. The names Water-archer and Ad- 
der' s-tongue are applied to some species. In California the 
tubers of (a) or a kindred species were formerly used as food by 
the aborigines under the name of Wappat« or Wapatoo, called 
also Tule root. 

1768. SALIC6rXIA, L. Glasswort, Saltwort, Cheiiop(Kliaceae. 

From Latin, "salt horn", the plant growing in a saline habi- 
tat and having horn-like branches. Fleshy plants, practically 
Inafless. About 10 species; 3 in U. 8.; Ger. Glasschmalz; Fr. 
Salicorne. 

a. S. herbdcea L. Saline soil throughout U. S. as in Europe and 
Asia. Common Glasswort (the ash, barilla, formerly used in 
the manufacture of glass), Marsh samphire (Sampion), Slender 
or Jointed Glasswort, Chicken' s-toes, Crab-grass, Frog-grass, 
Marsh Tea, Pickle-plant, Saltwort, Sea-grass, English Sea- 
grape, Swy. Stems used for pickles. 

1764. SALIX, t. - Willow. - Salicaceae. 

The ancient Latin name. Trees or shrubs, mostly with nar- 
row leaves. About 160 species, mostly of north temperate and 
arctic regions; 75 in U. S. Synonyms are Sally (i. e. Salix), 
Sallow, Salghe, Selly, Seel, Saugh,' Soafs, Safi; Willey, Wilf, 
Wiffs, Widdy, Withy, Wythy; Ger. Weide; Fr. Saule; Sp. 
Sauce, Sauz. 

a. S. alba L. Europe to middle Asia, nat. in U. S. AVhite Wil- 
low, Common European Willow, Puck Willow, Huntington 
Willow. Variety vitelina (L.) Koch is Golden Osier, Cane 
Withy, Yellow Willow, Bark, Salix, U. S. P., (Jortex salicis; 
Ger. Weidenrinde; Fr. Saule blanc (Codex). Medicinal wil- 
low bark is obtained also from (g) and (1), likewise from (b) 
S. pentdndra L., (c) S. rubra L., and from other species; 
bitter, tonic; active constitutent Salicin. 



330 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. 8. Babyloiiica L. Asia, nat. in Europe and U. S. Weeping 

VVilluw, Drooping or King Willow, Garb. 

e. S. discolor Muhl. Canada and northeastern U. S. Glaucous 

Willow, J*u8sy Willow, Bog, Swamp or Silver Willow. Cat- 
^iw*- of this and some other species called Pussy-cats, in Eng- 
land Geslings, Lanib's-tailB, Pawms (i. e. palms), etc. 

f. S. fltiviatllis Nutt. (S. longifolia Muhl.). British America to 

Kentucky and New Mexico. Sand-bar Willow, Elver-bank 
Willow, L>ng-leuf or Narrow-leaved Willow, Osier or Red Wil- 
l(tw, Shrub or White Willow. 

g. S. frdgilis L. Southwestern Asia, Europe, nat. in U.S. Crack 

Willow, Biiitle Willow, Snap or Redwood Willow, Varnished 
Willow. Bar/c very rich in saliciii. 

h. S. nigra Marsh. (S. Purshiana Spreng). Canada to Florida 
and California. Black Willow, Pussy VVillow, Swarnp Willow, 
i^ar^ and "6/tds" bitter tonic, aiiaphroilisiac. Other indigenous 
species called Blaitk Willow are(i) S. laevigata Behb- (j) 
S. lasiaiidra Benth. and (k) S. Wardii Bebo. 

1. S. purpurea L. Europe and As a, nat. in U. S. Bit'er Wil- 
low, Basket Willow, Purpl* Willow, R< se or Whipcord AVil- 
low, Osier. See (a). 

m. S. viminalis L. Europe and Asia, cult, and nat, in U. S. 
Osier Willow, Osier (Ausier, Au^er), Common or Velvet Osier, 
Basket Willow, rwior-wiihy, Withy-twig, W'ilgersi. Twiys 
(osierjs) used for baskets, etc. Other Osier Willows are (a),, 
(h), (1), also (n) S. amygdaliiia L. and (o) S. rubra- 
Hudson. 

1765. SALAZARIA, Tor. (Salizaria). Labiatae. 

Naned for Don Jose Salazar y Lnrreqni, Mexican Commis- 
sioner of Boundary Survey. Shrubby plant. One species,. 
Mexican bord' r of IJ. S. 

17G(>. SALPICHR6a, Miers 1845. (Salpichroma). Solauaceae* 

From Greek, "colored trmupet", alluding to the corolla. 
Syn. Busheckia, Mart. 182i<. Herbs, About 10 species, 
mostly of S. America; 1 in Arizona. 

1767. SALSOLA, L. Saltwort, Glasswort. Cheiiopodiaceae* 

The Latin name, "salt soil". Syn. Kali, Ad.ms., Soda, 
in part. Herbs wiih aculeate-pointed leaves. About 50 species,, 
saline districts; 2 in U. S. 

a. S. Kiili L. (K. Soda Moench, K. Tragus Scop.). Europe, 
Asia and Atlantic coast of U. S. Prickly Saltwort, Saltwort 
(Sowdwort), Salt-grape, Sea-grape, Sea-thrift, Ee^trige, Kelp- 
w-rt, Prickly Glasswort, Sparrow's dung. Ash of the plant 
(barilla), as'also thatof ( b) IS. Soda L. ( K. Soda Scop. , Soda 
inermis Four), Glasswort, of Mediterranean region, loriuerly 
a source of soda. 

c S. Trjigus L. (S. Kali var. Tragus Moq.). Europe and Asia,, 
nat. in U. S. Russian Thistle, Russian Cactus. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. S31 

1768. SAL VAD6rA, L. Salvadora. Salradoraeeae. 

Named for J. Salvador, Spanish botanist. Shrubs or trees. 
About 3 species, southern Asia and norihern Africa. 

a. S. Persica L. Asia. Tooth-brush tree. Believed to be the 
Mustard-tree of Scripture. iSeerfs yield Kikuel oil. 

1769. SALVIA, L. Salvia, Sage. Labiatae. 
The Latin narue, "healing". Herbs, some shrubs, with 

flowers often showy. About 500 species, temperate and tropi- 
cal regions; 33 in U. S. 

a. S. axillaris Sesse. ^Mexico. Mexican Hyssop. 

b. S. officiualis L. Europe, widely cult, and nat. (Jarden Sage, 

Sage, Save; Ger. Salbei; Fr. Sauge otficinaJe (Codex); Sp. Sal- 
via. Leaves; Salvia, U. S. P., Folia salvise; stimulant, tonic, 
astringent. The Meadow Sage of Europ<^, (c) S. pratensis 
L. ; Ger. Wiesent-albei, has similar properties. 

d. S. Schirea L. Europe, cult, and adv in U. S. ( laiy, Clear- 
eye, Go(i»s-eie, Oculns Christi, See-hright, Scallewort; Ger, 
Musratellersalbei. The mucilaginous sc.nis used to clear the eye 
of foreign particles. ( )ther species haviny mucilaginou-^ s^-eds 
are. (e) S. Coliiliihariae Benih., S(»utliwestern L'. S. ; (f) S. 
polystacbya Ortega (S. Chian LaLlave), Mexico; (g) S. 
Uoriniiniin L. ; (h) S. verbeiiaca L., and (i) S. vcrticillata 
L. , the three latter of Europe. The needs of (e) and (f) are 
calltd Chia se*d, used for their denuilceut actiim. 

1770. SAMANDUKA, L. 1747. Samandera. Simarubacpao. 

From vernacular. East Indies. Syn. Samadera (Kew), 
Gaerin. 1791, Ni<'ta, Lam., not Adans. Tre< s wiih showy 
flowers. Two species, East Indies and Mndagascar. 

a. S. Iiidica (Gaertn. ) Lyons (Samadera Indica Gaertn., S. per.* 
tapetala G. Don, N. jientapelala Lam., N. Conimej>oni iVrs. ). 
Hindustan. Bark, Niepa bark, Ni. ta bark, Samadera bark; 
biiter, tonic. Seeds yield tixed oil used in rheumatism. 

1771. S.\MHIJ( US, L. Elder. Caprlfoliaceae. 

The classical name. Syn. Ebulum, Garcke. Shrubs or trees, 
some herbs. About 20 species; 8 in U. S. 

a. S. Canadensis L. Canada to Florida, west to Arizona and 
Manitoba. American Elder, Elder, Sweet Eldei. Flovja's, 
Elder-blows, Elder-flowers; Sambucus, U. S. P., diureiic, 
diaphoretic, emollient. B'trk cathartic, emetic. The Mexican 
(b) S. Mexicana Presl has similar properties. 

c. S. Ebulus L. (E. humile Garcke). Europe. Dwarf Elder^ 

European Dwarf Elder, Blood Elder (Hilder), Bloodwort' 
Danewort, Dead wort, Lithewort, VValewort, Wall wort; Ger_ 
Attich; Fr. Hieble (Codex) Y^ble; Sp. Yezgo. Fruit laxativ*'^ 

d. S. glauca Nutt. (S. cceruleaRaf., S. CalifomicaKoch.). Cali- 

foruia. California Elder. Fruit blue. 



332 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

^. S. nigra L. Europe, northern Africa to middle Asia. Euro- 
pt'an Elder (Ellar, Ellen, Ellarne, Aldeme, Ellet, Elnome, 
EIren, Hilder, Hillerne, Hylder), Common Elder (of Europe), 
German or Parslej Elder, Blaek-berried Elder, Boor-tree, Bore- 
tree, Bur-tree, Bone-tree, Bountry, Boutry), Ellanwood, Ell- 
horn, Judas tree*, Skaw, Winlin-berry, Whist-aller; Ger. Flie- 
der, Hollunder; Fr. Sureau (Codex); Sp. Sahuco. FhwerSy 
diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient. Fruit, Fructus v. Baccae 
sambuci, Grana actes; Ger, Fliederbeeren, Hiitscheln; aperient, 
diuretic Juice of fruit, Elder-roob, Elder-rob, Succus sambuci 
inspissHtus, Rob sambuci; Ger. Fliedermus; Fr. Rob de sureau; 
aperient, diuretic, deobstruent. 

i. S. piibens Michx. British America south to Georgia, Colorado 
and California. Red-berried Elder, Mountain pJder, Red 
Elder, Poison Elder. 

1772. S AMOLUS, L. Water Pimpernel, Brook weed. Primulaceae. 

Name of Celtic origin. Small marsh plants. About 10 spe- 
cies, most common in S. Africa and Australasia; 4 in U. S. 
(a) S. floribiindus H. B. K. is the common species of the 
eastern U. S. ; (b) S. valer^udi L. that of Europe. 

1773. SANGUINARIA, L. Bloodroot. Papaveraceae, 

From Latin, ''bloody", alluding to the red juice. Peren- 
nial herb from a fleshy rhizome. One species only, N. America 

(U. S.). 

a. S. Canadensis L. Canada to Florida, west to Arkansas and 
Nebraska. Blood-root, Red Puccoon, Red Indian Paint, Red- 
root, Puccoon-ro >t, Coon-root. White Puccoon, Pauson, Snake- 
bite, Sweet-sUimber, Tetterwort, Turmeric*; Ger. Blutkraut, 
Blutwurzel; Fr. Sanguinaire. Rhizome; Sanguinaria, U. S. P., 
emetic, expectorant, sialjigogue, emmenagogue. 

1774. SANOUISORBA, L. Burnet. Rosaceae. 
From Latin, ''blood staunching". Syn. Poterium (Kew), 

in part. Herbs with pinnate leaves. About 20 species, north 
temperate zone; 4 in U. S. 

a. S. Canadensis L. (P. Canadense A. Gray). Canada to Georgia 
and Michigan. American Great Burnet, Canada Burnet. 

' b. S. ofRcinalis L. (P. oflBcinale A. Gray). Europe. Garden 
Burnet, Italian Burnet, Burnet Blood-wort, Italian Pimpernel, 
Bipennula, Pimpinall, Sol begrella. Plant astringent, tonic. 

c S. Sanguisorba (L. ) Brit. (P. Sanguisorba L. (Kew), S. 
Poterium Wigg., S. minor Scop. S., media L. ). Europe and 
northern Africa, adv. in U. S. Salad Burnet, Burnet, Com- 
mon or Garden Burnet, Bloodwort, Pimprenelle, Toper's plant 
Small Bibernel; Ger. Bibernell. Plant used as salad. 

1776. SANICULA, L. Snake-root, Sanicle. Unibelliferae. 

From Latin, "healing". Biennial or perennial herbs, the 
umbellets capitate. About 20 species, temperate regions; 15 in 
U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPUIoAR. ^^^3 

a. S. Eliropaea L. Europe. European Sanicle (Sinicle), Wood 

Sanicle, Wood March, Self-heal; Ger. Sanikel,Scherneckelkraut, 
Brachkraut, Ileil-aller-Schaden; Er. Sanicle (Codex). Plants 
Herba saniculae, Herba diapensiae; astringent, vulnerary. 

b. S. Marylaiulica L. Canada to Georgia. Black Snake-root, 

Sanicle, American Sanicle, Black Sanicle, Pool-root. Root 
astringent, antispasmodic, antiperiodic. (c) 8. Canadensis 
L. (S. Marylandlca var. Canadensis Torr. ), Short-style() 
Snake-root, is also called Black Snake-root, and used indiscrim- 
inately with the foregoing as are probably other species. 

1776. SAXTALUM, L. Sandal- wood. Santalaceae. 

Trees with fragrant wood. About 16 species, East Indies, 
Australia and Oceanica. 

a. S. album L. India. Sandalwood, White Sandal-woocI, Yel- 
low Sandal-wood, White Saunders; Probably the Almug of 
Scripture; Ger. Gelber Sandel; Fr. Santal citrin (Codex). 
Wood Lignum santali album v. citrinum, fragrant. Source 
of oil of Sandal-wood. Other species yielding fragrant Sandal- 
wood are (b) S. Cyifnorum Miq. (Fusanus spicatus R. Br.), 
Australia; (c) S. Freycenetianum Gaud., Hawaiian Islands; 
(d) S. Austro-Caledonicnm Vieil., New Caledonia, and (d) 
S. Yasi Seem., Fiji. 

1777. SANTOLINA, L. Lavender Cotton. Coiupositae» 

From Latin, "sacred flax". Aromatic under-shrubs. About 
8 species, Mediterranean region, (a) S. Clianiaecyparissus 
L. (C. villosa Mill. ) is Lavender Cotton, reputed anthelmintic, 
insecticide. 

1778. SANVITALIA, Lam. Thirst-plant. Compositae. 

Named for the Sanvitali family of Parma. Herbs. About 
8 species, Texas and Mexico; 2 in U. S. 

1779. SAPINDLS, L. Soap-berry. Sapindaceae. 

From Latin, "Indian soap". Trees or shrubs. About 10 
species, warmer regions of Asia and America; 3 in U. S. 

a. S. marginatus Willd. (S. acuminatus Raf.). P'lorida to Ari- 
zona and Mexico. Soap-berry, Wild China-tree. Fruit deter- 
gent, containing saponin. (b) S. Saponaria L. of Mexico 
and southwestern U. S. has the same synonyms and uses, (c) 
S. trifoliatus L. (S. laurifolius Vahl.) of India, Indian Fil- 



1780. SAPILM, P. Br. Tallow-tree. Euphorbiaceae. 

Syn. Excsecaria, Croton, Stillingia, in part. Trees or shrubs- 
About 20 species, warmer regions of both hemispheres. 

a. S. sebifenim (L. ") Roxb. (C. sebiferus L., E. sebifera Muell. 
Arg., Stillingia sebifera Michx.). China to India and Japan. 
Chinese Tallow-tree. Fruit, source of vegetable tallow, used for 
candles, etc. Wood used for engraving. 

1781. SAPONARIA, L. Soapwort Caryophyllaceae. 

From Latin, ''Soapwort". Herbs with showy flowers. 
About 35 species, Old World. 



334 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. S. oflBcindlls, L. Europe to middle Asia, nat. in U. S. 
Bouncing-Bet, Common Soapwort, Soaproot, Bruisewort, Buryt, 
Boston Pink, Chimney Pink, Crow-soap, Hedge Pink, Old- 
maid's Pink, Fuller' s-hnrb, Lady-by-the-igate, London-pride, 
Latherwort, Mock Gilliflower, Saponary, Scourwort, Sheep- 
weed, Sweet-Betiy Wild Sweet William, Woods Phlox, World' s- 
wonder; Ger. Seilenwurzel, Waschwurzel; Fr. Savonniere; Sp. 
Saponaria. Root, Radix saponaria; rubra, detergent, dis- 
■cutiert, alterative. 

1782. SARACAj L. 1767 ( not Saracha R. & P. ) .Caesalpinaceae. 
Syn. Jonesia, Roxb. 1795. , Trees or shrubs. About 6 spe- 
cies, tropical Asia, (a) S. Indica L. (J. Asoca Roxb., J. 
pinnata VVilld., S. arborescens Burm ) of Hindustan yields a 
bark which is astringent and a uterine tonic. 

1783. SARC6bATUS. Nees. Grease-wood. Chenopodiaceae. 

From Greek, "flesh" and "thorn". Syn. Bat is, in part. 
Thorny shrub with fleshy leaves. One species, Nebraska to 
Nevada. 

1784. SARCOCEPHALUS, Afz. Guinea Peach, etc. Rubiaceae. 

From Greek, 'fleshy head". Syn. Cephalina. Shrubs or 
trees with fleshy fruit. About 10 species, tropical regions. Old 
World. 

A. S. esciilentus Afzel. (C. esculenta Schum. & Thonn.). West 
Africa. < Juinea Peach, Country Fig, Negro or Sierra Leone 
Peach. Bark, DonnHake bark, African Cinchona; astringent, 
febrifuge. Fruit has emetic properties. 

1785. SARC6dES, Torr. Snow-plant. M«>notro|»aceae. 

From Greek, "flesh like", alluding to succulent red stem. 
A leafless snprophyte with red stem and flowers. One species, 
(a) S. sanguiut'a Torr., the Snow-plant of mountains of 
California. 

1786. SAR6tHRA, L. Orange-grass. Hypericaeoae. 

From Greek, "broom". Syn. Ilyppricum, in part. Low 
annual herb. One si)ecies, eastern U. S. 

a, S. gentianoides L. (H. Sarothra Michx., H. nudicaule Walt., 
S. hypericciides Nutt. ), Eastern U. S. Orange-grass, Pine- 
weed, Ground Pine*, Nit-weed, False Johnswort. Plard 
aperient, alterative. 

1787. SARRACENIA, L. (Sarracena). Sarraconiacnae. 

Named «"or Dr. J. A. Sarrazin of Quebec. Perennial marsh 
or bog herbs with trumpet shaped leaves. About 8 species, N. 
America; 7 in U. S. Syn. Pitcher- plant. Trumpet-leaf, Indian- 
cup. 

a, S. flava L. Southeastern U. S., Trumpet-plant, Yellow Trum- 
pet leaf, Trumpets, Yellow Trumpets, Himtsman's-horn, Bis- 
cuits, Dumb watches. Water-cup, Kve's-cup, Fly-trap, Yellow- 
flowered Water-cup or Side-saddle plant. Plant astringent, 
tonic, stomachic. 



SCIEXTIFIO AND POPULAR. 335 

b. S. purpurea L. Cana la and eastern U. S. Pitcher-plant, 

Side-saddle Flower, Fly-trap, Fox-glove*, Eve's-cup, Fore- 
father' s-cup, Huntsman' 8-cup, Indian-pitcher, Indian-cup, 
Dumb-watches, Saddle plant, Purple-flowered Pitcher-plant 
(although in one variety the flowers are yellow), Small-pox 
plant*, VVhippoorwill-bouls, Whippoorwill-shoe*, Skunk Cab- 
bage*; Ger. Wa^8erkrug, Jagermiitze, Trorapetenblatt; Fr. 
Sarracenie. PLani tonic, anodvne, astringent. 

c. S. variolaris Michx. Southeastern U. S. Small-pox plant, 

Spotted Pitcher-plant or Trumpet-leaf, with many of the syn- 
onyms of the foregoing. Properties of (a). 

1788. SASSAFRAS, Nees & Eberra. Sassafras. Lauraceae. 
The Spanish popular name. Syn. Laurus, in part. An aro- 
matic tree. One species, eastern N. America. 

a. S. Siissafras (L. ) Karst. (L. Sassafras L., S. officinale Nees, 
not Sieb., S. variifolia (Salisb. ) O. Kze., L. variif- liusSalisb. ). 
Ontario and eastern U. S. Sa-isafras, Saxilrax, Ague-tree, 
Cinnamon- wood, Saloop, Sraelling-stick; fier. Fenchelholz, 
Pariameholz, Fr. Sassafras (Codex): Sp. Sasafras. Bark oj 
root; sassafras, U. S. P., Cortex sassafras; stimulant, aroma- 
tic, alterative, owing its vir'ues to the volatile oil. Root, 
Sassafras Radix Br., Lignum Sassafras P G, Lignumpavanum. 
PUh; sassafras rnsduJa. U. S. P., mucilaginous, demulcent. 

1789. SATUREIA, L. Savory. Labiatae. 
The Latin name, whence is derived the English. Syn. Micro- 

meria, in part. Aromatic herbs or shrubs. About 18 species, 
mostly of Mediterranean region, 1 native in U. S. 

a. S. hort^usis L. Europe, widely cult, and nat. Summer Savory; 

Ger. Saturei, Pfefterkraut, BoKnenkraut, VVurstkraut; Fr. 
Sarrietie ( Codex ). Herb diaphoretic, carminative; used chiefly 
as a condiment. 

b. S. montana L. (M. raont ana Reich. ). Southern Europe. Win- 

ter Savory. Pr<»periie8 of (a). 

1790. SAURI^RUS, L. Lizard' s-tail. Saururaceae. 

From Greek, "Lizard's tail", alluding to the infloret*cence. 
Marsh herbs. Two kn >wn specie^, one of Asia, one of eastern 
U. S. 

a. S. C^rnuus L. Ontario and eastern U. S. Lizard's-tail, 
Breast-weed. Root emollient, discutient. 

1791. SAUSS15REA, DC. Saw-wort, etc. Compositae. 

Named for H. B. and Theodora de Sassure, Swiss botanists, 
18th and 19ih Centuries. Syn. Aplotaxis, Aucklandia, in part. 
Perennial herbs witK purple or blue flowers. About 70 species, 
north temperate zone; 2 or 3 in U. S. 

^. S. Lappa O. B. ('larke (Ap. Lappa Decaisne, Auck. Costus 
Falconer). Cashmere. C<)8tus root, Koot (Cashmere), Put- 
chuk (Bengal), K'>ost (Arabic). Root, believed to be the 
costm of the ancients; pungent, aphrodisiac 



336 PLANT XAMKS AND SYNONYMS 

1792. SAXiFRAGA, L. Saxifrage. Saxifragaceae. 

The Latin narae, "stone breaking". Perennial herbs, gene- 
rally with tufted basal leaves. About 210 species, north tem- 
perate zone; 59 in U. S. 

a. S. sarment^sa L. China and Japan, cult, as a house plant. 

Beefsteak or Strawberry Geranium, Aaron s-beard, Chinese 
Saxifrage, Creeping-sailor, Humility, Mother-of-thousands, 
Old-man' s-beard , Pedlar's-basket, Poor-man's Geranium, Rov- 
ing-Jenny, Spider plant, Strawberry plant, Thread-of-life,» 
Wandering Jew. 

b. S. Yirginiensis Michx. Canada to Georgia and Tennessee. 

Early Saxifrage, Spring Saxifrage, Everlasting, Sweet- Wilson. 

1793. SAXIFRAG6pSIS, G. Small. ^ Saxifragace4ie. 

Greek, "Saxifrage like''. Perennial with woody caudex. 
One species, California. 

1794. SCABIOSA, L, Scabious, Pincushion-flower. Dipsacaceae. 

The Latin name, the plant reputed to cure "scaly" eruptions. 
Syn. Knautia, Succisa, in part. Unarmed herbs, the flower- 
heads resembling those of a Composite plant. About 100 spe- 
cies, Old World; 3 nat in U. S. 

a. S. arvensis L. (K. arvensis Coult.) Europe, nat. in eastern 

U. S. Field Scabious, Blue-buttons, Blue-caps, Easteningwort, 
Gipsy Rose, Egyptian Rose, Pin-cushion. Leaves expectorant,^ 
demulcent. 

b. S. atropurpiirea L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Mourn- 

ing-bride, Mourning-widow, Sweet Scabious or Scabish, Egyp- 
tian Rose*. 



c. S. succisa L. (Succisa pratensis Moc). Europe. Devil's-bity 
Devil's- root, Blue Scabious, Wood Scabious. 

1796. SCAEVOLA, L. Scaeyola. (xoodeuiaceae. 

Named for M. Scaevola, in allusion to the one-sided flowers. 
Herbs or shrubs. About 70 species, Australia and Oceanica, 
1 cosmopolitan species in U. S. 

1796. SCANDIX, L. Venus' Comb, etc. Umbelliferae. 

The Greek name of a salad plant. Syn. Pecten. Annual 
herbs, with dissected leaves. About 10 species, Old World. 

a. S. P^cteii-Yeneris L. (Pecten Veneris Lam.). Europe and 
Asia, nat. in eastern U, S. Venus'-comb, Lady's-comb; Shep- 
herd' s-needle,Adam's-needles, Beggar's needles. Crake- needles, 
Crow-needles, Devil' s-darningneed4e, Needle Chervil. Pink- 
needles, Pucker-needle, Puck-needle (Poukenel), Shepherd' s- 
needles, Hedge-hog. Shoots^ eaten as salad. 

1797. SCIIAEFFERIA, Jacq. (Schetfera,Schaefera).(;eIastraceae. 
Named for J. C. Schaeflbr, German naturaliijt, d. 1790. 

Shrubs with small coriaceous leaves. About 6 species, warmer 
regions of N. America, 2 in U. S. (a) S. friitesceiis Jacq. 
(S. buxifolia Nutt., S. completa Swz. ). Florida to Mexico 
and West Indies. Yellow- wood, Box-wood. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 337 

1798. SCHEUCHZERIA, L. Scheuchzeria. Scheuchzeriaceae. 

Named for the brothers Scheiichzer, Swiss naturalists, 18th 
Century. Rush-like bog perennial herb. One species, north 
temperate zone ( U. S. ) . 

1799. SCHINUS, L. Pepper-tree. Anacardiaceae. 

The Greek name of the mastic tree, from its * 'fissured" bark. 
Syn. Molle, Adans. Trees or shrubs with pinnate leaves. 
About 12 species, warmer S. America and Australia. 

a. S. Molle L. South America, cult, in California and elsewhere 
as an ornamental tree. Pepper-tree, Chili Pepper* (California), 
Peruvian Mastic-tree, Pepper shrub. Fruit pungent, used in 
Chili to prepare a wine. 

1800. SCHIZAEA, J. E. Smith. Curly-grass. Schizaeaceae. 

From Greek, "cleft". Ferns, with slender linear fronds, the 
fertile ones in our species terminating in a tuft-like expansion. 
About 16 species, mostly tropical; 1 in U. S. Sometimes called 
Curly-grass. 

1801. SCHIZANDRA, Michx. 1803. Schizandra. Magnoliaceae. 

Syn. Stellandria, Brickell 1803. Climbing shrubs with red, 
white or yellowish flowers. About 10 species, mostly of warm- 
er Asia and East Indies; 1 in U. S. 

1802. SCHIZONOTUS,Grayl876(not Lind.l83D).Asclepiadaceae. 
Syn. Solanoa, Greene; Gomphocarpus, in part. Small peren- 
nial herb. One species, California. 

1803. SCHKtHRIA, Roth. Schkuhria. Compositae. 

Named forCh. Schkuhr, German botanist. Syn. Achyropap- 
pu8, Hopkirkia. Annual herbs. About 10 species, warmer 
regions of New World; 2 in southern U. S. 

1804. SCHLEICHERA, Willd. Lac tree, etc. Sapindaceae. 

Named for J. G. Schleicher, Swiss botanist, early in 19th 
Century. Syn. Cussambium, Ruraph. Trees. Three species, 
Tropical Asia. 

a. S. trijuga AVilld. (C. spinosum Buch Ham.). India to Burma. 
Lac tree, Koosumbiia. Yields lac. See Croton (a). 

1805. SCHOEISOCRAMBE, Greene. Schcenocrambe. Cruclferae. 

From Greek, "rush Crambe". Syn. Sisymbrium, in part. 
Herbs. Three species in U. S. 

1806. SCHOEPFIA, Schreber. Schoepfia. Olacaceae. 
Natued for J. D. Schoepf, botanical explorer, d. 1800. Shrubs 

or small trees. About 16 species, tropical Asia and America; 
1 in U. S. 

1807. SCHWALBEA, L. Chaff-seed. Scroplnilariaceae. 

Named for C. G. Schwalbe of Holland, 18th Century. Peren- 
nial herb with yellowish-purple flowers. One species, eastern 
U. S. 

1808. SCILLA, L. Squill, Cape Hyacinth. Liliaceae* 
The ancient Greek name of the medicinal squill. See Urgi- 

nea. Scapose herbs from a coated bulb. About 80 species^ 
Old World, a single species in Chili. 



338 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

3. S. fest^lis Salisb. (S. nutans Sm.). Europe. Bluebell ^Eng- 
land), Harebell (Scotland), Bell- bottle, Crow-bells, Crow Leek. 
See Campanula (b) . 

1809. SCIRPUS, L. Kush. Cyperaceae. 

Latin name of Bulrush, of Celtic origin. Syn, Elytrosper- 
mum, in part. Annual or perennial sedges, some almost leaf- 
less, others leafy. About 200 species; 35 in U. S. 

a. S. laciistris L. (Includes the American S. validus Vahl. ). 
Widely distributed. Great Bulrush, Bulrush, Bass, Bent, 
Black Kush, Bolder, Bumble, Club Rush, Frail Rush, Mat 
Rush, Panier Rush, Pole Rush, Spurt-grass. Probably a dis- 
tinct species is (b) S. Californicus (C. A. Meyer) Brit. (E. 
Calif ornicum C. A. Meyer, S, riparius J. & C. Presl. ( Kew ) , 
S. Tatora Kunth, S. lacustris var. occidentalis S. Wats.). 
Florida to California. California Bulrush, Tule, Tule Rush. 

1810. SCLERANTHUS, L. Knawel, etc. Caryophyllaceae. 

From Greek, ''hard flower" . Low herbs. About 10 species, 
Old World. (a) S. dnimus L. Europe, nat. in eastern 
U. S. Knawel, German Knotgrass, Gravel Chickweed; Ger. 
Wilde Knauel; Fr. Gnavelle. 

1811. SCLEROCARPUS, Jacq. Sclerocarpus. Compositae. 

From Greek, "hard fruit", alluding to indurated enclosing 
bracts. Syn. Aldama, Gymnopsis, in part. Herbs with yel- 
low flowers. About 8 species, Africa and Mexico; 1 in Texas. 

1812. SCLER6lEPIS, Cass. Sclerolepis. Compositae. 

From Greek, ''hard scale", descriptive of pappus. Syn. 
Aethulia, Sparganophorus, in part. A slender aquatic herb 
with whorled leaves. One species, eastern U. S. 

1813. SCOLIOPUS, Tor. Scoliopus. Liliaceae. 
Herbs related to Clintonia. Two species, western U. S. 

1814. SCOLOPENDRIUM, Adans. Polypodiaceae. 

From Greek, "centipede" , alluding to sori. Syn Asplenium, 

Phyllitis, in part. Ferns with entire fronds. About 5 species; 
1 in U. S. 

a. S. Scolopendrium (L. )Karst. (A. Scolopendrium L., S. vul- 
■gare J. E. Sm., P. Scolopendrium (L. ) Greene, S. officinarum 
.'Swz., S. officinale DC). Widely distributed in Old World, 
rare in U. S. Hart' s-tongue, Seaweed Fern, Snake Fern, Snake- 
leaves, Caterpillar Fern, Adder' s-tongue*, Fox-tongue, Button- 
hole, La iib's-tongue. Finger Fern; Ger. Hirschzunge. Fronds, 
Folia scolopendrii, Fol. linguae cervinse, Fol. phyllitidis; 
diuretic, expectorant. 

1815. SC6lYMUS, L. Spanish Oyster-plant. Compositae. 

Thistle-like plants. About 4 species, Mediterranean region; 
1 nat. in U. S. (a) S. Hispanicus L., Spanish Oyster-plant, 
Golden Thistle. 

1816. SCOPARIA, L. Broom-weed. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Latin sco)3a, a "broom". Herbs or shrubs. About 6 
species, warmer regions of New World; 1 in U. S. (a) S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 339 

diilcis L. (S. procumbens Jacq., S. ternata F'orsk. ). South- 
ern U. S. and southward. Sweet Broom-weed, Licorice-weed 
(West Indies). 

1817. SC0p6la, Jacq.^ (Scopolia). Scopola. Solanaceae. 

Named for Scopoli, Austrian naturalist, 18th Century. 
Syn. Hyoscyamus, in part. Narcotic herbs. About 5 species, 
mostly of eastern Asia. 

a. S. Jai)6iiica Maximowicz. Japan. Japanese Belladonna. 
Properties of Belladonna, as in the European (b) S. Caniio- 
lica Jacq. (H. Scopolia L.). 

1818. SCORZONELLA, Nutt. Scorzonella. Cichoriaceae. 

Diminutive from Scorzonera. Syn. Anacalais, Calais, Micro- 
seris, in part. Biennial or perennial herbs. About 12 species, 
Pacific border of U. S. 

1819. SCORZONERA, L. Winter Asparagus. Compositae. 

Latin from the Spanish name, meaning "snake weed". 
Herbs, mostly perennial with large heads of yellow flowers. 
About 120 species, Mediterranean region to central Asia. 

a. S. Hispanica L. Europe and western Asia, extensively cult. 
Viper' s-grass, Winter Asparagus, Black Salsify. i?oo^ esculent, 
with alleged medicinal properties like those of dandelion. 
Other species have esculent roots, Eotably (b) S. deliciosa 
Guasson, of Sicily and (c) S. tuberosa Pdllas, Turkesian. 

1820. SCROPHULARIA, L. Figwort. Scrophulariaceae. 

From Latin, "scrofula plant". Perennial ill-smelling herbs, 
some shrubby. About 120 species, northern hemisphere, es- 
pecially in Europe; 4 in U. S. 

a, S. aqiidtica L. Europe. Water Figwort, Water Betony, 

BuUwort, Bishop' s-leaves, Brownwort; Fr. Scrophulaire (Co- 
dex), in part. See (b). 

b. S. nodosa L. Europe. Figwort, Common or Water Figwort, 

Knotty-rooted Figwort?, Brownwort, Carpenter' s-square. Square- 
stalk, Heal-all, Kernelwort, Pilewort, Scrofula-plant, Throat- 
wort; Ger. Kropfwurzkraut, Knotenwurz; Fr. Scrophulaire 
(Codex), in part; Sp. Escrofularia. Herb vulnerary, alterative, 
emmenagogue. The same synonyms and properties belong to 
the indigenous (c) S. Marylandica L. (S. nodosa, var. Mary- 
landica Gray). American or Maryland Figwort, Holmes' - 
weed. 

1821. SCUTELLARIA, L. Skullcap, Helmet flower. Labiatae. 
From Latin, "dish", in allusion to calyx. Bitter herbs, 

some shrubby, flowers blue or violet, rarely white. About 100 
species; 26 in U. S. ; Ger. Helmkraut, Schildkraut; Fr. Scutel- 
laire. 

a. S. galericulata L. Europe, Asia and northern America, south 

to N. Carolina and Arizona. European Skullcap, Marsh 
Skullcap, Hooded Willow-herb. 

b. S. iutegrifolia (S. hyssopifolia L. ). Eastern U. S. Hyssop 

Skullcap, Larger Skullcap. 



340 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. S. lateriflora L. British America, south to Florida, New 
Mexico and Washington. Mad-dog Skullcap, (Scullcap), 
Hoodwort, Mad-weed, Side-flowering Skullcap^, American 
Skullcap, Blue Pimpernel, Hooded Willow-herb. Herb bitter, 
tonic, nervine, the same properties being attributed to the 
foregoing and other species. 

1822. SEBASTIANIA, Sprengel. (Sebastiana). Euphorbiaceae, 

Named for Antonio Sebastiani, early part of 19th Century. 
Shrubs, allied to Stillingia. About 40 species, mostly of Brazil, 
two in Old World; 1 in West Indies and Florida. 

1823. SECALE, L. Rye. Gramiueae. 
Latin name, a grain which is "reaped". Grasses related to 

Triticum. Five species (perhaps only two) are known, of 
western and central Asia. 

a. S. ceredle L. Central Asia, much cult, in colder climates. 
^je; Ger. Roggen; Fr. Seigle (Codex); Sp. Centeno. Grain 
esculent. See Claviceps. 

1824. SEDUM, L. Stonecrop, etc. Crassulaceae. 

Latin name, alluding to the lowly habit of the plants. 
Rhodiola, in part. Fleshy herbs. About 150 species, cooler 
regions, mostly of northern hemisphere; 28 in U. S., including 
some naturalized. 

a. S. dcre L. Europe and northern Asia, locally hat. in U. S. 

Wall-pepper, Mossy or Biting Stonecrop, Bird's-bread, Creep- 
ing-Charlie, Creeping- Jack, Crowdy, Ginger^, Gold-chain, Gold- 
en Moss, Jack- of-t he-buttery, Kit-of-the-wall, Love-entangle, 
Mountain Moss, Pepper-crop, Poor-man' s-pepper, Prick-ma- 
dam, Pricket, Rock-plant, Stonnard, Tangle-tail, Treasure-of- 
love. Trip-madam, Wall Moss, Wallwort; Ger. MauerpfeflTer, 
Steinkraut, Katzentraublein; Fr. Joubarbe acre, Poivre des 
murailles; Sp. Siempreviva menor. Herb] Herba sedi minoris, 
H. illecebrae vermicularis; acrid, vesicant, emeto-cathartic, 
alterative. 

b. S. reflexum L. Europe, cult, and adv. in U. S. Reflexed 

Stonecrop^, Dwarf House-leek, Creeping- Jenny, Indian-fog, 
Love-in-a-chain, Prick-madam, Trick-madam, Trip-madam. 

c. S. Telephium L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Orpine, 

Garden Orpine, OrpiesJ, Orphan- John J, Live- forever, Live- 
long, Aaron's-rod, Arpent-weed, Bag-leaves, Everlasting, Ever- 
green, Frog's-bladder, Frog's-mouth, Frog-plant, Life-of-man, 
Midsummer-men, Witches' -moneybags, Solomon's-puzzles; Ger. 
Fetthenne, Fette Henne; Fr. Joubarbe des vignes, Grasette. 
Herb; Herba telephii, H. crassulse majoris, H. fabaria; refrige- 
rant, febrifuge, antispasmodic. 

d. S. telephioides Michx. Pennsylvania to Georgia. American 

Orpine, Wild Live-forever, Sweet-heart. Other notable spe- 
cies are (e) S. album L., Europe, White Stonecrop, Prick- 
madam, Worm-grass; (f) S. Aiiaeanipseros L., Europe, 
Herb-of-friendship; (g) S. pulchellum Michx., southeastern 
U. S., Widow' 8-cro8s, Flowering Moss, Rock Moss; (h) S. 
roseum (L.) Scop. (S. Rhodiola DC, R. rosea L. )., North 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 341 

circumpolar region, Rosewort, Rose-root, Snowdon Rose, 
Heal-all*; (i) S. rupestre L., Europe, Jealousy, (j) S, 
Sieboldii Auct., Japan, Constancy; (k) S. ternatum 
Michx, New York to Georgia, Wild Stonecrop, Three-leaved 
Stonecrop^, Iceland Moss*. 

1825. SELAGINELLA, Beauv. Selaginella. Selaginellaceae. 

Diminutive of Selago, an ancient name of a Ground-pine. 
Plants resembling Lycopodiura, generally small. About 335 
species, widely distributed; 9 in U. S. 

a. S. lepidophylla Spring, Arizona to southern California. Re- 

surrection-plant, Rock-lily, Rock-rose, Hollyhock-rose. Plant 
when dry curls up and remains dormant indefinitely, reviving 
again when water is supplied. 

b. S. nipestris (L.) Spring. Throughout northern hemisphere 

and in Africa. Rock Selaginella, Christmas Evergreen*, Fes- 
toon Pine; Dwarf Club- moss. 

c. S. selaginoides (L. ) Link. (Lycopodium selaginoides L., S. 

spinosa Beauv. ). Europe, Asia and N. America, south to 
Michigan and Colorado. Low Selaginella, Prickly Club-moss, 
Mountain Moss. 

1826. SELENIA, Nutt. Selenia. Crueiferae. 

Prom Greek, "Moon wort", the species resembling Lunaria. 
Tufted herbs. Two or three species, northern Mexico and 
southern U. S. 

1827. SELINOCARPUS, Gray. Selinocarpus. Nyctaginaceae. 

From Greek, "parsley fruited". Herbs. Three species, 
Mexican border. 

1828. SELINUM, L. Selinum. Umbelliferae. 
The Greek name of Parsley, whence our word celery. Tall 

perennial herbs. About 25 species, mostly of northern hemi- 
sphere; 8 in western LT. S. See Peucedanum. 

1829. SEMECARPUS, L. fils. Cashew-nut. Anacardiaceae. 

From Greek, "marking fruit". Syn. Anacardium, in part. 
Trees with coriaceous leaves. About 40 species. East Indies. 
See Anacardium. 

11. S. Anacardium L. fils. (A. ofiicinarum Gaertn., A. orientale 
Auct., A. lalifolium Lam., A. solitarium Stokes). India. 
Oriental Cashew-nut (Cachew), Malacca nut, Marany-nut, 
Marking-nut, Marsh-nut, Malacca Bean, Acajou-nut, Mangle; 
Ger. Elephantenlaiise. Nuts edible, but the husk is acrid and 
almost caustic. Juice produces an indelible stain. 

1830. SEMPER ViVUM, L. House-leek. Crassulaceae. 

From Latin, "ever living". Fleshy perennial herbs. Aboat 
10 species. Old World. 

a. S. tectorum L. Europe, cult, and adv. in U. S. House-leek, 
Homewort, Bullock *s-eye, Fon, Fone (Scotland), Healing- 
blade, Hen-and-chickens, Hockerie-topner, Imbreke, Jupiter's- 



342 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

beard, Jobarbe|, Jubard:tj Sengreen, Thunder-plant (formerly 
believed to ward off lightning); Ger. Hauslauch, Hauswurzel, 
Dachlauch. Donnerkraut, Fr. Grande joubarbe; Sp. Siempre- 
viva major. Herb, Herba sedi majoris, H, sempervivi; refri- 
gerant, astringent, antispasmodic, detergent. See Sedum. 

1831. SEN^CIO, L. Groundsel, Squaw-weed, etc. Compositae. 

From Latin senex, "old man". Syn. Cineraria, in part. 
Herbs or occasionally shrubs, many with rather large showy 
flower-heads. About 1000 species, widely distributed; 109 in 
. U. S. 

a. S. aureus L. (including S. gracilis Pursh, now called S. aureus 
gracilis (Pursh) Britton). Canada and eastern U. S. Life- 
root, Golden Ragwort, Swamp Squaw-weed, Cocash-weed, 
Cough-weed, Female-regulator, Fireweed*, Golden Senecio, 
Grundy-swallowJ, ^lequot, Nunqua, Nutqua, Uncum, Unkum, 
Ragwort, Snakeroot*, Squaw- weed. False Valerian. J3ier6 emol- 
lient, anodyne, reputed emmenagogue. (b) S« oboratus 
Muhl. (S. Elliottii T. & Gr.), and some other indigenous spe- 
cies are also employed, and similar properties are attributed to 
(c) S. Balsamitae Muhl. (S. aureus (Kew.), var. Balsamit- 
ae T. & G. ), British America and northern U. S. Balsam 
Groundsel, Groundsel Balsam. 

d. S. Cinerdria DC. (C. maritima L. ). Mediterranean region, 
cult, in gardens. Dusty-miller. The name Cineraria among 
florists is applied to hybrid varieties of ( e ) S. cru^ntus DC. 
and other species from the Canary Islands. 

f. S. Jacoba^a L. Europe, adv. in eastern U. S. Tansy Rag- 

wort, Staggerwort, Ban-weed, Cammock, Cheadle Dock, Cush- 
ag. Fairies' -horse, Felon- weed. Kettle Dock, Kadle Dock. 
Ragweed*, Saracen's Comfrey, St. James' -wort, Staverwort, 
Stinking- Alexander (Elshinder), Stinking- Willie, Tansy*, 
Weeby. Properties of (a). 

g. S. vulgaris L. Europe, locally nat. in U. S. Groundsel, 

(Grinsel), Common Groundsel, Birdseed, Chicken-weed, Chin- 
cone, Fleawort, Groundie-8wallowt,Sencion, SirasonJ, Swichen^:; 
Ger. Kreuzkraut, Jacobskraut; Fr. Senegon (Codex). PLani 
mildly astringent, vulnerary, discutient. 

h. S. lobdtus Pers. (S. lyratus Michx., not L. ), of southeastern 
U. S. and Mexico, is Butter- weed or Cress-leaved Groundsel; 
(i) S. mikanoides Otto (S. scandens DC. ), of southern Africa, 
cult, in gardens and greenhouses, is German Ivy or Cape l\j\ 
(j) S. paliistris (L. ) Hook. (C. palustris L, ), circumpolar 
(northern U. S. ), is Marsh Fleawort, Marsh Groundsel, Pale 
Ragwort; (k) S. tomentosus Michx., southeastern U. S., i» 
Woolly Rag-weed, Rag-woolwort, Ash-wort. 

1832. SEQUOIA, Endl. Redwood, etc. Pinaceae. 

Named for Se-quo Yah (George Guess), d. 1843. Syn. 
Condylocarpus, Salisb. 1823, not Hoffm. 1816, Gigantabies, 
Sen., Washingtonia, Winslow 1854, Wellingtonia, Lindl. 1853, 
not Miers 1840; Taxodium, in part. The noblest of conifers. 
Two species, western U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 343 

a. S. semperyirens (Lamb.) Endl. (T. sempervirens Lamb., 

T. giganteum Kell. & Behr., C. sempervirens Salisb., S. gigan- 
tea Endl,, G. taxifolia Sen. ). California and northward. 
Redwood, Bastard Cedar, Oregon Red Cedar. The most 
valuable timber tree of the West Coast. 

b. S. Wellingtonia (Winsl.) Seem. (Wash. Wellingtonia AVinsl., 

G. Wellingtoniana (Nelson) Sen., Wash. Califomica Winsl., 
Wash. Americana Hort., W^ell. gigantea Lindl., S. gigantea 
Lindl. & Gord. (Kew), not Endl.). California. Washing- 
ton Cedar, California Big-tree, Mammoth tree. Giant tree of 
California. The largest of trees. 

1833. SEREN6a, Hook. f. Saw Palmetto, etc. Sabalaceae. 
Named for Prof. Sereno Watson of Harvard University. 

Syn. Serensea, Brahea; Chamserops, Sabal, in part. A dwarf 
fan-palm. One species, southern U. S. 

a. S. serrulata (K.&S. ) Hook. f. (Sabal serrulatum R. & S., 
B. serrulata H. W^endl. (Kew), C. serrulata Pursh). S. Caro- 
lina to Florida and West Indies. Saw Palmetto. Fruit tonic, 
alterative, expectorant, reputed aphrodisiac. 

1834. SERICOCARPUS, Nees.White-topped Aster. Compositae* 
From Greek, "silky fruit". Syn. Conyza, Aster, in part. 

Perennial herbs with rather small flower-heads (rays white). 
About 5 species, all in U. S. 

1835. SERINIA, Raf. 1817. Serinia. Cichoriaceae. 

From Gieek name of Chicory. Syn. Apogon, Ell. 1824, also 
Krigia, in part. Small annuals with yellow flowers. Three 
species, all in U. S. 

1836. SERJANIA, Plum. L. (Seriania). Sapindaceae. 

Named for Paul Serjeant, French botanist. Climbing shrubs. 
About 155 species, S. America, chiefly tropical; Sin U. S. The 
plants are narcotic poisons. In Brazil; (a) 8. lethdlis A. St. 
Hil. is used as a fish pois( n under the name of Timboe. Honey 
collected by wasps from the flowers is violently intoxicating. 

1887. SESAMUM, L. Sesame. Pedaliaceae. 

Latin from ancient Greek name, whence also the English 
sesame. Herbs. About 10 species, nearly all of Africa. 

a. S. indicum L. Southern Asia, cult, in all tropical countries, 
nat. in southern U. S. Benne, Sesame, Oily-grain, Oily Bean, 
Oil plant, Gingili, Teel, Til; Ger. Sesam; Fr. Sesame; Sp. 
Ajonjoli. imtrs demulcent, emollient. >Seec?s esculent; source 
of Benne oil, Gingili or Teel oil; Oleum Sesami, U. S. P., 
\ having properties of olive oil. 

AA ' 1838. SESBAN, Adans. 1763 (Sesbana). Papilionaceae. 

The ancient name, of Arabic or Persian origin. Syn. Ses- 
bania. Scop. 1777; Agati, Adans 1763, in part. Herbs or 
slirubs. About 15 species, warmer regions; 4 in U. S. 

a. S. macrocdrpa Muhl. Florida to Colorado and Central America. 
Long-podded Sesban|, P^a-tree, Colorado Hemp. One of 
several species which yield a strong fibre for cordage. 



344 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1839. SESl)VIUM, L. Sea Purslane. Aizoaceae. 
Syn. Pharnaceum, in part. Low fleshy herbs. About 4 spe- 
cies, sea coasts and saline regions; 2 in U. S. 

1840. SHERARDIA, L. Herb Sherard, etc. Rubiaceae. 
Named for Dr. Wm. Sherard, English botanist, d. 1728. 

Herb with whorled, spiny pointed leaves. One species. Old 
World. 

a. S. arv^nsis L. Europe, adv. in eastern U. S. Field Madder, 
Blue Field Madder, Spurwort, Herb Sherard. 

1841. SH6REA. Roxb. Sal tree. Dipteraceae. 

Named for John Shore, Baron Teignmouth, Governor general 
of India, d. 1834. Large resinous trees. About 25 species, 
tropical Asia. 

a. S. robusta Gaertn. India. Sal-tree, Saul-tree, Indian Sal. 

Timber exceedingly heavy, hard and durable. Leaves the food 
of the Tussa silkworm. Exudate a kind of dammar. 

b. S. Talura Roxb. (S. laccifera Heyne). East Indies. The 

tree yields a kind of dammar, also lac. 

1842. SH6rTIA, Tor. & Gr; Shortia. Diapensiacea©. 

Named for Charles W. Short, American botanist, d. 1863. 
Perennial stemless plants. Two species, one in Japan, the other 
(rare) in N. Carolina. 

1843. SIBARA, Greene. Sibara. Cruciferae. 

Herb. One species, western U. S. 

1844. SIBBALDIA, L. Sibbaldia. Rosaceae. 
Nam<»d for Robert Sibbald, Scotch physician, d. 1712. Syn. 

Potentilla (Kew), in part. Small shrubby plants of alpine 
regions. About 5 species, north temperate zone; 1 in U. S. 

1846. sic YOS, L. (Sycios). One-seeded Cucumber. Cucurbitaccae. 

Greek name of a Cucumber or Gourd. Syn. Sicyoides, in 
part. Annual vines, climbing by tendrils. About 35 species, 
America and Australasia; 3 in U. S. 

a. S. anguldtus L. (Sicyoides angulata Medic. >. Canada and 
eastern U. S., nat. in Europe. Star-cucumber, Bur-cucumber, 
One-seeded Bur-cucumber, Wild Cucumber, Nimble-Kate. 
Boot and seeds bitter, diuretic. 

1846. SICYOSPERMA, Gray. Sicyosperma. Cacurbitaceae. 

From Greek, "Sicyos-seeded". A herbaceous vine closely 
related to Sicyos. One species. New Mexico. 

1847. SID A, L. Sida, Indian Mallow. Malvaceae. 
An ancient Greek plant name. Herbs. About 75 species, 

warmer regions of both hemispheres; 22 in U. S. See Abuti- 
lon. (a.) S. rhoinbifolia Canariensis(Willd. ) Griseb. (S. 
Canariensis Willd. ). Canary Islands, nat. in southern U. S. 
Canary-island Tea-plant, Queensland Hemp. Leaves demulcent. 
Inner bark yields a strong tibre. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 345 

1848. SIDALCEA, Gray. Globe Mallow. Malvaceae. 
Name combined from "Sida" and *'Alcea". Herbs. 27 

species, California and Mexican border. 

1849. SIDERdXYLON, L. Sideroxylon. Sapotaceae. 

From Greek, "iron wood". Sjn. Bumelia, Sapota, in part, 
frees or shrubs. About 70 species, mostly tropical regions of 
southern hemisphere; 1 in U. S., viz. (a) S. mastidiodeii- 
dron Jacq., notBalb. (B. mastichodendron R. & S., B. pallida 
Swz. ). Florida to West Indies. Mastic tree. 

b. S. dulciflcuin A. DC. of western Africa is called Miraculous- 
berry (fruit exceedingly sweet); (c) S. obovatnm Gaertn. 
(B. cuneataSw.), West Indies, is called Downward Plum, 
Saffron Plum, Ant's- wood; (d) S. rugosuili R. & S (Sap. 
rugosa Griseb. ), Brazil and West Indies, is called in Jamaica 
Beef Apple, or Bull Apple. 

1850. SILAUS, Bernh. Meadow Saxifrage. Umbelliferae. 

Greek name of some umbelliferous plant. Perennial herbs, 
natives of Europe and Asia, (a) S. flavesceiis Bernh. (s! 
pratensis Bess., Slum Silaus Roth. ). Europe. Meadow Saxi- 
frage. 

1861. SILENE, L. Catchfly, etc. CaryophjIIaceae. 

From Greek, * 'saliva' ' , alluding to the sticky secretion. Syn. 
Cucubalus, Behen, in part. Annual or perennial herbs. 
About 250 species, widely distributed; 62 in U. S., including 
nat. species. 

ii. S. Ariiieria L. Europe, cult in gardens and nat. in U. S. 
Sweet William Catchfly, Garden or Lobel's Catchflv, Dwarf 
French Pink, Mice Pink, Limewort Catchfly, None-so-pretty 
Old-maid's Pink, Pretty-Nancy, Sweet-Susan, Wax-plant. 

b. S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (C. Behen L. not S. Behen L 
B. vulgaris Moench, S. Cucubalus Wibel, S. inflata J. E. Sm. )' 
Europe and Asia, nat. in eastern U. S. Bladder Campion 
Behen, Bull-rattle, Cow-bell, Devil's-rattlebox, Knap-bottle*' 
Maiden's-tears, Rattle-bags, Sea Pink, Snappers, vSpatline 
Poppy, Frothy Poppy, White Ben. i ^ f b 

Other notable species are (c) S. acaiilis L., Arctic and 
Alpine Europe, Asia and N. America; Moss Campion, Moss 
Pink, Cushion Pink; (d) S. dlba Muhl. (C. niveus Nutt. S 
nivea Otth. ), Pennsylvania to Iowa, Western White Camp- 
ion, Snowy Campion; (e) S. nutans L., Europe, adv. in U. S. 
Nodding Catchfly, Dover or Nottingham Catchfly; (f) S. reeia 
Sims., southeastern U. S., Royal Catchfly, Pixie, Piskitrs, Wild 
Pink. 

1852. SILPHIUM, L. (Silphion). Rosin-weed, etc. Compositae. 
Greek name of some resinous plant. Robust herbs with 
coarse foliage. About 13 species, all of U. S. 

». S. lacinidtum L. (S. gummiferum Ell.). Ohio to Alabama 
west to Texas and S. Dakota. Rosin-weed, Compass-plant. 
Pilot- weed, Polar-plant. Herb resinous, somewhat aromatic. 



346 PliANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. S. perfolidtum L. Ontario and eastern U. S., west to Nebraska. 

Cup-plant, Indian-cup, Ragged-cup. 

c. S. terebinthinaceum Jacq. Ohio to Georgia, west to Louisiana 

and Minnesota. Prairie Dock, Prairie Burdock, Rosin-plant, 
Rosin-weed, Turpentine Sunflower. Properties of (a). 

1863. SIMABA, Aublet. Cedron. Simaroubaceae. 

From vernacular, Guiana. Syn. Quassia, in part. Trees 
and shrubs. About 15 species, tropical South America. 

a. S. Cedron (R. Br.) Planch. (Q. Cedron R. Br.), Columbia 
and (b) S. ferruginea St. Hil., Brazil. Cedron. Seeds, Cedron 
seed. Rattlesnake' s-beans. Semen siraabje s. cedronis; Ger. 
Cedronbohne, Cedronsamen; Fr. Cotyledon de cedron (Codex). 
Bitter, antidote to venom of serpents. 

1854. SIMARtJBA, Aubl. (Simarouba). Simariibaceae. 

From vernacular name of (a), Guiana. Trees with bitter 
bark and wood. About 4 species, tropical America; 1 in U. S. 
See Picrasma. 

a. S. amdra Aubl. (S. officinalis DC. , Q. SimarubaL. f. ). Guiana 

to Brazil. Mountain Damson, Bitter Damson, Paradise tree, 
Paraiba; in Guiana called Simaruba, in Martinique, Bois blanc. 
Bark oj the root, Simaruba bark; Ger. Simarubarinde, Ruhrrinde; 
bitter, tonic. 

b. S. glauca DC. (Q. glauca Spreng, S. officinalis Macf. not DC, 

S. medicinalis Endl. ). West Indies and Central America. 
Paradise tree; Fr. Simarouba (Codex). Properties of (a). • 

1856. SmM^NDSIA, Nutt. 1844. Simmondsia. Buxaceae. 
Named for T. W. Simmonds, English naturalist. Syn. Broc- 
chia, Mauri 1845. Evergreen shrub with acorn-like nuts. One 
species, California. 

1866. SIN APIS, L. (originally Sinapi). Mustard. Criiciferae. 
The Greek name, from Celtic. Syn. Brassica, Leucosinapis, 

in part. Herbs of rank growth. About 5 species, southern 
Europe. 

a. S. dlba L. (L. alba Spach., B. alba Boiss. ). Europe and west- 
ern Asia, adv. in U. S. White Mustard, Charlock, Kedlock, 
Senvre; Ger. Weisser Senf, Gelber Senf; Fr. Moutarde blanche 
(Codex); Sp. Mostaza bianco. Seeds, White or Yellow Mus- 
tard-seed; Sinapis Alba, U. S. 1\, Sem. eruca; laxative. Seed- 
leaves used as salad. 

1867. SIPHONOGLdSSAjOersted. Siphonoglossa. Acanthaceae. 

From Greek, "tube tongue". Suffrutescent plants. About 
4 species, Mexico and adjacent territory; 1 in U. S. 

1858. SIPHONYCHIA, T. & Gr. Siphonychia.Caryophyllaceae. 
Annual herbs. About 4 species, western N. America; 3 in 
U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 347 

1869. SiSON, L. Honewort. Umbelliferae. 

Ancient Greek name. A slender herb. One species, (a) S. 
Amomiiii] L., Europe to Asia Minor; Honewort, Bastard 
Stone-parsley. Seeds aromatic, used as a condiment. 

1860. SISYMBRIUM, L. (Sysimbrium). Cruciferae. 

Ancient Greek name of an allied plant. , Syn. Erysimum, 
Adans. ; Arabis, Braya, in part. Annual or perennial herbs. 
About 50 species, widely distributed; 6 in^U. S. 

a. S. officinale (L. ) Scop. (E. oflBcinale L. ) . Europe and north- 
ern Asia, nat. in U. S. Hedge Mustard, Bank Cress, Hedge- 
weed, California Mustard (locally), Lucifer-matches, Scramb- 
ling Rocket; Ger. Wilder Senf, Hederich; Fr. Erysimum, 
V^lar, Tortelle, Herbe aux chantres (Codex); Sp. Eresimo. 
Plant antiscorbutic, lithontriptic. Seeds pungent. 

1861. SISYRIKCHIUM, L. 1753. Blue-eyed Grass. Iridaceae. 
Ancient Greek plant name. Syn Bermudiana, Adans. 1763. 

Perennial scapose herbs with grass-like leaves. About 70 
species, New World; 10 in U. S. 

a. S, angustifolium Mill. (S. ancepsCav., S. mucronatumMichx. 
B. graminifolia Medic. This with some other species has been 
erroneously referred to S. Bermudiana L. ). British America, 
south to Virginia, Kansas and Colorado. Common Blue-eyed 
Grass, Pointed Blue-eyed Grass, Blue-grass*, Blue-eyed Lily, 
Blue-eyed Mary, Grass- flower, Pig-root, Rush Lily, Star-eyed 
Grass. Root acrid, cathartic. 

1862. SITILIAS, Raf. 1836. False Dandelion. CIchoriaceae, 

Name unexplained. Syn. Pyrrhopappus (Kew), DC. 1838; 
Leontodon, Barkhausia, in part. Herbs with rather large 
heads of yellow flowers. Six known species. North America; 

4 in U. S. 

1863. SiUM, L. Water Parsnip. Umbelliferae. 

The Greek name of a marsh plant, perhaps of Celtic 
origin. Perennial marsh herbs. About 8 species, north tem- 
perate zone and Africa; 3 in U. S. See Berula and Oxypolis. 

a. S. cicutaefolium Grael. (S. lineare Michx.,S. latifolium of 

American authors, not of Lin.). British America, south to 
Florida, Louisiana and California. American W^ater Parsnip, 
Wild Parsnip. The plant is said to have poisonous properties. 

b. S. latifolium* L. Europe. European W^ater Parsnip, Root, 

Radix sii palustris, R. pastinacee aquaticae; poisonous. 

c. S. Sisarum L. Japan, China and Siberia, also cult. Skirret 

(Skeryth, Skyryth, Skyrwort), Crummock; Ger. Zuckerwurzel; 
Fr. Sucrerot, Root esculent. 

1864. SMEL6wSK1A, C. A. Meyer. Smelowskia. Cruciferae. 

White-woolly alpine perennials. About 6 species, northern 
Asia and N. America; 3 in western U. S. 



348 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1865. SMILAX, L. Sarsaparilla, etc. Smilaceae* 
Greek name of Yew, also of an Oak. Syn. Coprosraanthug, 

in part. Perennial climbers, commonly shrubby. About 195 
species, most abundant in tropical America and Asia; 18 in 
U. S. 

a. S. dspera L. Mediterranean region to India. Italian Sarsa- 

par ila, Rough Bindweed. Properties of (e). 

b. S. China L. Japan and eastern Asia. Rhizome, China-root, 

Radix (Rhizoma s. Tuber) Chinae; Ger. Chinawurzel, Pocken- 
wurzel, Cbinaknolle; Fr. Squine (Codex); alterative. 

c. S. glycyphylla Smith. Australia. Botany Bay Tea, Sweet Tea. 

Leaves used instead of tea. Boot alterative. 

d. S. herbacea L. (C. herbaceusKunth, S. pulverulenta Michx.), 

Canada and eastern U. S. Carrion-flower, American Jacob's- 
ladder. 

e. S. medica Sch. & Cham. Mexico. Mexican Sarsaparilla. 

Source of the Vera Cruz and Tanapico Sarsaparilla. The word 
Sarsaparilla is from the Spanish, meaning "bramble-vine". 
Root [of this and (f)]; Sarsaparilla, U. S. P., Sarsse Radix 
Br., Radix sarsaparillae 8. sarsae;Ger. Sarsaparille, Sassaparille, 
Stechwindenwurzel, Sarsa; Fr. Salsepareille du Mexique (Co- 
dex); Sp. Zarzaparilla; alterative. 

f. S. offlcindlis Humb. & Kunth. New Granada. Source of 

Jamaica Sarsaparilla (the only variety recognized in the British 
Pharmacopoeia), Red Sarsaparilla, Bearded Sarsaparilla. See 

(e). 

g. S. papynicea Duham. Guiana to Brazil. This species yields a 

portion of the Brazilian Sarsaparilla (Rio Negro, Para or 
Lifc.bon Sarsaparilla), the exact botanical source of the several 
varieties being not yet ascertained. Other species which fiiniish 
medicinal sarsaparilla are (h) S. cordato-ovata Richard, (i) 
S. eucalyptifolia Kunth.; (j) S. orndta Hook. f. ; (k) S. 
scabriiiscula Kunth, and (1) S. syphilitica Kunth. 

m. S. Pseudo-China L. Southeastern U. S. Bamboo Brier, 
American China-root, False or Bastard China-root, Long-stalk- 
ed Green-brier, Bull-brier. Rhizome alterative. The rhizome 
of (n) S. B6na-nox L. (S. hastata Willd., S. tamnoides A. 
Gray, not L. ), Bristly or Fiddle-shaped Green-brier, is also 
used. 

<). S. rotundifolia L. (S. caduca L., S. quadrangularis Willd.). 
Ontario and eastern U. S. Green-brier, Cat-brier, Horse-brier, 
Bamboo-brier, Biscuit-leaves, Bread-and-butter, Devil's Hop- 
vine, Hungry-vine, Nigger-head, Wait-a-bit. Rhizome altera- 
tive; largely used for making brier- wood pipes. 

1866. SMYRNIUM, L. Alexanders. Umbelliferae. 

From Greek name of Myrrh. Herbs. About 8 species, 
middle and eastern Europe. (a) S. Oliisatrum L. Alexan- 
ders, Alisander ( Alshinder, Elshinder), Horse Parsley, Wild 
Celery, Wild or Macedonian Parsley, Meg-weed, Stan-march. 
Leajstalks used like celery. 



SCIENTIFIC ANr> POPULAR. 349 

1867. SOLANUM, L. Potato, etc. Solaiiaceae. 

Latin name of Nightshade from solamen, "quieting". Syn. 
Cyphomandra, Dulcamara, in part. Herbs or shrubs. About 
900 species, most abundant in tropical America; 23 in U. S. 

a. S. acilleatissiniiim Jacq. Asia and tropical America, nat. in 

southern U. S. Apple-of-Sodom, a name given also to other 
species having bright colored dry fruits. 

b. S. Aethiopicuiu L. Tropical Africa, cult, in China and else- 

where. Fi-uit esculent, as is that of (c) S. betaceiim Cav. 
[C. betacea Sendt (Kew)]; (d) S. edule Schura. & Thou. 
[Index Kew, makes this a syn. of (k)], Guinea; (e) S. Gilo 
Kaddi, tropical America; (f) S. toiTum Swz., tropical 
America; (g) S. Uporu Dunal, Oceanica; (h) S. yescum 
F. Muell., the Gunyang of Australia. See also (k), (1), (m). 

i. S. Caroliueiise L. Ontario and eastern U. S. Horse-nettle, 
Apple-of-Sodom, Bull-nettle, Kadical-weed. Berries and rooty 
anodyne, antispasmodic, diuretic. 

j. S. Dulcamara L. (D. flexuosaMoench). Europe, western Asia 
and northern Africa, nat. or possibly indigenous in U. S. Bit- 
tersweet, Nightshade, Climbing or Woody Nightshade, Amara- 
dulcis, Blue Bindweed, Dwale, Felonwort, Fever-twig, Morrel, 
Poison-berry, Pushion-berry J, Poison-flower.Scarlet-berry, Skaw- 
coo, Snake-berry, Tether-deviJ, TerrididdleJ, Violet-bloom, 
Wolf-grape; Ger. Bittersiiss, Hindischkraut; Fr. Morellegrim- 
pante; Sp. Dulcamara, Gloria. Young branches; Dulcamara, 
U. S. P., Stipites dulcamarse, mildly narcotic, sedaiive. 

k. S. Melongena L., not Wall, (including S. esculentum Dun, 
the commonly cultivated variety). Tropical Asia, now widely 
cult. Egg-plant. Fruit, Egg Apple, Jew's Apple, Mad Ap- 
ple, Vegetable Egg, Brinjal (East indies). Aubergine (France), 
Begoon, Guinea Squash; esculent. The Peruvian (1) S. murl- 
catum Ait., Pepino, Melon shrub, is also cultivated for its 
melon-like fruit. The fruit of (m) S. Quttoense Lam., 
Quito Orange, resembles an orange in size, color and taste. 

n. S. tuberosum L. South America, now widely cult, in many 
varieties. Potato, Common or Irish Potato; Ger. Kartoffle; Fr. 
Pomrae de terre; Sp. Patata. Tubers, locally called spuds, 
esculent, source of potato starch. Some other species produce 
similar starchy tubers. 

o. S. nigrum L. A cosmopolitan weed, with numerous botanical 
synonyms. Black Nightshade, Common or Garden Night- 
shade, Duscle, Hound's- berry. Petty-morel; Ger. Schwartzer 
Nachtschatten ; Fr. Morelle (Codex). iZ^r6 vulnerary, perhaps 
feebly narcotic, but used as a pot herb. Berries edible. 

Other species of interest are (p) S. elaeagnifollum Cav., 
Kansas to Arizona, Silver-leaved Nightshade, Trompillo; (q) 
S indigoferum St. Hil., Brazil, a source of indigo; (r) S. 

?aiiicvlatum L., Brazil, Jerubeba, used as a tonic; (s) S. 
•seudo-Cdpsicum L., Maderia, Jerusalem Cherry, Winter 



350 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

Cherry, cult, for ornament, as is the Brazilian (t) S. capsi- 
castrum Link., Star Capsicum, Dwarf Cherry ; (u) S. Pseudo- 
qiliua St. Hil., Brazil, Quina, which is bitter and febrifuge; 
(v) S. rostratum Dun. (S. heterandrum Pursh), Nebraska 
to Mexico, Sand-bur, Buffalo-bur, Beaked Nightshade, the 
original food-plant of the Colorado beetle. 

1808. SOLENOSTl^MMA, Hayne. Arghel. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "tube garland" , Syn. Cynanchum, Gompho- 
carpus, in part. A hoary undershrub. One species, northern 
Africa. (a) S. irgel (Delile) Hayne (C. Argel Del., C 
oleaefolium Nect., C. fruticosa R. Br.). Egypt to Syria. 
Arghel, Argel. Leaves found as an adulterant of Alexandria 



1869. SOLIDAGO, L. Golden-rod. Compositae. 

From Greek, "healing". Syn. Doria, Adans. Perennial 
herbs with small heads of yellow (or yellowish) flowers, gene- 
rally in a terminal panicle or thyrsus. About 90 species, 
mostly of N. America; 83 in U. S. Flower-of-gold, Yellow- 
top. Proposed as the national flower of our country. 

a. S. odora Ait. Canada and eastern U. S. Sweet Golden-rod, 

Anise-scented or True Golden-rod, Blue Mountain Tea. 
Leaves anise-scented; astringent, diaphoretic, carminative. 

b. S. Yirgaiirea L. (D. Virgaurea Scop. ). Europe, also north- 

eastern U. S. European Golden-rod, Aaron's-rod, Wound- 
wort; Ger. Goldruthe, Heidnisch-Wundkraut, Gulden-Wund- 
kraut; Fr. Verge d'or; Sp, Vara de oro. Herb, H. virgaureae, 
H. consolidae saracenicse; diuretic, lithontriptic, vulnerary. 

Note-worthy indigenous specie^ are (c) S. bicolor L., 
White or Pale Golden- rod. Silver- rod, Silver- weed. Bellyache- 
weed; (d) S. Canadensis L. (S. altissima L.), one of the 
most common species, Canada Golden-rod, High or Double 
Golden-rod, Yellow-weed; (e) S. Jiincea Ait. (S. arguta T. 
<& Gr. ), Early. Golden-rod, Sharp-toothed or Pyramid Golden- 
rod, Plume Golden- rod; (f) S. nemoralis Ait, Gray or Field 
Golden-rod, Dwarf Golden-rod, Dyer's- weed; (g) S. rug6sa 
Mill. (S. altissima Ait., not L. ), Wrinkle-leaved GoIden-rod|, 
Tall Hairy Golden-rod, Dyer's- weed. Bitter-weed, Pyramid 
Golden-rod, a name applied to several of the more showy spe- 



1870. SOLIVA, Ruiz. & Pav. Soliva. Compositae. 

Perhaps a play on "Salvia". Low herbs. About 15 species, 
mostly in warmer regions of New World; 2 in U. S. 

1871. s6nCHUS, L. Sow Thistle. Cichoriaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Succulent herbs with rat her small 
heads of yellow flowers. About 45 species, Old World; 4 nat 
in U. S. 

a. S. arrensis L, Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Corn Sow- 
thistle, Milk Thistle, Swine Thistle, Tree Sow-thistle, Dindle, 
Gut-weed, Rose-may. 



SCIENTIFIC AND .POPUI>AR. 351 

b. S. olerdceus L. Europe and Asia, nat. in IT. S. and widely 
elsewhere. Sow Thistle, Annual or Common Sow-thistle, 
Hare's Lettuce, Hare's Colewort, Hare' s- pal ace, Hare's Thistle, 
Milk Thistle (Dashel), Milkweed* Milky-dickies, Milky-tas- 
sels, Sow-dindle, Sow-dingle, St. Mary's-seed, Swinies; Ger. 
Gansedistel, Saudistel; Fr. Laiteron. Leaves bitter, used as a 
potherb. The similar (c) S. dspera L. is popularly known 
by the same names. 

1872. S(3kNEA, Greene. Sonnea. Boraginaceae, 

Syn. Plagiobothrys, in part. Herbs. Six species in west- 
ern U. S. 

1873. S6PHIA, Adans. 1763. Tansy-mustard. Cruciferae. 

PVom Greek, **wise". Syn. Descurainia, Webb & Barth. 
1836; Erysimum and Sisymbrium (Kew), in part. Hoary- 
pubescent herbs, some shrubby. About 12 species, mostly of 
north temperate zone; 6 in U. S. 

at. S. Sophia (L. ) Brit (Sis. Sophia L., Sophia vulgaris Fourr., 
D. Sophia Webb. ). Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Flix- 
weed, Herb Sophia, Fine-leaved Hedge-mustard. Plant astrin- 
gent, vulnerary. 

1874. S0PH6rA, L. Sophora. Papalionaceae. 

From Arabic, sofara, a yellow plant; whence our word sajfron. 
Syn. Astragalus, in part. Perennial herbs, shrubs or even 
trees. About 25 species, warmer regions; 6 in U. S. 

a. S. Japdnica L. Japan and China. Pagoda-tree, Yen-ju. 

Buds, called Waifa or Chinese-berries, yield a yellow dye. Bark, 
flowers, etc. purgative. 

b. S. secundiflora (Cav.) DC. (S. speciosa Benth.), Texas. 

Coral- bean, Frigolito. Seeds narcotic, containing an alkaloid, 
sophorine. Similar properties belong to (c) S. sericea Nutt. 
(A. carnosus Pursh), Prairies, Nebraska to Arizona; Silky 
Sophora. 

1876. s6rBUS, L. Mountain Ash. Pomaceae. 

The ancient Latin name of (e), whence English sorb and 
service. Syn. Aria, Pyrus (Kew); Mespilus, in part. Trees or 
shrubs with pinnate leaves and berry-like fruit. About 7 spe- 
cies, north temperate zone; 3 in U. S. 

a. S. Aniericdna Marsh. (S. microcarpa Pursh, P. Americana 
DC. ) . Canada and northeastern U. S. American Mountain- 
Ash, Dogberry, American Service-tree, Indian Mozemize, Mis- 
8ey-moosey, Moose-misse, Life-of-man, American Rowan-tree, 
Round-tree, Round-wood, Mountain Sumac, Quick-beam, Wild 
Ash, Wine-tree, Witch-wood. In the West this is replaced by 
the very similar (b) S. sambii^ifolia (C. &S. ) Roem. 

c. S. Aria Cranz. (A. Graeca Roem., M. Aria Scop., P. Aria (L. ) 

Ehrh. ). Europe and northern Asia. White-beam, Chess Ap- 
ple, Hen Apple, Hoar Withy, Lot-tree, Mulberry*, Sea Ouler, 
Service-berry (Scotland), Whip-beam, Widbin Pear-tree; Ger. 
Mehlbeerbaum; Fr. Alisier. 



352 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

d. S. Auciipdria L. (M, Aucuparia Scop. , P. Aucuparia Gaertn. ) . 

Europe and western Asia. European Mountain- Ash, Eowan 
tree (Roan, Royne, Rawn, Roddin), Round-tree, Service-tree*, 
Quick-beam, Whistle-wood, Wicky, Wicken tree (Wiggen, 
Wiggin), Wild Ash, AVitchen, Wychen, Witch-wood, Witch 
Hazel*, Wiity tree; Ger. Eberesche, Vogelbeere; Fr. Sorbes. 
Unrijye fruit and bark astringent. 

e, S. dom^stica L. (P. domestica Sm. (Kew), P. Sorbus Gaertn.). 

Europe. Sorb Apple, Sorb, Service-berry, Corrae, Checker 
(i. e. choker) tree, Wl«itty Pear, Whitten Pear. Fruit, astrin- 
gent, antiscorbutic. 

1876. s6K0HUM, Pers. Sorghum, etc. Gramineae. 
From vernacular. East Indies. Syn. Andropogon, Holcus, 

in part. Robust grasses. About 13 species, warmer regions. 

a. S. Halepense (L. ) Pers. (H. Halepensis L., A. Halepense 

Brot. ). Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. and widely elsewhere. 
Possibly the original of {h). Johnson Grass, Means Grass 
(Southern States), Egyptian Grass, Egyptian Millet, Cuba or 
Guinea Grass, Australian or Morocco Millet, Maiden Cane. 

b. S. vulgare Pers. (A. Sorghum Brot., A. sativus Hack. ). Africa 

or India, now cult, widely in numerous varieties. Indian, 
Pearl or Black Millet. Var. ceriiuum ( Willd. )Gray ( A. cemuus 
Eoxb., S. cernuum Willd. ) is Guinea Corn; var. Diirra is the 
prolific Durra or Doura of India, and perhaps includes the 
African Millet or Kafir Corn, in U. S. called Guinea Corn, 
Coffee Corn, Chocolate Corn (used as substitute for coffee) ; var. 
t^chnicum is Broom Corn; var. sacchardtum (L. ) Gray (H. 
saccharatus L., A. saccharatus Roxb. ) is Chinese Sugar-cane, 
Sorghum, Imphee, cult, for fodder and formerly as a source of 
sugar. 

1877. SORINDEIA, Thou. Sorindeia. Aiiacardiaceae. 

Trees or shrubs. About 6 species, tropical Africa and Mada- 
gascar, (a) S. Madagascarensis DC, Madagascar, cult, in 
India, produces in profusion a delicious fruit. 

1878. SOTJLAMEA, Lam. Bitter-king. Siniarubaceae* 

From vernacular, Moluccas, "king of bitters". Shrubs. 
About 8 species, East Indies, (a) S. amara Lam. (Cardio- 
carpus amarus Reinw., Cardiophora Hindsii Benth.). Mo- 
lucca Islands. Bitter-king. Bitter tonic, febrifuge. 

1879. s6yMIDA, Juss. Bastard Cedar. Meliaceae. 
From vernacular, Telugu. Syn. Swietenia, in part. Tree 

with bitter bark and hard wood. Two species, tropical Africa 
and East Indies. 

a. S. febrifuga ( Willd. ) Juss. ( S. febrifuga Willd. ). East Indies. 
Rohan, Rohun, Rohuna, Bastard Cedar, Indian Red-wood, 
Red Cedar*, East Indian Mahogany, Juribali*. Bark astrin- 
gent, tonic. 

1880. SPARATTOSP^RMA, Mart. Caroba*. Bigiioniaceae. 
Syn. Jacaranda, Tecoma, in part. Trees. Two species, 

Brazil, (a) S. lithontripticum Mart., is one of the plants 
known in Brazil as Caroba, called also Jacaranda branca. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 353 

1881. SPARGANIUM, L. Bur-reed, Levers. Sparganiaceae, 
Ancient Greek name, from ribbon-like leaves. Aquatic or 

paludal plants with globose flower-heads. About 12 species, 
cooler regions; 6 in U. S. Synonyms are Bur-flag, Bede-sedge 
(-segg, -seggin), Knop-sedge, Reed-grass. 

1882. SPARTIUM, L. Spanish Broom. Papilionaceae. 

Latin from the Greek name, signifying "cordage". Syn. 
Genista, Spartianthus, in part. Shrub, nearly leafless, with 
fragrant yellow blossoms. One species, Mediterranean region. 

a. S. junceum L. (S. junceus Link, G. Hispanica Lam.). Medi- 
terranean region and Canary Islands. Spanish Broom. Tivigs 
and seeds bitter, diuretic, emeto-cathartic. 

1883. SPA THYEMA, Baf. 1808. Skunk Cabbage. Araceae. 
From Greek, referring to the spathe. Syn. Symplocarpus, 

Salisb. 1818, Ictodes, Bigel. 1819;Pothos, Dracontium, in part. 
Perennial herb. One species, northern Asia and North Amer- 
ica (U. S.). 

a. S. fo^tida (L.) Raf. (D. foetidum L., L foetidus Bigel. , Symp- 
locarpus foetidus Nutt., P. foetida Michi. ). Canada and east- 
ern U. S. Skunk Cabbage, Skunk-weed, Polecat-weed, Mea- 
dow Cabbage, Swamp Cabbage, Col lard. Fetid Hellebore, 
Stinking Poke, Pock-weed; Ger. Stinkende Drachenwurz; Fr. 
Pothos fetide. Bhizome a,nd roots, Dracontium, U. S. P. 1870; 
acrid, expectorant, antispasmodic. 

1884. SPERGULA, L. Spurry. Caryophyllaceae. 

From Latin, "scattering" its seeds. Obscure annuals. Two 
or three species, weeds of C)ld World. 

a. S. arrensis L. Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Spurry, 
Corn Spurry, Beggar- weed. Cow-quake, Devil' s-guts. Farmer' s- 
ruin, Pick-purse, Pine-cheat, Sand-weed, Yarr; Ger. Acker- 
spergel; Fr. Spergule. Plant occasionally grown for fodder. 

1886. SPERMAC6CE, L. Button-weed. Rubiaceae. 

From Greek, "seed" and "point". Herbs with small clus- 
tered flowers. About 175 species, tropical regions of Old and 
New World; 4 in U. S. Several species furnish substitutes for 
Ipecac. 

1886. SPERM6lEPIS, Raf.l825,not Brongn.l863.Umbelliferae. 

From Greek "seed" and "scale". Syn. Leptocaulis, Nutt. 
1829; Daucus, Apium (Kew), in part. Slender annuals with 
dissected leaves. Two species, southern U. S. 

1887. SPHACELE, Benth. Sphacele. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "sage like". Strong-scented shrubs, warmer 

regions of New World; 2 in western U. S. 

1888. SPHAERALCEA, St. Hil. 1825. Globe Mallow. Malvaceae. 
From Greek, "globe Mallow". Syn. Phymosia, Desv. 1825. 

Herbs or shrubs. About 35 species, America and S. Africa; 23 
in southwestern U. S. (a) S. Cisplatina St. Hil. of Brazil is 
used like marsh-mallow. 



354 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1889. SPHAER0C6CCUS, Stackh. Worm Moss. Gigartineae. 

From Greek, ''spherical berry". Syn. Alsidium, Ceramium, 
Fucus, Gigartina, Helminthochortus, in part. Sea-weeds. 

a. S. Helminthochorton (L. ) Agardh. (F. Helrainthochorton L., 

H. officinarum Link. In commerce alwa>'S mixed with other 
seaweeds). Mediterranean Sea. Helminthocliorton, Corsican 
Moss, Corsican Worm-weed, Worm Moss, Crow-silk; Ger. 
Wurmmoos, Wurmtang, Seebusch; Fr. Mousse de Corse (Co- 
dex). Plant anthelmintic, resolvent. 

b. S. compressus Agardh. One of the geaweeds furnishing Agar- 

agar. See Eucheuma. 

1890. SPHAEROSTIGMA, Small. Primrose*. Onagraceae. 

From Greek, ''globe stigma". Syn. Oenothera (Kew), in 
part. Herbs. About 17 species in western U. S. 

1891. SPHENOCLEA,Gaertn.l788.Sphenoclea.Cainpaimlaceae. 

From Greek, "wedge pressed". Syu. Pongatium, Juss. 1789. 
Annual herb. One species, widely distributed (U. S. ). 

1892. SPIGELIA, L. Pink-root. Loganiaceae. 

Named for Adrian vonderSpigel, Belgian physician, d. 1825. 
Herbs with red, yellow or purple flowers. About 35 species, 
New World; 6 in U. S. 

a. S. Aiitll^lmia L. Tropical America. Demerara Pink-root, 

West India Pink-root, Brazilian Spigelia; Fr. Spig^Iie anthel- 
rainth ique ( Codex ) . Properties of ( b ) . 

b. S. Marylandica L. New Jerspy to Florida, west to Texas and 

Wisconsin. Indian Pink, Carolina Pink, Maryland Pink, Lori- 
cera||, Siarbloom. Worm-grass, Worm-weed; Ger. Maryland- 
ische Spi gel ie; Fr. Spigelie du Maryland. Roof, Pink-root; 
Spigelia, U. S. P., narcotic, used only as an anthelmintic. 

1893. SPILANTHES, Jacq. (Spflanthus). Compositae. 

From Greek, ''spot-tiower". Syn. Acmella. Annual or 
perennial herbs with rather small flower-heads. About 30 spe- 
cies, mo:Jtly tropical; 1 in U. S. 

a. S. olerdcea L. South America (?), cult, in all tropical coun- 
tries. Para Cress; Ger. Parakresse; Fr. Cresson de Para (Co- 
<iex). Plant pungent, used chiefly as an adjuvant to pfllitory 
in the compound tincture called Paraguay roux. (b) S, 
Acmella Murr. (A. Mauritiana Richard), the East Indian 
Alphabet-plant, has the same properties. 

1894. SFINACEA, L. Spinach. Chenopodiaceae. 

From Latin, "spinose", whence the English name. Unattract- 
ive annuals, resembling Chenopodium. One or two species, 
Old World. 

a. S. olerdcea L. Probably from Asia, now widely cult, as a pot 
herb. Spinach (Spinage); Fr. Epinard; Sp. Espinaca. The 
Schamum of central Asia may be a distinct species. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 355 

1896. SPIRAEA, L. Spiraea, Meadow-Sweet, etc. Rosaceae. 
Latin from the Greek name, 'twisted" alluding to the fol- 
licles. Sjn. Filipendula, Tourn. Low or tall shrubs, many 
ornamental. About 60 species, north temperate zone: 11 in 

U. S. 

a. S. Filipendula L. (F. vulgaris Moench). Europe. Dropwort, 

Droop wort. 

b. S. hypericifolia L. Europe and Siberia and cult, in gardens. 

Bridal- wreath, May-wreath, Italian May, St. Peter' s- wreath. 
Flowers astringent. 

c. S. salicifolia L. Northern Asia, Europe and N. America, 

south to Georgia and Missouri. Common Meadow-sweet (of 
America), Willow-leaved Meadow-sweet, Bride-wort, Quaker- 
lady, Queen-of-the-meadow* Queen' s-needlework. Mock Wil- 
low, Spice Hardback. 

d. S. tomcntosa L. Canada, south to Georgia and Kansas. Hard 

hack. Steeple-bush, Purple Hardback, Spice Hardback, Horse- 
weed*, Pink Meadow-sweet, Meadow-queen, Poor- njan's- soap, 
Kosy-bush, Silver-leaf, Silver- weed. White-cap, White-leaf, 
Spiraea. Bark and leaves astringent. 



1896. SPIRODELA. Schleid. Duckweed. Lemnaeeae. 
From Greek. Syn. Lemna, in part. Minute floating plants. 

Two species; 1 in tf. S., viz. (a) S. polyrhiza (L. ) Schleid. 
( L. polyrhiza L. ), Greater Duckweed. 

1897. SPIR6sTACHYS, Wats. Spirostachys. Chenopodiaceae. 

Fleshy, nearly leafless plants. About 3 species, two of South 
America, one of western U. S. 

1898. SP6nDIAS, L. Hog Plum, etc. Aiiacardiaceae. 

From Greek name of a kind of Plum. Trees, some producing 
edible fruit. About 5 species, tropical regions of both hemi- 
spheres. 

a. S. diilcis G. Forst. (S. lutea Royen, S. acida Blume, S. fragrans 

Pav. ). Fiji and Society Islands and commonly cult, in tropi- 
cal countries. Vi tree, Rewa. Fruit, Vi-fruit, Vi-apple, 
Tahiti Apple, acidulous, esculent. 

b. S. llitea L. (S. myrobalans L., S. Mombin Jacq., not L.). 

Tropical America. Jamnica Plum, Hog Plum, Golden Apple. 
Flower buds used for a sweetmeat. Fruit laxative, esculent. 

1899. SPRAGUEA, Tor. Spraguea. Portulacaceae. 

Herbs closely related to Claytonia. Four species in western 
U. S. 

^900. STACHYS, L. Hedge-Nettle, Woundwort. Labiatae. 
Ancient Greek name of a species having "spiked" inflores- 
cence. Annual or perennial herbs. About 150 species, mostly 
of north tempera/e zone; 24 in U. S., including some naturaliz- 
ed species; Ger. Ziest; Fr. :6piaire; Sp. Yerba de la feridura. 



356 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. S. paliistris L. Europe, Asia, northern N. America, south to- 
New York and New Mexico, Hedge-nettle, Marsh Wound- 
wort, Clown's Woundwort, Clown-heal, Clown's All-heal, Cock- 
head, Dead-nettle, Rough- weed, Kunch, Swine Arnut; Ger. 
Stinknessel, Sumpfziest; Fr. Ortie rouge. Plant reputed vul- 
nerary, antispasmodic, nauseant, emmenagogue. Some other 
species have been also used. 

1901. STANF6rDIA, Wats. Stanfordia. Cruciferae* 

Herb. One species, California. 

1902. STAPHYLEA, L. Bladder nut. Staphyleaceae. 

From Greek, "cluster" (of grapes). Shiubs. About 6 spe- 
cies, north temperate zone; 2 in U. S. 

1903. STAT ICE, L. 1753. Thrift, etc. Plunibaginaceae. 

Greek name of an astringent herb, blood * 'staunching" . 
Syn. Armeria, Willd. 1809; Limonium, Adans. 176^ in part. 
Scapose fleshy herbs. About 20 species, widely distributed ^ 
1 in U. S. 

a. S. Armaria L. (A. vulgaris Willd. ), Europe, northern Asia 

and N. America, south to California. Thrift, European Thrift, 
Cliff Rose, Cushion Pink, Ladies'-cushion, Sea-cushion, Marsh 
or Sea Daisy, French or Scawfall Pink, Sea Pink, Red-root*, 
Rock Rose*, Sea Gilliflower, Sea-grass, Sea Thrift. Root 
astringent. See Limonium. 

b. S. mucrondta L. Morocco. Safrifa. Root nervine. 

1904. STEIRONEMA, Raf. Loosestrife, etc. Primulaceae* 

From Greek, "sterile filaments". Syn. Lysimachia, inpart. 
Perennial herbs with axillary yellow flowers. About 5 species, 
all of U. S. (a) S. (juadriflorum (Sims) Hitchc. (L. quad- 
riflora Sims, L. longifolia Pursh), Canada and eastern U.S., 
Linear-leaved Loosestrife^, is called Prairie Moneywort. 

1905. STEM6d1A, Goatweed. Scropliulariaceae, 

Shortened from Stemodiacia, Greek, "two tipped stamen". 
Herbs, some shrubby. About 80 species, mostly tropical; 2 in 
U. S. (a) S. durautifolia Swz., Arizona to Brazil, is called 
Goat- weed. 

1906. STENANDRIUM, Nees. Stenandrium. Acanthaceae* 

From Greek, "slender stemmed". Herbs. About 20 species, 
warmer regions of New World, 2 in southwestern U. S. 

1907. STENANTHIUM, Kunth, Stenanthium. Melanthaceae, 

From Greek, "narrow petaled". Syn. Helonias, Veratrum, 
in part. Bulbous herbs with linear leaves, the flowers in an 
ample terminal panicle. Five species, Mexico and adjacent 
region; 3 in U. S. 

1908. STENOPHRAGM A, Celak. Mouse-earCress,etc. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, with "narrow septum". Syn. Arabis, Sisym- 
brium, in part. Herb. One species only, (a) S. Thalidna 
(L.) Celak (A. Thaliana L., Sis. Thaliarum Gray). Europe 
and northern Asia, nat. in U. S. Mouse-ear Cress, Thale Cress, 
Wall Cress, Rock Cress, Turkey-pod. Plant antiscorbutic. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 357 

1909. STENORHYNCHUS,Rich. Stenorhynchus. Orcliidaceae. 

From Greek, "narrow beaked". Syn. Spiranihes (Kew), 
in part. Terrestrial orchids, with showy flowers. About 10 
species, warmer regions of New World; 1 in U. S. 

1910. STENOSIPHON, Spach. Stenosiphon. Onagraceae. 

From Greek, with "slender" calyx "tube". Syn. Gaura, in 
part. A perennial herb, the white flowers in slender terminal 
spikes. One species, Kansas to Coloiado and southward. 

1911. STEN6tUS, Nutt. Stenotus. Coiiipositae. 

From Greek, "narrow" leaved. Syn. Aplopappus (Kew), 
in part. Low undershrubs witti evergieen leaves, and rather 
large heads of yellow flowers. About 18 species, western N. 
America; 7 in U. S. 

1912. STERCIJLIA, L. Chica, etc. Stereiiliaceae. 

From Latin, alluding to disgusting odor of some Species. 
Trees with fibrous inner bark. About 85 species, mostly of 
tropical Asia. 

a. S. Cllica St. Hil. (S. CarthagenensisR. Br. ). Brazil. Panama 
tree, China tree. Seeds eaten as nuts. The Australian Calool 
tree, (b) S. quadriflda R. Br., land some other species yield 
also edible seeds. 

•c. S. Tragacantha Lindl. Northwestern Africa. Source of Afric- 
an or Senegal Tragacanth. (d) S. lirens Roxb., India, 
is the reputed source of Kuteera (Kutera) or Bassora gum, 
called also Indian tragacanth. Seeds edible. 

1913. STEVIA, Cav. - Stevia. - Compositae. 

Named for Prof. Esteve of Valencia. Herbs or suhshrubs. 
About 100 species, warmer regions of New World; 6 in U. S. 

1914. STILLINGIA, L. StilUngia. Eupliorbiaceae. 

Named for Dr. B. Stillingfleet. English botanist, 18th 
Century. Syn. Sapium, in part. Herbs or shrubs. About 15 
species, tropical America and Oceanica; 7 in U. S. 

a. S. sylvatica L. (Sapium sylvaticum Torr. ). Southeastern 
U. S. Queen' s-delight, Cock-up-hat, MarcoryJ, Nettle-poiato, 
Queen-root, Silver-leaf, Yaw-root; Ger., Fr. Stillingie. Boot; 
Stillingia, U. S. P., sialagogue, alterative, expectorant. 

1916. STIPULICIDA, Michx. Stipulicida. Carjophyllaceae. 

Herbs. Two species, both of U. S. 

1916. STOKESIA, L'Her. (not Stocksia, Benth.). Compositae. 

Named for Dr. Jonathan Stokes, English botanibt, d. 1831. 
Shrubs with spinose leaves and large heads of purple-blue 
flowers resembling the China Aster. One species, (a) S. laevisN 
(Hill) Greene, Gulf States, a rare plant, called Stokes' Aster. 

1917. STREPTANTHUS, Nutt. Streptanthus. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, "twisted flower", the petals borne on a twisted 
claw. Annual or perennial herbs. About 38 species, south- 
western U. S. (a) S. maculdtusNutt. (S. obtusifoliusHook.) 
is called Arkansas Cabbage. 



858 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

1918. STR^PTOPUS, Michx. Twisted-stalk. CoiiTallariaceae. 

From Greek, "twisted foot", the peduncle being bent or 
twisted in ihe middle. Syn. Uvularia, in part. Perennial 
herbs resembling Solomon's- seal. About 5 species, north tem- 
perate zone; 3 in U. S. Called also Liver-berry. 

1919. STROPHANTHUS, DC. Stropbanthus. Apocynaceae. 

From Greek, '"twistea flower", alluding to the twisted and 
tailed lobes of the corolla. Trees, shrubs or climbers. About 
20 species, tropical Africa and Asia. 

a. S. hispidus DC. var. Komb^ Oliver. [S. Kombe Oliv. (Kew^]. 
Tropical Africa. Sourceof the African arrow-poisons, Kombe, 
In^e (Ineh, Onage ,Onaye, Wanika). -Seeds, deprived of the 
awn, Strophanthus, U. S. P., Semen Strophanthi P. G. ; 
cardiac tonic, resembling digitalis in action. 

1920. STROPHOLIRION, Tor. Stropholirion. Liliaceae. 
j,.> From Greek, ''twisted lily" . Syn. Brodisea, in part. Sea- 
pose herb. One species, California. 

1921. STROPHOSTYLES, Ell. Wild-bean. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "twisted style". Syn. Phaseohis (Kew), in 
part. Mostly herbaceous vines. About 6 species. New World ;^ 
3 in U. S. 

1922. STRt^MPFIA, Jacq. 1760. Strumpfia. Rubiaceae. 
Named for V. C. Strumpf. Syn. Patsjotti,* Adans. 1763. 

Low shrub. One species, Florida. 

1923. STRYCHNOS, L. (Strychnus). Logaiiiac»'ae, 

Greek name of a poisonous plant. Syn. Ignatia, Ignatiana,^ 

in part. Treen, f^hrubs or climbers. About 65 species, tropical 
regions of Asia and America. 

a. S. colubrfna L. Malabar. Snake-wood tree. Wood of thi& 

and somn other species (containing strychnine), is regarded in 
India an antidote to the venom of serpents. See (d). 

b. S. Igndtii Lindl. (Ignatia amara L. fils., the oldest name, but 

with false description, S. Philippineiisis Blanco, Ignatiana 
Philippica Lour. According to Eng and Prantl, S. niulliflora 
Benth. ). Philippine Islands, nat. in Cochin China. Bean of 
St. Ignatius, Ignatius Bean, Ignatia Bean. Seeds; Ignatia^ 
U. S. P. 1880, Semen Ignatise, Faba ignatii, Faba febrifuga; 
Ger. Ignat'usbohne, Ignazbohne; Fr. Feve de Saint-lgnace 
(Codex), Ffeve igasurique; Sp. Haba de San Ignacio; bitter 
tonic, tetanizing poison, containing strychnine and brucine. 

c. S. Malacc^nsis Benth. (S. Gaultheriana Pierre). Southeast- 

ern Asia. Bark, the chief active constituent of the Chinese 
Hoang-nan, a reputed cure for leprosy. 

d. S. Nux-Tomica L. India to Australia, Nux-vomica tree^ 

Seeds Nux-vomica, Dog-buttons, Quaker-buttons, Crow-tig 
Bachelor' 8-button8*,Poi8on-nut,Vomit-nut, NtlX vomica U.S P. 
Br., Semen strychni, Nuces vomicae, Nux metella; Ger 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 359 

Strychnoss^amen, Brechnuss, Krahenaugen; Fr. Noix vomique 
(Codex); 8p. Nuez vomica; bitter tonic, tetanizing poison, 
containing strychnine and biucine. Bark, FaLse Angostura bark. 
Wood sold as snake- wood. See (a). 

e. S. potatorum L, India. Clearing-nut tree. Seeds, Clearing- 

nuts, Indian-gum nuts, used to clarify drinking water. I'ulp of 
fi-uit edible, as in (f) and some other species. 

f. S. Tieiitf Leschenault. Java. Chettik. An extract of the root- 

haik is u-«ed in preparation of the arrow-poison, Upas tieuie or 
Upas radja. See Antiaris. 

g. S. toxifera Schomb. Amazon basin. An extract of the bark 

consiiiuies one of the principal constituents of the South Amer- 
ican arrow-poison, Urari. Several other species of Strychnos 
are also used, 'I he comp* und extract is known as Curare, 
Wourari, Wourali, Woorara, etc., and is official in the French 
Codex as Curare. A sedative poison, antagonizing strychnine. 

h. S. sp. iiidet. A shrub of western Africa, probablv of this genus, 
is locally known as Aka^ga, M'boundou, Boundou, Jkaju or 
Quai. An in lusi on of the 6a?/; is used as an ordeal. It con- 
tains strychnine or a related alkaloid. 

1924. STUARTIA, L. (originally Stewartia). Tlieaceac. 
JSanied for John Stuart, Marquis of Bute. Syn. Malacho- 

dendron, in part. Shrub-s with large showy flowers. About 6 
species, uoiih America and Japan; 2 in U. S. 

1925. STRYPHNODENDRON, Mart. Mimosaceae. 

Fr< m Greek, "astringent tree". Trees related to Inga. 
Abciut 10 species, S. America. 

8. S. pitlyphyllum Martius. Brazil. Barbatimao, Barbimao. 
Bark, Cortex adsiringens brasiliensis, astringent. See Acacia 
J u rem a. 

1926. STYLOCLINE, Kutt. Stylocline. Ccmpositae. 

From Greek, 'column bed", i. e. columnar recejit a cle. Syn. 
Ancistrocar[)hus, Micropus, in part. Floccose-woolly annuals. 
About 4 species, Pacitic border of U. S. 

1927. STYLOPHORCM, Nutt. Stylophorum. Papaveraceae. 

From Greek, "style bearing", ttyn. Chelidonium, Meconop- 
sis, in part. Herbs with yellow sap. About 4 species, eastern 
Asia and N. America; 1 in U. S. 

a. S. diphyllum (Michx. ) Nutt. (C. diphyllum Michx., M. 
diphylla DC). Ohio to Wisconsin and Missouri. Yellow 
Poppy, Celandine Poppy. 

1928. STYLOSANTHES, Swz. Pencil-flower, etc. Fapilionaceae. 

From Greek, "pillar flower", alluding to stalk-like calyx- 
tube. Syn. Trifoliumf, in part. Perennial herbs or under- 
shrubs. About 25 species, warmer regions of Old and New 
World; 2 in U. S. 



360 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a: S. biflora (L). B. S. P. (T. biflorum L., S. elatior Swz.). 
New York to Florida, west to Indian Territory. Pencil-Hower, 
Afterbirth- weed. Plant reputed a uterine sedative. 

1929. STYRAX, L. Storax. Styracaceae. 

The Greek name of S. officinalis. Syn. Benzoin, in part. 
Shrubs or trees. \.bont 70 specie^, America, Asia and southern 
Europe; 5 in U. S. [Index Kewensis makes this of neuter 
gender. ] 

a. S. Benzoin Dryandpr(B. odoriferumNees, B. officinale Ilayne). 

East Indies, cult, in Sumatra. Benzoin tree, (Benjamin tree), 
Re:<i nous exudate, Gum Benzoin, (lura Benjamin, Benzoin; Ben- 
ZOinum, U. S. R, Br., Benzoe P. G., Resina benzoe, Asa 
dulcis; Ger. Benzoeharz; Fr. Benjoin de Sumatra (Codex); Sp. 
Benjui. [From young trees is obtained tlie "head benzoin" of 
the natives, from older ones the "l»elly benzoin" with fewer 
"tears", finally from the wood of spent trees is obtained "foot 
benzoin"]. Stimulant, balsamic, vulnerary, expectorant. A 
source of benzoic acid. Siam benzoin; Fr. Benjoin de Siam 
(Codex), is obtained probably from another, as yet undeter- 
mined, species of Styrax. 

b. S. grandifolia Ait. Southeastern U. S. Mock Orange, Large- 

leaved Storax. The name Spring Orange is given sometimes to 
(c) S. i*.mericana Lam. 

d. S. officinalis L. Southern Europe and western Asia. The 
original Storax tree. Source of genuine hard Storax, Styrax 
calamitus v. solidiis, Scob8 styracin^; used for incense, no 
longer collected for medicinal use. From (e) S. punctata 
DC. of central America is also obtained a kind of frankincense. 

1930. SUBULARIA, L. Water Awlwort. Cruciferae. 

From Latin, "awlwort", alluding t^) subulate leaves. Small 
aquatic annuals. Two species, one in Africa, the other in higher 
latitudes of northern hemisphere (U. S. ). 

1931. SUCKLEYA, Gray. Suckleya. Chenopodiaceae. 

Herb. One species, western U. S. Syn. Atriplex, in part. 

1932. SULLIVANTIA, Tor. & Gr. SuUivantia. Saxifra^aeeae. 

Named for Wm. S arling SuUivant, American botanist, d. 
1873. Perennial herbs, closely related to Therofon. Two 
known species, both of western U. S. 

1933. SWERTIA, L. Chiretta. Gentianaceae. 

Named for Emanuel Sweert, herbalist of 17th Century. Syn. 
Agathotes, Ophelia, also Gentiana, in part. Annual or peren- 
nial herbs. About 55 species, mostly of Old World. 

a. S. Chirdyita (Eoxb. ) Lyons (G. Chirayita Roxb., O. Chirata 
Griseb., S. Chirata Ham., A. Chirayta Don). Northern India. 
Chiretta, Chirata, Chirayta, East Indian Balmony; Ger. Ost- 
indischer Enzian; Fr. Cbirette. Plant; Chirata, U. S. P., Br., 
Chiretta, U. S. P. 1870; bitter tonic. Other species also are 
used in India under the same name. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 361 

1934. SWIETEXIA, Jacq. 1760. Mahogany tree. Meliaceae. 
Named for Dr. Gerard von Swieten, Australian physician, d. 

1772. Syn. Mahogani, Adans. 1763, Cedrusf, Cedrela, in part. 
Treeg. Three species, Central America and West Indies; 1 in 
U. 8. 

a. S. Mahagoiii Jacq. (S. Mahogani DC, S. Mahogoni Lara., 
Cedrela Mahagoni L., Cedrus Mahogani Mill. ). West Indies 
to Florida and Mexico. Mahogany, Madeira- wood. Bark 
bitter, astringent, febrifuge. Wood valued for furniture, etc. 

1935. SYMPETALEIA, Gray. Syrapetaleia. Loasaceae. 
From Greek, with ''united petals". One species in U. S. 

1936. S YMPHORIC ARPOS, Juss. Snow-berry,etc.Caprifoliaceae. 

From Greek, "clustered fruit". Syn. Symphoricarpa, Neck., 
Symphoricarpus, Dill., Symphoria Pers. ; Lonicera, in part. 
Shrubs, somewhat ornamental in fruit. About 10 species, N. 
America; 8 in U. S. 

a. S. occidentalis Hook. Michigan to Colorado and northwest- 
ward. Wolf-berry, Buck-bush; (b) S. racemosns Michx., 
British America, south to Kentucky, Minnesota and California. 
Snow-berry, Snow-drop*, Snow- drop-berry. Egg-plant*, Wax- 
berry*; (c) S. Symphoricarpos (L. )MacM. (L. Symphori- 
carpos L., S. orbiculatus Moench (Kew), S. vulgaris Michx.). 
New Jersey to Texas and Dakota. Coral-berry, Indian Cur- 
rant, Buck-bush, Snap-berry, Turkey-berry. 

1937. SYMPHYTUM, L. Comfrey. Boraginaceae. 

The Greek name, from supposed healing virtues. Coarse 
perennial herbs. About 15 species. Old World. 

a. S. officinale L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Comfrey, 
Healing-herb, Knit-back, Ass-ear, Backwort Blackwort, Bruise- 
wort (Briswort), Boneset*, Con8ound(i. e. Consolida), Galloc, 
Gum-plant, Slippery-root; Ger. Schwarzwurz, Beinwell; Fr. 
Grande Consoude (Codex). Root, Kadix consolidae majoris, 
R. symphiti, mucilaginous, demulcent. 

1938. SYMPLOCUS, Jacq. 1760. Sjmplocaceae (Stjracaceae). 

From Greek, "interwoven", alluding to the stamens. Syn. 
Hopea, L. 1767. Trees or shrubs. About 175 species, Amer- 
ica, Asia and Australia; 1 in U. S. 

a. S. tinctoria (L.) L'Her. (H. tinctoria L. ). Delaware to Flo- 
rida and Louisiana. Sweet-leaf, Horse-sugar, Dye-leaves, 
Florida Laurel, Yellow-wood. Leaves yield a yellow dye. 

1939. SYNANDRA, Nutt. Synandra. Labiatae. 
From Greek, with "stamens together". Syn. Lamium, 

Torreya, in part. Herb with showy white flowers. One spe- 
cies, southeastern U. S. 

1940. SYNDESMON, Hofl'mg. Rue-Anemone. Ranunculaceae. 

From Greek, "bound together", the plant having flowers of 
Anemone and foliage of Thalictrum. Syn. Anemone (Kew), 
Anemooella, Thalictrum, in part. Perennial herb. One spe- 
cies, U. S. 



362 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. S. thalictroides (L.) Hoffmg. (Anemone thalictroides L., 
T. anenionoides Michx., Anemonella thalictroides Spach). 
Ontario and eastern U. S. Kue-anemone, Meadow-rue Ane- 
mone, May-flower, Wind-flower*, Meadow-iue. 

1941. SYNEDRELLA, Gaertn. Synedrella. Compositae. 

From Gieek, ''seated together", of the flower-heads Syn. 
Oligogyne, Calyptrocarpus, in part. Annual herbs with sinall 
heads of yellow flowers. Two species, tropii al America; 1 in 
Texas. 

1942. SYN6SMA, Eaf. Wild Caraway, etc. Compositae. 

From Greek, seeming to mean a ' 'fragrant Compobitt". Svn. 
Cacalia, Senecio, in part. Perennial lierb with sniall dis-coid 
flower heads. One species; (a) S. suaveolens (L. ) Raf. ( O. 
suaveolens L., Sen. suaveolens til.), Eastern U. S., Sweet- 
scented Indian Plantain, Wild Caraway. 

1943. SYNTH LIPSIS, Gray. Synthlipsis. Criiciferae. 

Herbs. About three species, Mexico and adjacent regions; 
2 in U. S, 

1944. SYNTRICHOPAPPCS,Grav. Compi.sitae. 

From Gre» k, ''united pappus-bristles". Flo( cose- woolly 
winter-annuals. Two species, Arizona to California. 

1946. SYRINGA, L. - Lilac. - Oleaceae. 
From Greek, a *'pipe", the Lilac being formerly called 

Pipe-tree. Shrubs with showy flowers. About 12 species,^ 
Asia and eastern Europe. 

a. S. Tiilgaris L. Eastern Europe, cult, in gardens and na^. ii> 
U. S. l^ilac ( Lay lock, Lily-oak), Common or Scotch Lilac^ 
Blue Asbf, Blue pipe. Pipe-tree, Pipe Privet, Prince' s-featlier*, 
Roman Willowf, Spanish Ashf, White Ashf. The Persian 
Lilac is (b) S. P^rsica L. 

^1946. TABERNAEMOKTANA, L. Cow-tree, etc. Apocynaceae. 

' Named for J. T. Tabernajniontanus, Geiman botanist, d. 

1590. Shrubs or trees. About 150 species, tropical regions. 

a. T. iitilisArn. British Guiana. Cow-tree, Milk-tree, Hya-hya. 
Milky sap used like cow's-milk. (b) T. coronaria Willd., 
East Indies, is Adam's Apple or East Indian Rose Bay; (c) 
T. dichotoma Roxb., Ceylon, is Forbidden-fruit, Diviludner. 

1947. TACCA, Forst. Arrowroot*. Taceaceae. 
The Malay name. Perennial herbs from a tuberou** or creep- 
ing rootstock. About 10 species, warmer regions of Old and 
New World. 

a. T. pinnatiflda Forst. (T. ocean ica Nut t., T. littorca Rumph.). 
Fiji, Hawaiian and otVer islands of the Pacific. Pia plants 
Tahiti Salep. Tubers yield a variety of arrowroot called by 
the natives Pia. 

1948. TACS6KIA, Juss. Tacsonia. Passifloraeeae. 

From vernacular, TacsOj Peru. Climbers resembling Passi- 
flora. About 25 species. Central America and West Indies. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 863 

The fruit of several species is edible, notably of (a) T, mollis* 
sima Kunih, New Granada and of (b) T. tripartita Juss., 
Ecuador. 

194». TAENIOPLElJRUMjC.&E.Taeniopleurum.Umbelliferae. 

From Greek, "fillet rib". Herb. One species, western 
U. S. 

1950. TAENITIS, Willd. Taenitis. Polypodiaceae. 

From Grt^ek, "ribbon-like", of ihe fronds. A small genus of 
fern^; 1 in U. S. 

1961. TAOETES, L. Marigold* Compositae. 

Latin name of MarigoM, from Tages, an Etruscan divinity. 
Strnng-tcenled herbs with large flower-heads. About 20 spe- 
cies, wariuer regions ot JSew World; 2 in Arizona. 

a. T. erecta L. Mexico and tropical Am»rica, cult, m gardens. 

Alrican Marigold, J.arge Afiican Marigold, Turkey Gilliflower,^ 
African Tan!?y or Flos africanus of old herbalists. 

b. T. p<itii]a L. Mexico to S. America, cult, in gardens. French 

Marigold, Velvet-flowtr*. Florets of this and the preceding 
somt times sold as Calendula, but without medicinal virtue. 

1952. TALIN6pSIS, Gray. Talinopsis. Portulacaceae. 

From Greek, "resembling Talinum". An undershrub. 
One species, IS'evv Mexico. 

1953. TALInUM, Adans. Eo^k Pink, etc. Portulacaceae. 

From vernacular name, Senegal. Fleshy herbs or under- 
shiulis. ^Vjirmer r< gions especially of New World; 8 in U. S. 
(a) T. calycinuui Engelui., Kansas to Texas, is called Rock 
I'iiik; (b) i'. teretifolium Pursh., Eastern U. S., is Fame- 
flower; (c) T. patens Willd. iT. }>aniculatum Gaertn. ), Bra- 
zil to souihern U. S., is called Puchero and esteemed as a pot 
herb. 

1954. TAMARINDUS, L. Tamarind. Caesalpinaceae. 

The Latin name, "Indian Date". A large tree. One species, 
Old World. 

a. T. Indica L. (T. occidentalis Gaertn., T. umbrosa Salisb., T. 
officinalis Hook), Tropical Asia and Africa, cult, in West 
Indies, etc. Tamarind tree; Fr. lamarindier (Codex). The 
^'preserved fruit or the pulp surrounding the seeds; Tamarindus, 
U. S. P., Br., Pulpa Tamarindorum cruda, P. G., Fructua 
tamarindi; Cler. Rohes Tauiarindemnus, Tamarinden; Fr. 
Tamarin; 8p. Tamarindo; acidulous, laxative, refrigerant, much 
used in oriental cookery. 

1955. TAMARIX, L. Tamarisk. Tamaricaceae. 

From the Latin name. S,\n. Tamariscus, Tourn. Shrubs 
or trees. About 60 species, Mediterranean region to Central 
Asia, a few in S. Africa. 



364 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a, T. articiiLita Vahl. (T. orientalin Forsk. ). Southern Asia to 

northern and middle Africa. Oriental Tamarisk. From thig 
and some oiher species are obtained Tamarisk galls or Atlee 
galls; Ger. Tainarisken-Gallen, Takuts, used like nutgalls of the 
Oak. 

b. T. Gdllica L. (Tamariscus Gallicus All.). Mediterranean 

region to central Asia. Tamarisk (Taniaric, Tamaricke), 
French Tamarisk, Common Tamarisk (of Europe), 
Flowering Cypress, Cypress*, Heath*, Ling*. The Manna 
Tamarisk of Arabia, (c) T. ilianiiifera Ehrenb., is perhaps a 
variety of this species. Exudate caused by puncture of an ir sect 
is the Manna collected near Mount Sinai, Tamarisk Manna, 
Jew's Manna. 

1950. TAMUS, L. Black Bryony. Dioscoreaceae. 

Altered from Thamnus, Latin name of a grape-like vine. 
Herbaceous climbers from tuberous roots. Two species, Europe. 

a. T. coinmiinis L. Europe. Black Briony (Bro^ant), Black 
Bind-'^eed, Adder' s-meat, Isle-of-Wight vine, Lady's-seal- 
Mandrake*, Tamus, Wild-vine. Root acrid, vulnerary, diure- 
tic. Fruli called Murrain-berries, Roll-berries or Ox-berries, 
Shoots eaten in Greece like asparagus. 

1957. TANACETUM, L. Tansy. Compositae. 

From the French name, derive I from Greek, "immortal", 
Syn, Chrysanthemum, Pyrethrum, in part. Strong-scent- 
ed herbs, the numerous fiower-heads generally rayless. About 
35 species, northern hemisphere; 8 in U. S. 

a. T. vulgfire L. (C. Tanacetum, Karsch, P. Tanacelum DC). 
Europe and northern Asia, cult, and nat. in U, S. Tansy, 
Bitter-buttons, English Cost, Ginger-plant, Hind-heal, Parsley 
Fern, Scented F'ern; Ger. Eainfarn, VVurmkraut;*Fr. Tanaisie 
f Codex), Herbe aux vers; Sp. Tanaceto. A variety, Crispiiin, 
is called DoubleTansy; Lmms and tops] Tanasetum, U. S. P., 
Snmmitates tanaceti, Herba athanasiye; stimulant, emmena- 
gogue, vulneiary. Source of oil of Tansy. 

1958. TANGHINIA, Thou. Tanghin. Apocynaceae. 

From vernacular name, Madagascar. Syn. Cerbera, in part. 
A tree. One species, Madagascar. 

a. T. Yenenifera Poir. (T. veneneflua C. Don, Cerbera Tanquin 
Steud. (Kew), C. Tanghin Hook.). Madagascar. Tangtiin, 
Tanguen. Seeds emetic and poisonous, used as an ordeal. 
Contain a poisonous alkaloid, tanghine. 

1959. TARAXACUM, Hall (Taraxacon). Cichoriaceae. 

Greek name of an allied plant. Syn. Dens-leonis, Tourn., 
Leontodon, in part. Scapose herbs with large heads of yellow 
flowers. About 20 species, northern hemisphere and S. Amer- 
ica; 2 or 3 in U. S. 

a. T. Tardxaciim (L. )KarRt. (L. Taraxacum L., T. officinale 
Weber, T. Dens-leonis Desf., T. vulgare Schrank). Europe, 
northern Asia and N. America, now widely dispersed. Dande- 
lion, Dindle, Arnica* Blow-ball, Cankerwort, Doon-head-clock, 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 365 

Fortune-teller, Grunsel* Horse Gowan, Irish Daisy, Milk 
Gowan, Witch Gowan, Yellow Gowan, Lion's-tooth^, Monk's- 
head, One-o'clock, Priest' s-crown. Puff-ball*; Ger. Lowenzahn, 
Pfaffenrohrchen; Fr. Pissenlit, Dent delion (Codex), Couronne 
de moine; Sp. Diente de leon. Boot; Taraxacum, U. S. P., 
Taraxaci Radix Br. ; tonic, aperient, hepatic stimulant, diuretic, 
(whence the French name with the vulgar English, Pissabed 
and the equivalent Latin, Lectiminga). 

1960. TAKAXIA, Small. Taraxia. Onagraceae. 

Syn. Oenothera, in part. Herbs. Six species in U. S. 

1961. TARIRI, Aubl. 1775. Cascara Amarga,etc.Siinariibaceae. 

From vernacular S. Amer. Syn. Picramnia, Swz. 1788. 
Shrubs and trees. About 30 species, tropical America; 1 in 
Florida. 

a. T. Antidesma (Swz.) Lyons (P. AntidesmaSwz.). Jamaica to 

Central and South America. Macary-bitter, Majoe-bitter, Old- 
woman's bitter, Tom Bontrin's-bush. Bark tonic, febrifuge, 
alterative. 

b. T. sp. indet. Central America. Cascara Amarga ( i. e. bitter 

bark), Honduras bark. £ar^ bitter, tonic, alterative; contains 
an alkaloid. 

1962. TAX(3dIUM, L. C. Kich. Cypress. Tinacfae. 
From Greek, "Yew-like", of the foliage. Syn. Schubertia, 

Mirb., not Mart., Cupressus, in part. Tall trees with horizon- 
tal or drooping branches. Three known species, two American, 
one of China; 1 in U. S. 

a. T. distichum (L. ) L. C. Rich. (C. disticha L., S. disticha 
Mirbel). Southeastern U.S. Bald Cypress, Virginia Swamp 
Cypress, Deciduous Cypress, Red Cypress (of southern States), 
Southern or Virginia Cypress, Swamp Cypress, Sabino-tree. 
Varieties are Black and White Cypress, from color of wood. 
The famous Montezeuma Cypress of Chapultepec is of the Mexi- 
can species (b) T. mucrondtum Tenore. 

1963. TAXUS, L. - Yew. - - Taxaceae. 

The classical name. Evergreen trees or shrubs with berry- 
like fruit. About 6 species, north temperate zone; 3 i^ U. S. 

a. T. baccjita L. Europe, northern Africa and westward to the 
Himalayas. Yew tree. Yew (Ewe, Vew, View), Chinwood, 
Globe-berry, If Palmf (Ireland), Shoter, Snottle-berry, Wire 
Thorn; Ger. Eibe; Fr. Ifcoramun; Sp. Tejo. Leaves po'iBonons 
to stock, reputed emmenagogue. Wood tough and elastic. 
The Western or Oregon Yew, (b) T. breyifolia Nutt. (T. 
Lindleyana Laws.) of the Pacific coast, is perhaps a variety of 
this species. 

c. T. minor (Michx.) Brit. (T. baccata var. minor Michx., T. 

Canadensis Willd. ). Canada, south to Virginia and Iowa. 
American Yew, Dwarf Yew, Ground or Creeping Hemlock, 
Creeping Juniperf, Chinwood, Shinwood. 



366 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMSj 

1964. TEC6mA, Juss. Trumpet-flower, etc. Bigiioniaceae. 

From vernacular Aztec name. Syn. Bignonia, Tecomaria, 
in part. Trees, shrubs or woody climbers with showy red or 
orange flowers. About 25 species, warmer regions. Old and 
New World; 2 in U. S. 

a. T. radicans (L. )DC. (B. radicans L.). Southeastern U. S. 
and cult, for ornament. Trumpet-flower, Virginia Trumpet- 
flower, Trumpet Creeper, Trumpet-vine, Trumpet Ashf, Cross- 
vine*, Foxglove*, Bignonia. 

1966. TELANTHERA, R. Br. Telanthera. Amaranthaccae. 

Herbs, some shrubby, warmer regions of New World (one in 
Africa); 2 in U. S. 

1966. TELLIMA, K. Br. Tellima. Saxifragaceae. 

Syn. Lithophragma, in part. Perennial herbs. Two spe- 
cies, western U. S. 

1967. TETRACLEA, Gray. Tetraclea. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "four closed (nutlets)". Low herb. One 

species, Mexican border of U. S. 

1968. TETRADYMIA, DC. Tetradymia Compositae. 

From Greek, "four together", the original species having 
only four florets. Syn. Lagothamnus, in part. Low rigid 
shrubs, sometimes spinescent. Six species, plateau region of 

U.S. 

1969. TETRAGONANTHUS, S. G. Gmel. 1769. Gentianaceae. 

From Greek, "four-angled flower". Syn. Halenia, Borck 
1796; Swertia, in part. Herbs with spurred flowers. About 30 
species, mountains of New World and of Asia; 3 in U. S. (a) 
T. deflexus (J. E. Sm. ) Kze. iS. deflexa J. E. Sm., H. 
deflexa Griseb. ). Canada and eastern U. S., Spurred Gentian. 

1970. TETRAG6nIA, L. New Zealand Spinach. Ficoideae. 
From Greek, four angled", ancient name of the Spindle-tree. 

Fleshy perennials. About 20 species, southern hemisphere, 
especially Africa. 

a. T. expansa Murray 1783, notThunb. 1794. S. America to New 
Zealand, Australia and Japan, nat. in California. New Zea- 
land Spinach. Leaves used as a pot herb, as are those of (b) 
T. implexicoma J. Hook., Australia to New Zealand, Vic- 
torian Bower Spinach, Australian Spinach. 

1971. TETRAGONOTHECA, L. Tetragonotheca. Compositae. 

From Greek, "four-angled case" (i. e. involucre). Peren- 
nial herbs with large beads of yellow flowers. Three species, 
southern U. S. and Mexico. 

1972. TETRAMERIUM, Nees, not Gaertn. Acanthaceae. 

From Greek, "four parted". Herbs. About 10 species, 
warmer regions of New World; 2 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIO AND POPULAR. 367 

1973, TEt^CRIUM, L. Germander. Labiatae. 

Named for Teucer, King of Troy. Syn. Scordonia, in part. 
Herbs or shrubs. About 100 species, temperate and tropical 
regions; 5 in U. S. 

a. T, Canadense L. (T. Virginicum L. ). Canada and eastern 

U. S. to Mexico. American Germander, American Wood- 
sage, Ground-pine* (See Ajuga). 

b. T. Chama^drys L. Europe. C!ommon Germander (of Europe), 

Chamaedrys, Herteclowre, Horse-chire, Ground Oak, Wall 
Germander; Ger. Edler Gamander, Frauenbiss, Gamanderlein; 
Fr. Germandr^e Chamaedrys, Petit-chene (^ Codex). Herb; H. 
chamaedryos, H. trixaginis; alterative, febrifuge, antiarthritic. 

c. T. Marum L. Mediterranean region. Cat Thyme, Herb-mas- 

tich. Germander; Ger. Amberkraut, Katzeugamander, Mos- 
chuskraut, Theriak kraut; Fr. Germandree maritime; Sp. Maro 
cortesso Leaves and tops; Hcrba (Summitates) mari veri, 
H. thymi catariae, aromatic, sternutatory, antispasmodic, dia- 
phoretic, emmenagogue, etc. The other species have a similar 
action. 

d. T. Polium L. Europe. Poly- mountain, Yellow Poly-moun- 

tain (Puliall-mountain, Pellamountain); Ger. Bergpolei; Sp. 
Zamarilla. 

«. T. Scordium L. Europe. Water Germander, English Treacle, 
Garlic*, Wood Garlic; Ger. LachenknobUuch, Wasser-Bathen- 
gel; Fr. Germandree aqua'ique; Sp. Escordio. Herb, Herba 
scordii; diaphoretic, anthelmmtic, etc. 

f. T. Scordonia L. (S. sylvestris Link.). Europe. Wuod or 
Wild Germander, Ambntse, Ambroise, Garlic Sage, Mountain 
Sage, Eock Mint. Plant bitter, a substitute for hops. 

1974. THALESIA, Raf. 1818. Cancer-root, etc. Orobanchaceae. 

Dedicated to "Thales". Syn. Anoplanthus, Endl. 1838, 
Aphyllon, A. Gray 1848; Orobanche, Phelipaea, in part. Root- 
parasites, with a few scales in place of leaves. Three species, 
all in U. S. 

a. T. uniflora (L. ) Raf. (O. uniflora L., An. uniflorus Endl., 
Aph. uniflorum Tor. & Gr. ). British America, south to Vir- 
ginia, Texas and California. Naked Broom-rape, One-flowered 
or Pale Broom-ripe, Cancer- root. P/an/ astringent. The Yel- 
low Cancer-root of the central and northwestern U. S., Cluster- 
ed Cancer-root^, is (b) T. fasciculdtum (Nutt.) Brit. (O. 
fasciculata Nutt. ). 

1976. THALIA, L. Thalia. Marantaceae. 

Named for Johann Thalius, German naturalist, 16th Century. 
Scapose herbs. About 7 species, all of America; 2 in U. S, 

1976. THALICTRUM, L. Meadow-Rue. Raiiunculaceae. 

Ancient Greek plant name, probably signifying ''luxuriant". 
Perennial herbs with Maidenhair-like foliage. About 75 spe- 
cies, chiefly of north temperate zone; 17 in U. S. 



368 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. T. dioicum L. British America, south to Alabama and Mis- 

souri. Early Meadow-rue, Feathered Columbine, Shining- 
grass, Quicksilver- weed, Poor-man's Rhubarb* 

b. T- flaviim L. Europe. Fen Rue, Maidenhair Rue, False 

Rhubarb, Meadow or Monks' Rhubarb, Poor-man's Rhubarb. 

c. T. glaucum Desf. Spain, cult, in gardens. Spanish-tuft, Tuft- 

ed Columbinei, Feathered Columbine, the latter name applied 
also generically. 

d. T. polygainum Muhl. (T. Cornuti Tor. & Gr.). Canada and 

eastern U. S. Tall Meadow-rue, Fall Meadow-rue, Celandine*, 
Muskrat-weed, Musquash- weed. Rattlesnake-bite, Silver-weed^ 

1^77. THAMN6SMA, Tor. & Frem. 1845. Rutaceae. 

From Greek, * 'odorous plant". Syn. Rutosma, Gray 1849. 
Strong-scented desert herbs. Two species, western U. S. 

1978. THAPSIA, L. Deadly Carrot. Umbelliferae. 

The ancient Greek name of T. Garganica, originally brought 
from Thapsus. Perennial herbs. Four known species, Medi- 
terranean region to Madeira. 

a. T. Garganica L. Mediterranean region. Deadly Carrot, 
Drias; Fr. Thapsie (Codex), Faux fenouil; Sp. Tapsia. Boot 
irritant, emeto-cathartic. Mesin counter-irritant, producing an 
eruption. (b) T. Sylphium Viviani of northern Africa is 
perhaps only a variety of i^a), the Sylpbium cyreniacum of the 
aucients, yielding the gum resin called Laser, Laser cyreniacum, 
Asa dulcis. 

1979. THASPIUM, Nutt. Meadow-Parsnip. Umbelliferae. 

By transposition from Thapsia, an allied genus. Syn. Thap- 
sia, Smyrniumf, Ziziaf, in part. Perennial herbs. Three known 
species, all of eastern U. S. 

a. T. trifoliatuni (L. ) A. Gray (Thapsia trifoliataL., S. atropur- 
pureum Desr, T. atropurpureum Nutt.). Rhode Island to 
Tennessee and Illinois. Purple Meadow-parsnip, Purple 
Alexanders, Round heart. The variety aiireum (T. aureum 
Nutt. ) with yellow flowers is called Golden Alexanders, being 
confounded popularly with Zizia aurea, q. v. 

1980 THEA, L. Tea. Theaceae (Temstroemiaceae). 

Syn. Camellia. Evergreen shrubs or small trees. About 6 
species, southeastern Asia. 

a. T. Chinensis L. (alsoT. Sinensis; C. Thea Link.,C. theifer* 
Grifiith). Japan and China, cult, in India and other tropical 
countries. Tea plant. It was formerly supposed that black and 
green tea were derived from two distinct species, T. Bohea and 
T. viridis, but this is an error, these varieties being produced 
by different modes of curing. Numerous varieties are distin- 
guished, such as Bohea, Congou, Souchong and Pekoe of black 
teas and Hyson Skin, Twankay Hyson, Young Hyson, Impe- 
rial and Gunpowder of the green varieties. Besides these there 
are now in market, Japan and Ceylon teas in endless variety;. 
Ger. Thee; Fr. The; Sp. Te, Te de China. Active constituent 
theine or caffeine. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPUI.AR. 369 

1981. THEKA, Adans. 1763. Teak, Indian Oak. Vert)€iiaceae. 

From vernacular name of (a). Syn. Tectona, L. f., 1781, 
, Nautea, Noronha 1790, Theca, Juss. Large timber trees. 
Three species, East Indies, (a) T. grandis Lam. (Tectona 
grandis L. f.,Tect. Theca Lour.). India and Malaysia. Teak 
tree, True Teak, Indian Oak. Timber invahiable to ship- 
builders. 

1982. THELESPERMA, Less. Thelesperma. Compositae. 

From Greek, "nipple seed". Syn. Bidens, Coreopsis, in 
part. Herbs closely related to Bidens. About 7 species, New 
World; 6 in U. S. 

1988. THELYPODIUM, Endl. 1839. Thelypodium. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, with "stalked ovary". Syn. Pachypodium^ 
Xutt. 1838, not Lindl. 1830. Herbs. About 26 species, all in 
U. S., nearly all of Pacific coast. 

1984. THE0BR6ma, L. 1737. Cacao. Sterculiaceae. 

From Greek, "food of the gods". Syn. Cacao, Tourn, 1752. 
Trees with large undivided leaves. About 15 species, warmer 
regions of New World. 

a. T. Cacao L. (C. sativa Aubl., C. minor Gaertn,, C. Theobroma 
Tuss. ). Brazil to Mexico. Cacao tree. Chocolate tree. Seeds, 
Cacao; Semen v. Fabse Cacao; Ger. Kakaobohnen; Fr, Cacao 
(Codex), F^ves du Mexique. Source of Cacao, also of Cacao 
butter or oil of Theobroma; Oleum Theotromatis, U. S. P. 
Crushed and mixed with sugar they constitute Chocolate or 
prepared Cocoa. The separated "Cocoa shells" are used also to 
prepare an inferior beverage. The cotyledons, deprived of the 
shells are known as "Cocoa-nibs". Characteristic alkaloid, 
theobromine. 

1986. THERM6pSIS, R. Br. False Lupine. Papilionaceae. 

From Greek, "Lupine-like". Syn Podalyria, Baptisia, 
Cvtisus, Xylothermia, in part. Herbs with large yellow or 
purple flowers in racemes. About 20 species, N. America and 
Asia; 11 in U. S. 

1986. THEROFON, Raf. 1836. Saxifrage. Saxifragaceae. 

From Greek, "beast killing" . Syn. Boykinia, Nutt. 1834, 
not Raf., also Saxifraga, in part. Perennial herbs with small 
white flowers in branching panicles. About 7 species, all of 

U. S. 

1987. THESPESIA, Corr. Milo. Malvaceae. 
Trees or robust herbs. Syn. Hibiscus, in part. About 6 

species, tropical Asia to Madagascar, (a) T. popiilnea (L. ) 
Correa (H. populnea L., H. bacciferus Forst.). Asia, Mada- 
gascar and Oceanica. Milo (Hawaii and Tahiti), Mulo (Fiji). 
Tree held sacred in Tahiti. 

1988. THEVETIA, L. Exile-tree. Apocynaceae. 

Named for Anclr^ Thevet, French traveler, d. 1590. Syn. 
Cerbera. Shrubs or small trees with large yellow flowers. 
About 10 species, tropical .\merica. 



370 PIiA2s^T NA3IES AND SYNONYMS 

a, T. Theyetia (L.) Lyons (C. ThevetiaL., T. nereifolia J uss. ) • 
Tropical America. Yellow Oleander, Exile-tree, Quashy- 
quasher. Bark febrifuge. , 

1989. THLASPI, L. Penny-Cress. Cruciferae. 

Greek name of a kind of Cress, perhaps from the "flat" pod. 
Annual or perennial herbs. About 30 species, north temperate 
and arctic regions; 5 in U. S. 

a. T. arvense L. Europe and northern Asia, adv. in U. S. Field 
Penny-cress, Bastard Cress, Dish Mustard, Miihridate Mustard, 
Treaclewort. 

1990. THRINAX, L. fils. Thatch Palm. Sabalaceae. 

From Greek, '^ three pointed". Low or medium sized fan- 
palms. About 12 species, mostly of West Indies; 3 in U. S, 

a,. T. argentea (Jacq. ) Lodd. (T. microcarpa Sarg.). Florida to 
Panama. Silver-top Palmetto (Florida), Chip-hat Palm, 
Broom Palm (Panama), Silver Thatch-palm (Jamaica), Brick- 
ley, Brittle-thatch. Leaves used for plaiting hats, baskets, etc. 
(b) T. parviflora Swz. is called in Florida Silk-top Palmetto, 
in the West indies, Koyal Palmetto. 

1991. THRYALLIS, Mart. Thryallis. Malpighiaceae. 

Syn. Galphimia, in part. Climbing shrubs. About 5 spe- 
cies, mostly of Brazil; 2 in U. S. 

1992. THtJJA, L. (Thuya). Arbor Vitae, Cedar. Pinaceae. 
The Greek name of an African tree with fragrant wood. 

Evergreen trees with scaly foliage. About 15 species, N. 
America and eastern Asia; 2 in U. S. 

a. T. gigantea Nutt. (T. piicata Lambert not Donn. Has been 

confounded with Libocedrus decurrens Tor. ). Oregon and 
northward. Canoe Cedar, Pacific Red Cedar, Oregon Red 
Cedar or White Cedar, Yellow Cypress. Timber used for 
canoes, shingles, etc. Bark fibre for mats, baskets, etc. 

b. T. occidentalis L. Canada, south to N. Carolina and Minne- 

sota. Arbor Vitae, White Cedar, Northern White Cedar, False 
White Cedar, Feather-leaf Cedar, Indian Feather-leal ; Ger. 
Lebensbaum; Fr. Thuya, Arbre de vie. B ranchlets a,nd volatile 
oil therefrom, balsamic, stimulant, emmenagogue, etc. 

1993. THYMOPHYLLA, Lag. 1816. Thymophylla. Compositae. 

From Greek, "thyme leaved", a name not well chosen. Syn. 
Hymenatherum, Cass. 1817, Lowellia, Gray 1849. Herbs or 
under-shrubs with rather small flower-heads, rays generally 
yellow. About 20 species; 14 in U. S., mostly western. 

1994. THYMUS, L. Thyme. Labiatae. 
Ancient Greek name, signifying "fragrant". Herbs or low 

sub-shrubs with small leaves. About 50 species, Old World, 
chiefly European. 

a. T. Serpyllum L. (T. Chamsedrys Fries). Europe and northern 
Asia, adv. in U. S. Wild Thyme, Creeping or Horse Thyme, 
Bank or Running Thyme, Shepherd's Thyme, Mother of Thyme, 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 371 

Brotherwort, Hillwort, Pellamountain, Puliall-mountain, Pen- 
ny-mountain, Serpolet; Ger. Quendel, Feldthymian, Wilder 
Thymian, Feldkiimmelkraut, Gundelkraut, Gundling, Hiihn- 
erkraut; Fr.. Serpolet (Codex); Sp. Serpol. Herb, H. Serpylli, 
P. G., carmina ive, antispasaaodic, emmenagogue. Var. 
citriodorus (T. citriodorus Schreb.) is Lemon Thyme, Lemon- 
scented Thyme. 

b. T. vulgaris L. Southern Europe and cult, in gardens. Gar- 
den Thyme, Common Thyme; Ger- Gartenthymian, Thymian, 
Romischer Quendel; Fr. Thym (Codex); Sp. Tornillo. Herb 
H. Thy mi, P. G., properties of (a). Other species with like 
properties are (c) T, capitatus Hoff. and Link., Mediterran- 
ean region and (d) T. mastichiua L., Spain and Algeria, 
Herb.Masiich. 

1995. THYRSANTHEMA, Neck. 1790. Compositae. 

Syn. Chaptalia(Kew), Vent. 1800. Perennial herbs, mostly 
acaulescent. About 18 species, New World; 8 in western U. S. 

1996. THYSANOCARPUS. Hook. Lace-pod. Criiciferae. 

From Greek, "tassel fruit". Slender annuals. About 12 
species. Pacific coast of U. S. 

1997. TIARELLA, L. False Mitrewort Saxifragaceae. 

Latin diminutive of tiara, from form of capsule. Perennial 
herbs with leaves mostly basal. About 6 species, north tem- 
perate zone; 3 in U. S. 

a. T. cordifolia L. Cool wort, White Cool wort, False Mitrewort, 
Foam-flovfer, Gem-fruit. Merb reputed diuretic. 

1998. TIGRIDIA, Ker. Tigridia, Tiger-flower. Irldaceae. 
From Latin, "tiger" flower, alluding to spotted perianth. 

Bulbous herbs with showy flowers. About 7 species, tropical 
America; 1 in U. S. 

1999. TILIA, L. Linden, Lime-tree. Tiltaceae. 
The Latin name, whence English Teil and Til. Trees with 

cordate inequilateral leaves. About 16 species, north temperate 
zone; 3 in U. S. 

a. T. Americana L. (T. glabra Vent., T. Canadensis Michx. ). 

Canada to Georgia, west to Texas and Nebraska. Basswood, 
American Linden, Wh^te-wood, Black Lime-tree, American 
Lin-tree or Lime-tree, Bast-tree, Bee-tree, Daddy-nut tree, 
Monkey-nut tree, White Lind, Whistle-wood, Wickup, Red 
Basswood, Yellow Basswood. ^/oM;ers antispasmodic, anodyne. 

b. T. Eiiropaea L. [Including T. platypbyllos Scopoli (T. gran- 

difolia Erhr., T. pauciflora Haynej, T. ulmifolia Scop. (T. 
parvifolia Erhr., T. microphylla Vent.) and T. vulgaris 
Heyne]. Europe and Asia, cult, in U. S. European Linden, 
(Lin, Line, Linn, Linde), (whence was derived the name of 
the distinguished botanist Linnaeus), Lime-tree, Til-tree, (Teil, 
Tilet, Tiilet), Locust-bloom, Bast-tree, Bass-tree. Flcwers^ 
FloresTiliae P. G., Ger. Lindenbliithen; Fr. Fleur de tilleul 
(Codex), antispasmodic, anodyne, demulcent. Tough iwner 
bark (bast) used for coarse mats, ropes, etc 



372 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

c. T. heterophylla Vent. (T. alba Michx.)- Southeastern U. S. 
White Basswood, White Linden (Lin, Linn), Bee-tree, Cotton- 
woodt, Silver-leaf Poplarf, Wahoo*, Lynn Wahoo. Resem- 
bles the European Silver Lime-tree, (d) T, argentea Desf. 

e. T. pubescens Ait. (T. Americana var. pubescens Loud., T. 
Americana var. Walteri Wood). Southeastern U. S. Southern 
Basswood, Southern Linden (Lin, Linn), Southern Whitewood. 

2000. TILLAEA, L. Pigmy- weed. Crassulaceae. 

Named for Michael Angelo Tilli, Italian botanist, d. 1740. 
Syn. Bulliarda, in part. Di ninutive aquatic or paludal plants. 
About 25 species, widely distributed; 6 in U. S. 

2001. TILLANDSIA, L. Long Moss, etc. Bromeliaceae. 

Named for Elias Tillands, Swedish botanist, 17th Century. 
Syn. Reanalmia, in part. Epiphytes, varying greatly in habit. 
About 350 species, warmer regions of New World; 14 in U. S, 

a. T. usueoides L. 1762 (R. usneoides L. 1753). Southeastern 
U. S., south to Uruguay and Chili. Long Moss, Florida or 
New Orleans Moss, Black Moss, Hanging Moss, Spanish Moss, 
Long-beard, Old-man's-beard, Tree-beard, Barba hispanica. 
The black filiform stems constitute vegetable horsehair, used for 
stuffing mattresses, etc. The names Air-plant and Barren 
Pine-apple are given to such species as (b) T. utri^uldta 
LeConte. 

2002. TINANTIA, Schiedw. Tinantia. Comnielinaceae. 

Herbs. About 3 species, tropical America; 1 in U. S. 

2003. TIN6sP0RA, Miers. Tinospora. Menispermaceae. 

Climbing shrubs. About 12 species, tropical Asia and East 
Indies, (a) T. cordifolia Miers, and (b) T. crispa Miers. 
A.n extract, called Galuncha or Gulancha is reputed a cure for 
snake bites. Plants bitter, tonic, alterative. 

2004. TIPULARIA, Nutt. Crane-fly Orchis. Orcliidaceae. 

From Latin Tipula, an insect which the flowers resemble. 
Syn. Limodorum, in part. Scapose herbs from tuberous rhi- 
zomes. Two known species, one of Asia, one in U. S. 

a. T. unifolia (Muhl.) B. S. P. (L. unifolium Muhl., T. discolor 
Nutt.). Eastern U. S. (rare). Tallow- root. Crane-fly Orchis. 

2005. TISSA, Adans. 1763. Sand Spurry. Caryophyllaceae. 

Name unexplained. Syn. Buda, Adans. 1763, Spergularia 
(Kew), Pers. 1805, Lepigonum, Fries. 1817; Arenaria, in part. 
Low herbs with fleshy linear or setaceous leaves. About 20 
species, mostly of salt marshes; 14 in U. S. 

a. T. rubra (L. ) Brit. (A. rubra L., B. rubra Dumort, S. rubra 
Presl. ). Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Sand Spurry, Purple 
Sandwort. Red Sandwort. Plant; Arenaria rubra (Codex), 
diaphoretic, alterative. Other species are also used. 

2006. TITH6jSIA, Desf. Tithonia. Compositae. 

Named for Tithonus of Greek myth. Robust annuals. 
About 8 species, Mexico; 1 possibly in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 373 

2007. TOFIELDIA, Huds. False Asphodel. Melanthaceae. 

Named for Mr. Tofield, English botanist of 18th Century, 
Syn. Melanthium, Narthecium, in part. Perennial herbs with 
small flowers in a terminal spike. About 15 species, north tem- 
perate zone and S. America; 6 in U . S. 

a. T. paliistris Huds. Europe, northern Asia and British Amer- 
ica, south to Lake Superior. Scottish Asphodel, False Aspho- 
del, Lamb-lily. 

2008. TOLUIFERA, L. 1742, not Lour. 1790. Papilionaceae. 

From Latin, "tolu-bearing". Syn. Myroxylon (Kew), L. f. 
1781; Myrospermum Jacq., in part. Trees or shrubs, natives 
of tropical America. 

a. T. Pereirae (Royle) Baill. (Myrospermum Pareirae Eoyle, 

M. Sonsonatense Pereira, Myroxylon Pereirae Klotsch (Kew), 
T. Balsamum var. Pereirae H. Br. ). San Salvador. Peru- 
balsam tree. Balsamic exudate Balsam of Peru, Peru-balsam; 
Balsamum Peruvianum, U. S. P., Br., P. G., Balsamum 
indicum, Balsamum peruvianum nigrum; Ger. Perubalsam, 
Indischer Balsam; Fr. Baume de Peru noir, Baume San Salva- 
dor, Baume de Sansonate (Codex); Sp. Balsamo negro; stimu- 
lant, antiseptic, vulnerary. 

b. T. Peruifera (L. fils. ) Baill. (Myrox.PeruiferumL. fils (Kew), 

Myrosp. Peruiferum DC, Myrox. pedicellatum Klotzsch). 
Brazil. Yields a balsam similar to balsam of Peru. 

-c. T. Balsamum L. (Myrox. toluiferum Kunth (Kew), Myrosp. 
toluiferum A. Rich., Myrox. punctatum Klotzsch). Vene- 
zuela and New Granada. Tolu-balsam tree (Prof. Baillon be- 
lieves that both Peru-balsam and Tolu-balsam are products of 
this species, obtained by different processes). Balsamic exudate, 
Balsamum Tolutanum, U. S. P., Br., Balsamum indicum 
siccum, Balsamum americanura; Ger. Tolubalsam; Fr. Baume 
de Tolu (Codex) Baume de Carthagene; Sp. Balsame de Tolu, 
Balsame bianco. Properties of balsam of Peru, but less active. 
Chiefly used in cough syrups and in pastilles for burning. 

<i. T. punctata Baill. (Myrox. punctatum Klotzsch, Myrosp. 
balsamiferum R. & Pav.). Peru. Quino-quino tree. Prob- 
ably the same as (c). 

2008^. TONELLA, Nutt. Tonella. Scrophulariaceae. 

Annual herbs. Two species, in western U. S. 

2009. T0URNEF6RTIA,L.False Heliotrope, etc. Bora^iuaceae. 
Named for Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, French botanist, d. 

1708. Trees or shrubs, related to Heliotropium. About 100 
species, warmer regions; 21 in U. S. 

2009^. TOWNSENDIA, Hook. Townsendia. Compositae. 

Named for David Townsend, botanist of Philadelphia. Tuf- 
ted herbs with large radiate flower-heads. About 17 species, 
N. America; 16 in southwestern U. S. 



374 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

2010. TOXICODl&NDRUM, Thunb. Euphorbiaceae. 

From Greek, ''poison tree '. Syn. Hyaenanche Lamb. 1797 
(Hyaenachne). Poisonous shrubs. Two species, South Africa, 
(a) T. Capense Thunb. (H. Capensis Pers.). S. Africa. 
Fruit used to poison hyenas. 

2011. t6XYL0N, Raf. Osage Orange. Moraceae. 
From Greek, "bow-wood". Syn. ^laclura (Kew), in part. 

A thorny tree with foliage like the orange. One species, south- 
central U. S. 

a. T. pomiferum Raf. (T. Madura Raf. Madura aurantiaca 
Nutt.). Missouri to Texas and cult, as a hedge plant. Osage 
Orange, Osage, Osage Apple, North American Bow-wood, 
Bois d'arc, BowdarkJ, Bodark|, Hedge plant. Yellow-wood. 
Leaves, food of silkworm. Boot yields a yellow dye. 

2012. TRACHELOSPERMIIM, Lem. Apocynaceae. 

From Greek, "neck seed", but the name seems not appropri- 
ate. Syn. Echites, Forsteronia, in part. Twining woody 
vines or shrubs. About 6 species, Asia and N. America; 1 
in U. S. 

2013. TRACHYL6BIUM,Hayne.ChacazeCopal.Caesalpiiiaceae. 
From Greek, "rough pod" . Syn. Hymen sea, in part. Tree. 

One species, tropical Africa. (a) T. HornemanniAniim 
Hayne. Eastern Africa. Zanzibar Copal tree. Yields a Copal 
called Chacaze Copal or JackassJ Copal. 

2014. TRADESCANTIA, L. Spiderwort. Commelinaceae. 

Named for John Tradescant, gardener to Charles 1. Peren- 
nial herbs generally with linear leaves and rather showy flowers. 
About 35 species. New World; 16 in U. S. (a) T. Virginiana 
L. New York to Kentucky, west to Arkansas and S. Dakota. 
Common Spiderwort, Spider Lily*, Trinity Violet. 

2015. TRAGIi, L. Tragia. Euphorbiaceae. 

Named for H. Bock, called also Tragus, German botani>t, d. 
1553. Monoecious herbs, shrubs or climbers wdih stinging 
hairs. About 50 species, mostly tropical, 5 in U. S. 

2016. TRA00f6G0N, L. Salsify, etc. Cichoriaceae. 

From Greek, "goat's beard", alluding to the pappus. Herbs 
with fleshy tap-root and large heads of yellow or purple flowers. 
About 35 species. Old World. 

a. T. porrifolins L. Europe, widely cult. , adv. in U. S. Oyster 

plant. Oyster-root, Vegetable- oyster. Salsify (Salsafy), Jerusa- 
lem-star, Nap-at-noon, Purple Goat's- beard. Boot esculent. 

b. T. prat^nsis L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Meadow Salsify, 

Buck's-beard, Go-to-bed-at-noon, Noon-flower, Noon-tide, Noon- 
day-flower, Jack-by-the-hedge, Joseph' s-flower. Shepherd' s- 
clock, Star-of- Jerusalem, Yellow Goat' s-beard. Boot esculent. 

2017. TRAPA, L. Water- caltrop. Trapaceae. 
Abbreviated from Latin CaJcitrapa, a "caltrop". Aquatic 

herbs producing farinaceous seeds (nuts). Three species, Old 
World. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAB. 375 

a. T. nataiis L. (including T. quadrigpinosa Koxb.). Europe to 
central Asia, nat. locally in V. S. Water Chestnut, Water-nut, 
Jesuit' 8-nut (Venice), Water-caltrop, Sanghara-nut^ ; Fr. 
Chataigne d'eau. /Seeds esculent. The Chinese (b) T. bicor- 
nis L. tils, with fruit resembling a buffalo's head, is called Leng, 
Ling or Links. Singhara nuts, a staple food in Cashmere, are 
the fruit of (c) T. bispiiiosa L. (T. Cochin-Chinensis Lour., 
T. incisa, Sieb. *fe Zucc. ), southern Asia and northern Africa. 

2018. TRAUVETTERIA, F. & M. Raimuculaceae. 

Named for Prof. Trauvetter, Russian botanist. Syn. Cimici- 
fuga, Hydrastis, in part. A stout perennial herb. One species, 
eastern Asia and eastern U. S. (a) T. Caroliliensis (Walt.) 
Vail (H. Carolinensis Walt., C. palmata Michx. ). Eastern 
U. S. and Japan. False Bugbane. 

2019. TREMA, Lour. Nettle-tree. Urticaceae. 

From Greek, "hole", alluding to pits in endocarp. Syn. 
Sponia, Celtis, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 25 species, 
warmer regions; 1 in U. S. (a) T. micrdntha B. & H. Flo- 
rida to West Indies and Brazil. Nettle-tree. 

2020. TREPOCARPUS, Nutt. Trepocarpus. Umbelliferae. 

Smooth annual. One species, south-central U. S. 

2021. TRIANOSPERMA, Mart. Tayuya. Cuciirbitaceae. 

Herbaceous climbers, from fleshy roots. Syn. Dermophylla, 
Bryonia, in part. Cayapouia, (No. 414 q. v. ) is the older and 
preferable name, (a) T, ficifolia Mart, (perhaps the same 
as C. ticifolia (Lam.) Cogn. (414 c. ) but also identified by 
some authorities with B. Tayuya Velloso, C. Tayuya (Veil.) 
Cogn. and with I), pendulina S. Manso). Brazil. Tayuya. 
Boot, Kad. dermophyJlse, Rad. tayuyse; hydragogue, antisyph- 
iliiic. The synonyomy is confused. Probably several spe- 
cies are called Tayuya. See Cayaponia. 

2022. TRIADENUM, Raf. 1808. Triadenum. Hypericaceac. 

From Greek, "three glands". Syn. Elodea, Pursh 1814, 
not Michx. 1803 nor Elodes, Adans 1763; Hypericum (Kew), 
in part. Perennial marsh herbs with pink or purplish flowers. 
Two species, both of U. S. 

2023. TRIA>THEMA, L. Horse Purslane. Aizoaceae. 
From Greek, "three flowering". Herbs, generally fleshy and 

prostrate. About 12 species, warmer regions, mostly of Old 
World; 1 in U. S. (a) T. monogjuum L. Florida to West 
Indies and Venezuela. Horse Purslane (.Jamaica). 

2024. TRiBULUS, L. Caltrop. Zygophyllaceae. 

Greek plant name, signifying "caltrop" (i. e. three pointed). 
Herbs or sub-shrubs, mostly prostrate, with spinose fruit. 
About 12 species, warmer regions; 2 in IT. S. 

a. T. cistoides L. Florida and widely distributed along tropical 
shores. Turkey-blossom (Jamaica), Nohu, Mahukona Violet 
(Hawaii, with allusion to the fragrance), (b) T. terr^stris 
L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Land Caltrop. 



376 PLANT XAMES AND SYNONYMS 

2026. TRICARDIA, Torr. Tricardia. Hydrophyllaceae. 

From Greek, ''three-hearts", alluding to shape of sepals. 
Perennial herb. One species, Nevada. 

2026. TRICHILIA, P. Br. Incense tree, etc. Meliaceae. 
From Greek, *'three-lipped", alluding to the stigma. Syn. 

Mafureira, Moschoxylon, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 
112 species, tropical Africa and America. 

a. T. emetica Vahl. (Maf. oleifera Bertol. ), East Africa to 

Arabia. Mafura (^Mafurra) tree. Seeds source of Mafura Tal- 
low, resembling cacao butter. 

b. T. moscliAta Swz. ( Mos. Schwartzii Juss. ) . Jamaica. Incense 

tree. Musk-wood, Pameroon-bark tree, Juribali, Jurubali, 
Bark astringent, febrifuge. 

2027. TRICHOCOR6NIS, A. Gray. Trichocoronis.Compositae. 
From Greek, * 'hair crown". Syn. Micrageratum, Margacola. 

Aquatic or marsh herbs with pink or purple flowers. Three 
species, Mexican border of U. S. 

2028. TRICH(3mANES, L. Filn.y Ferns. Hymeiiophyllaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of a kind of Fern. Ferns with pellucid 
fronds. About 100 species, mostly tropical; 2 in U. S. (a) T, 
rddicans Sw. Southeastern U. S. and widely distributed. 
Common Bristle Fern, Hare's-foot Fern, Cup-goldilocks. 

2029. TRICHOPTILIUM, Gray. Trichoptilium. Conipositae. 

From Greek, "hair- feat her". Syn. Psathy rotes. Small 
winter annual. One species, Arizona to Oalifornia. 

2030. TRICHOSTEMA, L. Blue-Curls, etc. Labiatae. 
From Greek, "hair stamen" , alluding to the capillary fila- 
ments, which suggest also the English name. Herbs, some 
shrubby. About 9 species, all of U. S., mostly southwestern. 

a. T. dichotoinnm L., eastern U. S., is called Blue-curls, Bastard 
Pennyroyal; (b) T. lanceoldtum Benth., California, is called 
Blue Tar- weed; (c) T. landtum Benth., California, is called 
Black Sage. 

2031. TRIENTALIS, L. Chickweed Wintergreen. Primnlaceae. 

From Latin, "span"-high. Low perennials, the leaves form- 
ing a whorl at the summit of the stem. About 3 species, all of 
U. S., one also European. 

a. T. Americana Pursh. Canada, south to Virginia and Illinois. 
Chickweed Wintergreen, May-star, Star-Hower, Star-flowered 
Chickweed, Star-of-Bethlehem*, Snake-flower. 

2032. TRIF6lIUM, L. Clover, Trefoil. Papilioiiaceae. 

The ancient Latin name, "three leaved". Syn. Chrysaspis, 
Chronosemium, Melilotus, in part. Herbs, leaves generally 
trifoliate, flowers in heads or spikes. About 250 species, mostly 
of north temperate zone; 108 in U. S., including some naturar 
lized. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 377 

a. T, agrdrium L. (Chrys. agraria (L. ) Greene). Europe, nat. 
in U. S. Yellow Clover, Hop Clover, Hop Trefoil*. More 
common in U. S. is the smaller (b) T, procuiiibens L. 
(Chrys. procumbens (L. ) Desv. ), also from Europe, Low or 
Smaller Hop-clover. 

c. T. arv^nse L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Rabbit-foot 

Clover, Hare's-foot, Bottle-grass, Calf Clover, Dogs-and-cats, 
Field Clover, Old-field Clover, Poverty-grass. Pussy Clover, 
Pussy-cats, Pussies, Stone Clover, Watch Clover. 

d. T. coeriileum Willd. (Mel. cferulea Desr.). North Africa, 

cult, in Europe. Blue Melilot, Garden Balsam* Old-sow; Ger. 
Blauer Steinklee, Schabziegerklee, Siebenzeit, Mottenkraut. 
Leaves and tops, Herba meliloti cserulei, H. aegyptiaca, H. loti 
odorati; reputed diuretic, diaphoretic, emollient. Used in 
Switzerland for flavoring cheese. 

e. T. diibiiim Sibth. (Chrys. dubia (Sibth.) Greene, T. minus Sm., 

T. procumbens var. minus, Koch). Europe, nat. locally in 
U. S. Shamrock (Shamrug, Shambrogue, Scamrog), True 
Shamrock, Least Hop-trefoil, Yellow Clover or Trefoil, Wild 
Trefoil. 

f. T. prat^nse L. Europe, Asia, northern Africa, nat. in U. S. 

Red Clover, Meadow or Purple Clover, Broad-leaved or 
Cow Clover, Honeysuckle Clover (England), Bee-bread, Cow- 
grass*, Knap, Marl-grass, Plyvens, Soukie Clover (Claver), 
Suckles; Ger. Rother Wiesenklee, Rother Futterklee. Flowers 
alterative, sedative. 

g. T. repeiiS L. Europe, Asia, sub-arctic N. America, nat. in 

U. S. White Clover, Dutch or Honeysuckle Clover, Honey- 
stalks, Lamb-sucklings, Purple-grass, Purplewort, Quillet, 
Sheep' s Go wan. Suckling, White Honeysucklef, White Sham- 
rock, White Trefoil. 

Other pasture Clovers are (h) T. hybridum L., Alsike, 
Alsatian Clover, Swedish Clover; (i) T. incarndtum L., Car- 
nation or Crimson Clover, French or Italian Clover, Napoleons; 
(j) T. medium L., Zigzag Clover, Cow-grass, Giant or Mam- 
moth Clover, Mail-grass, Pea- vine Clover, the foregoing nat. 
from Europe. Indigenous species are (k) T. reflexum L., 
Bufialo Clover and (1) T. stolouiferiim Muhl. , Running Buf- 
falo Clover. 

^033. TR1GL6CHIN, L. Arrow-grass. Sclieiichzeriaceae. 

From Greek, * 'three pointed", alluding to the capsule. 
Marsh herbs, the small flowers in slender spikes. About ten 
species, higher latitudes in both hemispheres; 4 in U. S. 

2034. TRIGONELLA, L. Fenugreek. Papilioiiaceae. 

From Greek, "three angled", alluding to the flower. Syn. 
Buceras, Foenum-Grsecum, in part. Strong-smelling herbs. 
About 60 species, Old World. 

a. T. Fo^num-Gra^Ciim L. (B. Foenum-Graecum All., Foen. 
officinale Moench). Western Asia, cult, in tropical Africa and 
Asia. Fenugreek (Fenugreek, Fenigreek, the word meaning 



378 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

Greek hay). Seeds, Sem. foenugreci, Sem. feni greci; Ger. 
Bockshornsaraen, Fenugiek, Kuhkornsaraen, Griechischer 
Heusamen; Fr. Fenugrec (Codex); demulcent, mucilaginous. 

2035. TRILISA, Cass. Vanilla-leaf. Compositae. 

Anagram of Liatris. Syn. Liatris, in part. Perennial herbs 
with small discoid heads. Two known species, southeastern 

U. S. 

a, T. odoratissimus (Walt.) Cass. (Anonymos odoratis^imus 
Walt., L. odoratissimus Michx. ). Pine- barrens, Virginia to 
Florida and Louisiana. Vanilla-leaf, Vanilla plant, Carolina 
Vanilla, Dog's- tongue, Deer's-tongue, Hound' s-tongue. Leaves 
have an agreeable vanilla-like odor. 

2036. TRILLIUMjL. Wake-robin, Birthroot,etc.CouyalIariaceae» 
Name Latin, alluding to the triraerous symmetry of ihe spe- 
cies (with an echo perhaps of Lilium. ). Three-leaved herba 
from a perennial rhizome. About 20 species, North America 
and Asia; 16 in U. S. 

a. T. c^rnniim L. Canada, south to Georgia and Mitsouri. Nod- 

ding Wake-robin, White Benjamin, Cough-root, Ground Lily, 
Jew's-harp plant, Lamb's-quarters*, Rattlesnake-rout, Snake- 
bite. 

b. T. er^ctum L. Canada, south to Tennessee and Missouri, alsa 

in Japan. Birthroot, Bethroot:}:, Red or "Purple" Trillium, 
Red Benjamin, Red or Purple Wake-robin, Birthwort*, Bath- 
wort J, Bath-flowerJ, Bumble-bee- root, Dafty-down-dilly*, Dish- 
cloth, Indian Balm, Indian Shamrock, Ill-scented Trillium or 
Wake-robin, Njose-bleed, Orange-blossom (the white variety), 
Squaw-flower, Squaw-root, True-love, Red Wood-lily. Many 
of ihese names are applied also to other species. Rhizome as- 
tringent, alterative, uterine antispasmodic, in large doses emetic. 

c. T. grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. (T. rhomboideum var. 

granditlorum Michx.). Canada and eastern U. S. Large- 
lowered White Wake-robin, W^ake-robin, White Benjamin, 
Trinity Lily, White Birth-root, Bath-flower, White Bath, 
White Wood-lily. Other indigenous species worthy of note 
are (d) T. Sessile L., Sessile-flowered Red Wake-robin, 
flowers agreeably fragrant; (e) T. nivale Ridd., the Plarly 
or Dwarf White Wake-robin and (f) T. undulatum Willd. 
(T. erythrocarpum Michx.), Painted Wake-robin, Sarah, 
Wild Pepper. 

2037. TRidSTEUM, L. Fever-root, etc. Caprifoliaceae. 

From Greek, "three boned", alluding to the three (2^6) 
bony seeds. Perennial herbs with berry-like fruit. About 6 
species, north America and western Asia; 2 in U. S. 

a. T. perfoliatum L. Canada, south to Alabama and Kansas. 
Fever-root, Horse Gentian, Horse Ginseng, White Ginseng, 
White Gentian, Genson, Feverwort, Bastard Ipecac, Wild or 
Wood Ipecac, Tinker's- weed, Tinkar's-rootJ, Wild CoflTee. 
Boot febrifuge, cathartic, deobstruent. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. S79 

2038. TRIPHASIA, Lour. Lime Myrtle. Auraiitiaceae. 

From Greek, "three- fold", i. e. trimerous, A thorny shrub 
with fragrant white flowers. One species, China, widely cult, 
in tropical countries, (a) T. Aurantiola Lour. (T.Javanica 
M. Roem.). Lime Myrtle, Lime-berry, Bergamot*. Fruit 
esculent. 

2039. TRITELEIA, Lindl. (Tritelia). Lillaceae. 
Syn. Brodiaea, Calliprora, in part. Scapose herbs with lalue 

or violet flowers. Thirteen species in western U. S. 

2040. TRITICUM, L. Wheat. Gramiiieae. 

The Latin name of Wheat, "threshed" or "ground". Ro- 
bust grasses. About 15 species, Mediterranean region to cen- 
tral Asia. 

a. T. aestivum L. (T vulgare Vill., T. sativum Lam. The Lin- 
nsean name originally applied to a variety). The most univer- 
sally cultivated of ail cereals. Wheat. The very numerous 
varieties form three principal groups; 1. Bearded or Summer 
Wheat, T. aestivum L., proper; 2. Unbearded or Winter 
Wheat, T. hybernum L., and 3. Spelt or Dinkel Wheat, 
with adherent grain, T, Spelta L, ; a remarkable variety is the 
Egyptian Wheat with compound spikes. Seeds, ground and 
sifted. Wheat flour: Farina Tritici Br., used as an application 
for burns, etc.; esculent. Starch, Amylum tritici, is also largely 
prepared from the grain. 

Other species worthy of note are (b) T. dicocciim Schrank, 
Emmer Wheat, Arras Wheat of Abyssinia; (c) T. monococ- 
cum L., One- grained or Single-grained Wheat, St. Peter'* 
Corn; (d) T. 'tricoccum Schuebl. [Index Kewensis makes 
this a synonym of (b)], Amel Corn, cult, in Switzerland as a 
source of starch. 

2041. TRIUMFTETA, L. Burweed. Tiliaceae. 
Named for G. B. Trionfetti, Italian botanist, d. 1708. Herbs 

and shrubs. About 50 species, warmer regions; 1 in U. S. 

(a) T. semitriloba Jacq. Florida to West Indies and tropical 
regions generally. Burweed, Paraquet-bur. Bark, Bur-bark, 
yields a tibre resembling jute. 

2042. TRIXIS, P. Br. Trixis. Compositae. 

From Greek, "three- fold", the corolla being trifid. Syn. 
Perdicium, in part. Herbaceous or shrubby perennials. About 
30 species, tropical America; one or two, Mexican border of 

U.S. 

2043. TR6lLIUS, L. Globe-flower. Raniinculaceae. 

From German, signKying probably "round". Perennial 
herbs mostly paludal with showy flowers. About 10 specie?, 
north temperate zone; 1 in U. S. 

a. T. Eiiropaeus L. Europe. Globe flower, Globe Ranunculus, 
TroUflower, Butter- basket, Cabbage Daisy; Golden-ball, Ixx;k- 
in-gowan, Lapper-gowan. 



380 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

b. T. Idxus Salisb. (T. Americanus Muhl. )• New Hampshire to 
Michififan, also in Washington. American Globe-flower, 
Spreading or Swamp Globe-flower, Troll-flower, with other 
synonyms of (a). 

2044. TROPAEOLUM, L. (Trophseum). Geraniaceae, 

From Greek, "trophy", alluding to the shield-like leaves. 
Syn. Cardamindum, Adans. Climbing or diffuse succulent 
herbs. About 40 species, warmer regions of New World. 

«L T. majus L. (C, majus Moench). Peru, cult, in gardens. 
Common Nasturtium (Nasturtion, Stortioner, Sturtion\ this 
name applying originally to Roripa; Indian Cress, Lark' s- heel*. 
Flowers used as salad; unripe fruit a substitute for capers. 

b. T. peregTmum L., South America, cult, in gardens, is Canary- 
bird flower; (c) T. sessilifoliiim Poeppig, of Chili and(d) T, 
tuberosum R. & P., of Peru, produce esculent tubers. 

2045. TROPIDOCARPUMt Hook. Tropidocarpum. Cruciferae. 

From Greek, "keel fruited". Annual herbs. Three spe- 
cies, California. 

2046. TST^GA, Carr. Hemlock Spruce. Pinaceae. 
From vernacular, Japan, Syn. Hesperopeuce, Abies, Pin us, 

in part. Large evergreen trees with leaves apparently two- 
ranked. About 7 species, North America and Asia; 4 in U, S. 

a. T. Canadeusis (L.) Carr. (P. Canadensis L., A. Canadensis 

Michx.). Canada, south to Alabama and W^isconsin. Hem- 
lock, Hemlock Spruce, Weeping Spruce, Spruce Pine, Tan- 
bark tree, Palmf. Bark extensively used for tanning, medi- 
cinally under the name of Pinus Canadensis as an astringent. 

b. T. Merteusiana (Bong.) Car. (P. Mertensiana Bong., A, Pat- 

toniana A. Murr., T. Hookeriana Car.). Oregon to Alaska, 
east to Montana. Western Hemlock, Mountain Hemlock, 
Patton's Spruce. Supplies most of the tan-bark of the North- 
west. 

2047. TUBER, Mich. Trufiie, Earth-ball. Tuberaceae. 

The ancient Latin name, a "swelling". Subterranean fungi, 
some of the species highly esteemed for food. The English 
word truffle, is from French . tartoufle, from Latin terrae tubera, 
whence also the German Kartoffel i potato). 

a, T aestiyum Michel i is the common Truffle of England; (b) T. 
meliUiosporum Vitt. is the common Truffle of France; (c) T. 
cibarium Sibth., the Black Truffle, Perigord and Quercy 
Truffle; (d) T. magndtum Pico, the garlic-flavored Gray 
Truffle of Italy. [The following also are known as truffles; 
(e) Chairomyces meandriformis Vltt., the White British 
Truffle; (f) Mylltta australis Berk., the Australia Truffle; 
(g) Melanogdster variegatiis Tulasne. the Red Truffle of 
southern Europe; (h) Terfezia leonis of Italy; (i) Scler- 
oderma Tui^aris Fr., False Truffle, allied to the Pufl'-balls] . 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 381 

2048. TUBIFL6rA, J. F. Gmel. 1791 . Tubiflora. Acanthaceae. 

From Latin, "trumpet flower". Syn. Elytraria (Kew), 
Michx. 1803. Low herbs. About 5 species, mostly American: 
2 in U. S. 

2049. TULIPA, L. - Tulip (Culip). - Liliaceae. 

From late Latin, /'turban". Bulbous plants with showy 
flowers. About 50 species, Europe and Asia, (a) T. Ges- 
ueridna L. Asia Minor and cult, in gardens. Common Tulip, 
with innumerable varieties. Several other species and many 
hybrids are cultivated. 

2050. TtMION, JRaf. False Nutmeg. Pinaceae. 
From Greek name of the Yew tree. Syn. Torreya, Am. 

1838, Caryotaxus, Zucc. 1817, Foetotaxus. Evergreen trees 
with yew-like foliage; fruit a drupe. Four known species, N. 
America and eastern Asia; 2 in U. S. 

a. T, Califoriiiciim (Torr.) Greene (Tor. Californica Tor r. (Kew), 

Tor. myristica Hook., C. myristica Henk. & Hoch.. F. myris- 
ticaSen. ). California Nutmeg tree. i^7'uj^ resembles the nut- 
meg in appearance, not at all in taste or properties. 

b. T. taxifolium (Am.) Greene (Tor. taxifolia Am, F. montana 

(Nelson) Sen. Southeastern U. S. Torrey tree, Torreya, 
Savin*, Stinking Cedar. 

2051. TUNICA, Adans. Saxifrage Pink, etc. Caryophyllaceae. 

From Latin "cloak", alluding to bracts at base of calyx. 
Syn. Dianthus, in part. Slender herbs with small flowers. 
About 20 species, southern Europe and western Asia; 1 adv. in 
U. S. 

2052. TtjRNERA, L. Damiana, etc. Tiirneraceae. 

Named for W, Turner, author of an English herbal, 1551. 
Herbs or shrubs with yellow flowers. About 54 species, tropi- 
cal America; 1 in southwestern U. S. 

a. T. diflfiisa aphrodisiaca Urb. (T. aphrodisiaca Ward, T. 

microphylla Desv. ). Texas to Lower California. Damiana. 
Leaves aromatic, tonic, reputed aphrodisiac. 

b. T. ulmifolia L. West Indies. Holly-tree* Sage-rose. Plant 

tonic, expectorant. 

2053. TUSSILAGO, L. Colt's-foot. Compositae. 

The Latin name, meaning "cough cure". Soapose perennial 
herb with yellow flowers. One species, Europe and Asia. 

a. T. F^rfara L. Northern Europe and Asia, nat. in northeastern 
U. S. Colt's-foot (Coutfit), Coughwort, Ass-foot, BuU's-foot, 
Foal-foot, Horse-foot, Horse-hoof, Butter- bur*. Clay-weed, 
Cleats, Colt-herb, Dove-dock, Dummy-weed, Ginger, Ginger- 
root, Gowan, Hoofs, Sow-foot, British Tobacco. Tushylucky:|:, 
DishalagaJ; Ger. Huflattig, Rosshuf; Fr. Tussilage, Pas d'ane 
(Codex). Leaves, Folia farfarse, Herba tussilaginis, demul- 
cent, alterative, a cough remedy. 



882 PLANT NAMES AND SYlfONYMS 

20d4. TYLOPHORA, K Br. Indian Ipecac. Aselepiadae^ae. 

From Greek, ' 'knob bearing' ' . Sjn. Asclepias, Cynanchum, 
in part- Sbrubby or herbaceous twiners. About 40 species, 
warmer regions, Old SVorld. (a) T. a^thmatica (L. ) W. & 
A. (A. asihmatica L., C. Ipecacuanha Willd. ). India. In- 
dian Ipecac Moot emetic. 

20dd. TYFHA, L. Cat-tail Flag, Reed-mace, etc. Typliaceae. 

The ancient Greek name. Reed- like plant*. About 13 spe- 
des, widely distributed; 3 in U. S. 

JiL. T. latifolia L. North America, except extreme northern part 
Cat-tail Flag, Common or Broad-leaved Cat-tail, Great Reed- 
mace, Blackamoor, Black-cap, Bulrush*, Bull-rush, Bull-segg, 
Marsh- beetle. Marish-beetle, Marsh-pistle, Candle-wick, Cat-of- 
nine-tails, Dunche-down, Flax-tail, Reree, Water-torch. 

2056. ULEX, L. Furze, Gorse, etc. Papilionaeeae. 

The ancient Latin name. Spiny shrubs, practically without 
foliage; flowers yellow, showy. About 20 species, mostly of 
eastern Europe. 

a. D. Europaeus L. Europe, adv. in U. S, Furze ( Firsua, Fur- 
sen, Furrys, Frez, Fuzz, Fir*, Vuss, Vuz). French or Great 
Furze, Gorse (Garst, Goss, Gost),. Ling*, Prickly Broom, 
Thorn Broom, Ruffet, Turr, Ulim. Whin, Whuns; Ger. Stech- 
ginster; Fr. Ajonc. 

2057. ULMARIA. Hill. Meadow-sweet, etc Rosaceae. 

From Latin, ' 'Elm-like' \ Syn. Filipendula, Spiraaa, in 
part Perennial herbs with flowers in large cymose panicles. 
About 9 species, north temperate zone; 1 in U. S. 

». U. Ulmaria (L. ) Bamh. (S. Ulmaria L.. U. palustris Moench, 
F. Ulmaria Maxim). Europe and we-tem Asia, cult, and adv. 
in U. S. Meadow-sweet, Meadow queen. Mead-sweet, (Mea- 
dow-soot), Meadowwort, Bride-sweet, Bridewort, Courtship- 
and-matrimony, Herb Christopher*, Harif. Honey-sweet, Maid- 
sweet, Maid-of-ihe-meadow, My-lady' s-belt, Pride-of-the-me»- 
dow, Queen-of-the-meadow, Spinea, Sweet-hay, Sweet-meadf>w; 
Ger. Llmenspirae, Geissbart, Krampf, Medesiiss; Fr. Ulmaire, 
Reine des pres (Codex). ^er6 astringent; /ajf«r* (Codex) an- 
tispasmcKiic, diaphoretic, ditfretic The indigenous (b) U. 
rdbra Hill (S. lobata Gronov., S. rubra Brit.) is called Queen- 
of-the-prairie. 

2058. ULMUS, L. - Elm. - Ulmae«ac. 
The Latin name, from Celtic, whence our word Elm. Trees. 

About 16 species; northern hemisphere; 5 in U. S. 

a. U. Americana L. Canada and eastern T'. S. American Elm, 
White or Common Elm, Rock Elm*, Swamp or Water Elm. 
Oiher indigenous species are (b) T. alata Michx., South- 
eastern U. S., Winged Elm, Wahoo*, Cork Elm. Water Elm 
and (c) U. raeemosa Thoma>., Canada and northeastern 
U. S., Cork Elm, Corky White Ehn, Cliff or Hickory Elm, 
Rock Elm, Racemed§ or Swamp Elm, Wahoo*. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 383 

d. U. cainpestris L. Europe and western Asia. European Elm, 

Englitih Elm (Ellem, Allom, Allme, Aum, Elmen, Helm, 
Elven, Owm), Horse-may, May; Fr. Orme champetre, Orme 
pyramidal (Codex). Inner bark used like that of (f). 

e. U. montaua With. Europe. Scotch Elm, Broad-leaved 

or Mountain Elm, Chew-bark, Halse, Wych Elm, Witchf 
Elm, Witch, VVychwood, Witch-wood, Wych-hazel*, AVitch 
Hazel^. 

f. U. fiilva Michx. (U. pubescens Walt.). Canada and eastern 

I J. S., west to N. Dakota. Slippery Elm, Moose or Red Elm, 
Indian Elm, Rock or Sweet Elm; Fr. Orme fauve (Codex). 
Inner bark, Elm-bark, Slippery Elm; Ulmus, U. S. P., Cortex 
ulmi; Ger. Ulmenrinde, Riisterrinde; mucilaginous, demulcent 

2059. UMBELLDLARIA, Nutt. 1842. Lauraceae. 
From Latin, "uui belled". Syn. Sciadiodaphne, Reichb. 

1841 (name only); Litsea, Tetranihera, Oreodaphne, in part. 
Evergreen tree with aromatic foliage. One species, Pacific 
border of U. S. 

a. U. Ciilifornica (Amott) Nutt. (T. Califomica H. & Am., O. 
Californica Nees, L. Californica B. & H. ). California to Puget 
Sound, California Bay-laurel, California Bay tree, California 
Laurel, Spice tree, Mountain Laurel (of the West), Halm-of- 
heaven. Sassafras Laurel, Cajeput tree, California Wild Olive. 
Leaves stimulant, anodyne, used as a condiment. 

2060. UNGNADIA, Endl. Spanish Buckeye. Sapindaceae. 

Named for Baron Ferdinand von Ungnad of Austria. A 
tree related to Aesculus. One species; (a) U. speciosa Endl. 
(U. heterophylla Scheele). Texas and Mexico. aSccc^s emetic, 
reputed poisonous. 

20G1. UNIFOLIUM, Adans.l763,Solomon'8-«eal.CoiiTaIIariaceae. 

From Latin, "one leaf, sterile plants often producing but a 

single leaf. Syn. Maianthemum Wigg. 1780, Srailacina, in 

part. Low herbs resembling Smilacina. Two known species, 

one of Euro- Asia; 1 in U. S. 

a. U. Canadense ( Desf. ) Greene ( M. Canadense Desf ., S. bifolia, 
var. Canadensis A. Gray). British America, south to N. 
Carolina and S. Dakota. Two-leaved Solomon' s-seal, False or 
Wild Lily-of-the-valley, Bead-ruby, Cowslip*, One-blade, One- 
leaf. 

2062. URAG6gA, L. Ipecacuanha, etc. Rubiaceae. 

Syn. Cephaelis,Swz.,1788, Ipecacuanha, Arruda 1810, Psycho- 

tria, Muell. Arg. 1759; Callicocca, in part. Trees or shrubs. 

a. U. IpecacuitnUa (Brot. ) Baill. (P. Ipecacuanha Stokes (Kew), 
Ceph. Ipecacuanha C. Rich., Call. Ipecacuanha Brot., Ceph. 
emetica Pers. 1805, I. officinalis Arr. ). Brazil and New 
Granada. Ipecac, Ipecacuanha, Hippo, Poaya (vernacular); 
Ger. Brechwurzel, Ruhrwurzel, Graue Ipekakuanhe; Fr. 
Ipecacuanha annel^ ou officinal (Codex », Racine braailienne. 
Boot; Ipecacuanha, U. S. P., Ipecacuanhse radix Br.; emetic, 
expectorant. 



384 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

2063. URCEOLA, Roxb. Caoutchouc vine. Apocynaceae. 

From Latin, * 'a little urn' '. Syn. Chavannesia, DC^ 
Shrubby climbers. About 8 species, East Indies. 

a. U. eldstica Roxb. Sumatra and Borneo. Caoutchouc vine. 
From this and other species, notably (a) I), esculenta Benth. 
(C. esculenta DC), is obtained Penang and Borneo Caoutchouc, 
Jintawan. Fruit edible. 

2064. URECHiTES, Muell. Arg. Urechites. Apocynaceae. 

Prostrate or climbing shrubs with showy flowers. About 4 
species, Mexico and West Indies, (a) U. suberecta Muell. 
Arg. San Domingo. Savannah flower, Yellow-flowered 
Nightshade. Leaves arterial sedative, alterative. 

2065. URENA, L. Indian Mallow. Malvaceae. 
From vernacular uren, Malabar. Herbs or shrubs. About 

5 species, tropical regions; 1 in U. S. 

a. U. lobata L. Southern U. S., a common weed in nearly all 
tropical countries. Indian Mallow, Perpulut (Penang), 
Guaxima (Brazil). A fibre plant. Flowa^s in Brazil used for 
coughs. 

2066. URGINjEA, Steinh. Squill, etc. Liliaceae. 
From Latin, "compressed", of the seeds. Syn. Scilla, in 

part. Scapose herbs from a coated bulb. About 24 species, 
Mediterranean region to India. 

a. U. maritima ( L. ) Baker (Scilla maritima L. , U. Scilla Steinh. ) . 
Mediterranean basin. Squill, Sea Onion; Ger. Meerzwiebel; 
Fr. Scille (Codex) Squille; Sp. Eschila, CeboUa albarrana. 
The6u/6, Squill, Squills; Scilla. U. S. P., Br., Bulbus Scillae 
P. G. ; expectorant, nauseant, diuretic. Varieties of the drug 
are distinguished as White Squill and Red Squill. 

2067. URTICA, L. Nettle. Urticaceae. 

The ancient Latin name, ''burning". Herbs with stinging 
hairs. About 30 species, widely distributed; 7 in U. S. 

a. U. dioica L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Stinging Nettle, 
Common Nettle (of Europe), Greater Nettle, Tenging Nettle, 
Naughty-man' s-play thing, Scaddie; Ger. Brennessel; Fr. Ortie 
brulante; Sp. Ortigo. P/e.sA /^/a/ii diuretic, alterative, discutient. 
Fiber used to make nettle-cloth. The Common Nettle of the 
eastern U. S. is (b) U. gracilis Ait., Tall Wild Nettle, 

c. U. pilnlifera L. India to southern Europe. Burning, Greek, 

Roman or Wild Nettle, Spanish Marjoramf- Seeds galactago- 
gue; root diuretic. 

d. U. spatulata Sm. (U. urentissima Blurae). India. Devil's 

Stinging-leaf, Devil' s-leaf. 

e. U. lirens L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Small Nettle, Dwarf Net- 

tle, Burning or Stinging Nettle, Dwarf Stinging Nettle, Ettle» 

2068. URTICASTRUM, Fabr. 1759, Wood-nettle. Urticaceae. 

From Latin, "star nettle". Syn. Laportea, Gaud, 1826,^ 
Urtica, in part. Herbs with stinging hairs. About 25 species,, 
mostly tropical; 1 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 385 

a. U. divaricdtuni (L. )Kze. (Urtica divaricata L., L. Canaden- 
sis Gaud. ). Canada and eastern U. S. Wood Nettle, Canada 
Nettle, Albany Hemp. Seeds and leaves alterative, expectorant, 
counter-irritant. In India are found (b) U. crenulata (Roxb. S 
Lyons ( Urtica crenuJata Roxb. ) aud(c)U. stimulsins (L. f. ) 
Lyons ( Urtica stimulans L. f. ), both violently irritating' nettles, 
as is (d) U. ferox (Blanco) Lyons (L. Gaudichaudiana 
Wedd. ), Philippine Islands. 

2069. URYILLEA, H. B. K. UrviUea. Sapindaceae. 

Climbing shrubs. About 15 species, tropical America; 1 in 

U.S. 

2070. tJSNEA, (Dill.) Ach. Beard Moss, etc. Usneaceae. 
Lichens with terete, often pendulous thallus, on rocks or 

trees. About 20 species; 6 in U. S. (a) U. bai'bata Ach. 
Beard Moss, Tree-hair, Hanging Moss, Idle Moss, Maple Moss, 
Necklace Moss, Tree Moss. Plant demulcent, expectorant. 

2071. USTILAGO, Pei-s. Smut, Bunt, &c. Ustllagineae. 

From Latin, "scorched" or "charred". Syn. Uredo, in 
part. Fungi, parasitic on the tissues of living plants, (a) U. 
maydis Leveille (Uredo maydis DC). Parasitic on maize. 
Corn-stinit, Maize-smut, Corn Ergot; Ger. Maisbrand, Beulen- 
brand; Fr. Ergot de Mais; Sp. Rizon de Maiz. Fungus has 
properties of Ergot. 

2072. UTRICULARIA, L. Bladderwort. Leiitibulariaceae. 

From Latin; a little "bag" or "bladder". Aquatic herbs, 
the leaves bearing vescicles. About 150 species, widely dis- 
tributed; 20inU. S. 

a. U. Tulgaris L. (U. macrorhiza LeConte), Europe, Asia and 
North America. Greater Bladderwort, Common Bladderwort, 
Bladder-snout, Hooded Water-milfoil, Pop-weed. The syn- 
onyms applied also to oiher species. 

2073. UVULARIA, L. Bellwort, Wild Oat, etc. Melanthaceae. 

From Latin uvula, alluding to pendulous flowers. Syn. 
Oakesia, in part. Herbs from perennial root-stocks. About 6 
species, N. America; 4 in U. S. (a) U. perfoliata L., Cana- 
da and eastern U. S., Perfoliate or Mealy Bellwort, is called 
Mohawk-weed; (b) U. sessilifolia L. (O. sessilifolia S Wats. ), 
Canada and northeastern U. S., Small or Sesbile-leaved Bell- 
flower, is called Straw Lily. 

2074. YACCARIA, Medic. Cow-herb, etc. Caryopbyllaceae. 

From Latin, "cow" plant. Syn. Saponaria, in part. An- 
nual with small red or pink flowers. About 3 species, Europe 
and Asia. 

a. V. Vaccaria (L. ) Britton (S. Vaccaria L., V. vulgaris Host.). 
Europe and northern Asia, nat. in U. S. Cow-herb, Cow Basil, 
Cockle, Field Soapwort. 

2076. VACCiNIUM,L.Whortleberry,IIuckleberry,etc.Ericaceae. 
The Latin name. Sjn. Metagonia, in part. Shrubs, some 
arborescent, many producing edible berries. About 125 species, 
widely distributed; 30 in U. S. 



386 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. V. arboreum Marsh. Southeastern U.S. Farkleberry, Sparkle- 

berry, Tree Huckleberry, Gooseberry*. 

b. V. Arctostaphylos L. Greece to the Caucasus. The dried 

leaves constii ute Broussa tea, used for a beverage. 

c. y. corymbosuni L. (V. amoenum Ait.). Canada to Virginia 

and Louisiana, west to Minnesota. Swamp, High-bush or Tall 
Blueberry, Giant Whortleberry or Huckleberry, Seedy Deer- 
berry. The late market blueberry. Fruit esculent. The 
Pale or Mountain Blue-berry of Virginia to S. Carolina is (d) 
V. pdllidum Ait. (V. corymbosum var. pallidum Gray), the 
finest of our blueberries. 

e. y. Myrtillus L. Europe, central and northern Asia, northern 

N. America. Whortleberry (of Europe), Bilberry, European 
Huckleberry ( Hockleberry, Hurtleberry, Hurtberry, Hart- 
berry), Whinberry, Wimberry,Winberry, Wine-berrv, Whortle 
(the plant), Whort (the fruit, also the plant), Whurt, Wort, 
Blaeberry (Scotland), Blackberry*. Black-heart; Ger. Heidel- 
beere, Besinge, Blaubeere, Bickbeere, Gandlebeere (Schwarze); 
Fr. Airelle myrtille (Codex). Fruit, Fructus myrtilli, Baccae 
myrtillorum, Myrtilla, astringent, antispasmodic, esculent. ^ 

f. y. peudnliflorum Gaud. (M, penduliflora Nutt. ) and (g) y. 

reticulatum Sm. Hawaiian Islands. Ohelo. i^rttii acidulous 
and somewhat astringent, esculent. 

h, y. Penusylvanicum Lam. British America, south to New 
Jersey and Illinois. Dwarf, Low-bu«h or Sugar Blueberry, 
Whortleberry, Huckleberry, Strawberry Huckleberry, the 
early market blueberry. Other Low Blueberries are (i) y. 
Canadense Kich, and (j) y. yacillans Kalm. (k) y. atro- 
coccum (Gray) Heller and (1) y, nigrum (Wood) Brit., with 
black fruit, are called Black Blueberry. The California Whor- 
tleberry is ( m ) y, OTatum Pursh. 

II. y. stamineum L. Ontario and eastern U. S. Deerberry, 
Dangle-berry, Buck-berry, Goose-berry* Squaw-berry, Squaw 
Huckleberry or Whortleberry. Fruit astringent, not edible. 
Boot diuretic. 

o. y. uli^inosum L. Northern Europe, Asia and N. America. 
Bog Bilberry, Great Bilberry, Bog Whortleberry, Bog Blue- 
berry, Bleaberry. Fruit edible. 

p. y. yitis-Idaea L. Europe, Asia, northern N. America. 
Mountain Cranberry, Rock Cranberry, Cow-berry, Cluster- berry, 
Flowering Box, Ling-berry, Red Bilberry, Red Whortleberry, 
Wine-berry, Wind-berry; Ger. Preisselbeere, Kronsbeere, 
Steinbeere, Rothbernitzbeere. Fruit acid, edible. Leaves as- 
tringent diuretic, expectorant. 

5076. yAGNERA, Adans. 1763. Srailacina. CoiiTallariaceae. 

Named for Wagner. Syn. Smilaeina (Kew), Desf. 1807, 
also Convallaria, in part. Perennial herbs with aspect of 
Solomon's-seal. About 25 species, Asia and north to central 
America; 5 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 387 

a. V. raceinosa (L.) Morong (S. racemosa Desf. (Kew), C. race- 
mosa L. ). British America, south to Georgia, Missouri and 
Arizona. False Solomon' s-seal, Wild Spikenard, False Spike- 
nard, Small or Zigzag Solomon' s-seal, Golden-seal*, Job's-tears*. 

2077. VALERIANA, L. Valerian. Yalerianaceae. 

From Latin vaLere, to be * 'strong". Syn. Phu, Kupp. 
Strong-scented perennial herbs. About 175 species, north tem- 
perate zone and S. America; 10 in U. S. 

a. y. Celtica L. Alps of Europe. Celtic Nard or Spikenard. 

Root^ Nard us, Spica celtica, valued in the Orient for its perfume. 
See Nardostachys. 

b. V. ^dulis Nutt. British America, south to Ohio and Arizona. 

Edible Valerian, Tobacco-root, Oregon Tobacco. iJoo^ used by 
aborigines as food. 

c V. officinalis L. (V. angustifolia Tausch, V. sambuci folia 
Mikan. ). Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S. Valerian, called 
in America Garden Valerian, in Europe Great Wild Valerian; 
Cat's Valerian, Common Valerian, All-heal, Cut-heal, Selwall 
(originally applied to Zedoary, and only another form of the 
saiue name). Hardy or Summer Heliotrope, Herb bennet. Van- 
dal root; Ger. Baldrian; Fr. Valeriane officinale. The root 
Valeriana, U. S. P., Valerianae Khizoma Br., Eadix Vale- 
riana;, P. G., Radix Valerianae minoris; antispasmodic, ner- 
vine, (d) V. Mexiciua DC. and (e) Y. Toluccana DC. of 
Mexico, also (f) V. Sitchensis Bong, of Alaska and several 
other species have like properties. 

g. V. Phu L. Western Asia and Southern Europe. Large Gar- 
den Valerian, Spikenard of Crete. Root^ Kadix valerians 
majoris, inferior to that of (c). 

h. V. sylvatica Banks (V. dioica Pursh, not L.). British Amer- 
ica, south to New York, Michigan and Arizona. Wood Vale- 
rian, Swamp or Marsh Valerian (these names in Europe applied 
to (i) y. dioica L.), American Wild Valerian. 

2078, VALERIANELLA, Poll. Corn-Salad, etc. Yalerianaceae. 

Latin, diminutive of '^ Valerian". Syn. Fedia, Locusta, Riv., 
Valeriana, in pan. Dichotomously branched annuals. About 
50 cpecies, northern hemisphere, especially Mediterranean 
region; 7 in U. S. 

a. y. Locusta (L.)Bettke ( Valerianella olitoria Poll. (Kew), 
L. con)niunisDelarb.,V. Locusta and var. olitoria L.). Europe 
to middle Asia and northern Africa, nat. in U. S. European 
Corn-Salad, Lamb's Lettuce, Milk-gras.«, White Pot-herb; Ger. 
Ackersalat; Fr. Maohe. Leaves, called Fetticus, used for salad. 
The American (b) Y. radiata ( L. ) Dufr. ( F. radiata Michx.), 
Beaked Corn-^aladg, is also called Lamb's Lettuce. 

2079. YALERIANOiDES, Medic. 1789. ^ Yerbenaceae. 

From (rreek, **V^alenan-like". Syn. Stachytarpheta. Vahl. 
1805 (Stachytarpha), Abena.Neck. 1790, Vermicularia, Moench 
1802. Herbs or s^hrubs resembling Vervain. About 45 species, 
warmer regions, especially of 2s'ew World. 



388 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYSIS 

a. T, Indica Medic. (S. Indica Vahl., V. Jamaicensis Medic). 
Common to tropical countries. Gervao, Brazilian Tea. Leaves 
used in Europe as a substitute for Chinese tea. 

2080. VALLESIA, E. & P. Vallesia. Apocynaceae. 

Shrubs or trees. About 5 species, tropical America; 1 in 
U. S. 

2081. VALISNERIA, L. Tape-grass, Eel-grass. Valisneriaceac. 

Named for Antonio Vallisueri, Italian naturalist, d. 1730. 
Aquatic perennials with grass-like leaves. One species, widely 
distributed (U. 8. ). 

a. V. spiralis L, Temperate and warm regions of both hemi- 
spheres. Tape-grass, Ee^-grass, Wild Celery or Water Celery 
(Chesapeake Bay), Spring-plant (Australia). 

2082. VANCOUVERIA, Morr. & Dcsne. Berberidaceae. 

Named for Capt. Vancouver, English navigator, ISih Century. 
Scapose perennials. Three species. Pacific coast of U. S. 

2083. VANILLA, Plum. Greenwithe, Purple-lip. Orchidaceae, 

From Latin (?), diminutive meaning "little pod". Robust 
climbers. About 20 species, tropical regions of Old and New 
World; 1 in U. S. 

a. Y. planifolia Andrews. Mexico and Central America. Vanilla. 
The unripe fruit; Vanilla, U. S. P., Fructus Vanillae, P. O., 
Siliqua vanillse; Ger., Fr. Vanille (Codex); Sp. Vainilla; Mex. 
Baynilla. Used as a flavoring agent. Vanilla is obtained 
from several other species, notably trom (b) V. microcarpa 
Karst. of Venezuela; (c) V. Pompona Schiede, Brazil and 
Peru and probably (d) V. (xiiianeu-ois Splitberger; not from 
(e) V. aromdtica Swz., as is usually believed. 

2084. YARILLA, Gray. Varilla. Compositae. 

From vernacular name. Mexico. Shrubby plants with 
thickened leaves and yellow flowers. Two species, one of 
Mexico, one of Texas. 

2086. VARRONIA, P. Br. 1756. Sebesten, etc. Boragrinaceae. 
Syn. Cordia, L,1763, Sebesten, Adans. 1753; Myxa, Pilicor- 
dia, in part. The name Cordia is the older and has been adopt- 
ed below. Trees or shrubs. About 200 species, warmer re- 
gions; 4 in U. S. In West Indies the species are called "Elm". 

a. C. Myxa L. (C. Sebestena Forsk. not L., C. officinalis Lam.. S. 
oflicinalis Gaertn., probably includes V. Abyssinica DC. and C. 
Africana Lam.). India to Australia and western Africa. 
Sebestan (Sebesten, Sapistan), Sebestan Plum, Assyrian Plum; 
Ger. Schwarze Brustbeere. Bark a mild astringent. Fruit 
mucilaginous, emollient. The following have similar proper- 
ties and uses; (b) C. Boissieri DC., Texas to Mexico, 
Anacahuita (a jelly made from the fruits used in coughs), and 
(c) C. obliqua Willd. (C. latifolia Roxb. ) of India. 

d. C. Sebestena L. Florida to West Indies and northern S. 
America. Geiger tree. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 389 

20S6. VATERIA, L. Piney-varnish tree. Dipterocarpaceae. 

Named for Abraham Vater, German botanist, 18th Century. 
Syn. Elaeocarpus, in part. Resin iferoiis tree. About 30 spe- 
cies, tropical Asia. 

a. V. indica L. (E. copaliferus Retz. ). Ceylon and Malabar. 
Pinne tree, Piney-varnish tree. Copal-tree, Tallow-tree. Resi- 
nous exudate, Malabar or Indian Copal, Gum Anime, White 
Dammer, Daramer Pitch; used as incense as well as for var- 
nishes, and cut into "amber" ornaments. /Seecfs source of Piney 
Tallow, used for candles. 

2087. VAUqUELtNIA, Correa. Yauquelinia. Rosaceae. 
Named for Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, French chemist, d. 1829. 

Syn. Spiraea, in part. Tree with corymbs of white flowers. 
Three species, Mexico and adjacent territory; 1 in U. S. 

2088. VENEGASIA, DC. 1837. Venegasia. Compositae. 
Named for Michael Veneeras, Jesuit missionary. Syn. 

Parthenopsis, Kellogg 1875. Perennial heib with large flower- 
heads (yellow). One species, California. 

2089. VERATRUM, L. White or False Hellebore. Melaiithaceae. 

Ancient Latin name of Hellebore. Syn. Melanihium, 
Helonias, in part. Robust herbs with acrid poisonous rhizome. 
About 10 species, north temperate zone; 5 in U. S. 

a, Y. jllbimi L. (including var. viridiflorura Mert. & Koch., V. 

Lobelianum Bernh. ). Europe and northern Asia. White 
Hellebore, White Veratrum, Lingwort, Sneezewort, Neeze- 
wort; Ger. Weisse Niesswurz, Weis-.er Germer, Kratzwurzel, 
Frengelwurz, Franzwarz, Sauwurz, Sc-hampanierwurz; Fr. 
Hellebore blanc (Codex), V^ratre blanc; Sp. Vedegambre 
bianco. Rhizome arnd rootlets, Rhizoma Veratri, P. G., Rad. 
hellebori albi; counter-irritant, parasiticide, sternutatory. 

b. V, viride Ait. (V. album var. viride Baker, M. virens Thunb., 

H. viridis Ker. ). British America, south to Georgia and 
Minnesota. American Hellebore. Green Hellebore, Green or 
American Veratrum, American White Hellebore^, Big or False 
Hellebore, Swamp Hellebore, Bear-corn, Biigbane, Bugwort, 
Devil' s-bite, Duck-retter, Earth-gall, Indian Poke, Itch- weed, 
Poke-root*, Poor- Anne, Tickle-weed; Ger. Grtiner Germer; Fr. 
V^ratre vert; Sp. Vedegambre verdo. Rhizome and roots; 
Veratrum viride, U. S. P., Veratri viridis Rhizoma, Br., 
Rad. veratri americani; arterial sedative, irritant, emetic, 
sternutatory. 

2090. VERBASCUM, L. Mullen, etc. Scrophnlariaceae. 

Ancient Latin name of (b). Syn. Blattaria, Thapsus, in 
part. Biennial, rarelv perennial herbs. About 125 species, 
Old World; 5 nat. in U. S. 

a. y. Blattdria L. (T. Blattaria Raf., B. vulgaris Four.). Europe 

and northern Asia, nat. in U. S. Moth Mullen (Mullein). 

b. V. Thiipsus L. (T. Schraderi Opiz., V. Schraderi G. Meyer.). 

Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. and widely elseAvhere. Com- 
mon Mullen (Mullein), Great Mullen, Velvet or Mullen Dock, 



390 PLANT NAMES ANT) SYNONYMS 

Aaron's-rod, Adam's-flannel, Blanket-leaf, Bullock's- Lung- 
wort, Cow's or Clown's Lungwort, Candlewick, Feliwort, 
Flannel-leaf, Old-man's flannel, Hare's-beard, Hedge-taper 
(Hog-taper, High-taper, Hig-taper), Ice-leaf, Jacob' s-staflf, 
Jupiter' s-staff', Lady's foxglove, Peter's- staff'. Shepherd' s-club, 
Torches, Torch wort, Velvet-T>lant, Woollen; Ger. Wollkraut, 
Konigskerze, Hiinmelbrand; Fr. Bouillon blanc, Mol^ne; Sp. 
Gordoloba. Leaves, Fol. verbasci, mucilaginous, demulcent. 
Flowers vulnerary, anodyne. In Germany the flowers of (c) 
V. Phloiiioides L. and ofV. thapsiforme Schrad. (V, Thap- 
sus G. Meyer, -not L. ) are used also. 

2091. YERBENA, L. Verbena, Vervain. Yerbenaceae. 

Latin name, applied first to green boughs used in certain 
sacred ceremonies. Syn. Bnchneraf, Glandularia; in part. 
Herbs, some shrubby, a few highly ornamental. About 100 
species, nearly all American; 24 in U. S. 

a. Y. Canadensis (L.) Brit. (B. Canadensis L. 1767, V. Aubletia 

Jacq. 1772 (Kew), G. Carolinensis J. G. Gmel. ). Southeast- 
ern (J. S. to Mexico. Large-flowered Verbena. This and (b) 
V. bipinnatiflda Nutt., south-central U. S., are the originals 
of most of our garden Verbenas. 

b. Y. officiniilis L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. European 

Vervain (Vervein, Vervine, Vervin, Berbine), Blue Vervain 
(of Europe), Enchanter's herb. Enchanter's plant, Herb-of- 
grace, Herb-of-the-cross, Holy-herb, Juiio's-tears, Pigeon-grass, 
Simpler' s-joy; Ger. Eisenkraut, Eisenhart, Stahlkraut, Isen- 
kraut, Venusblut; Fr. Verveine officinale (Codex). Herby H. 
verbenae v. columbariae v, sanguinalis; astringent, vulnerary. 
Leaves a substitute for Chinese tea. 

c. Y. hastata L. (V. paniculata Lam.). Canada and eastern to 

central U. S. Blue Vervain, American Blue Vervain, Common 
Vervain, American or False Vert^ain, Wild Hvssop, Iron-wee<i*, 
Purvain, Simpler's-joy. Flowering herb, nauseant, expectorant, 
sudorific. (d) Y. stricta Vent. (V. rigens Michx. ), Ohio 
to New Mexico, Hoary or Mullen-leaved Vervain, is called also 
Fever-weed; (e) Y. urticifolia L., Canada and eastern U. S., 
is White Vervain, Nettle-leaved Vervain, the plant used in 
Rhus poisoning. 

2092. VERBESINA, L. Crown-beard. Compositae. 

Name altered from Verber a, q. v. Syn. Actinomeris, Nutt, 
recognized by Benth. & Hook, as a distinct genus; Siege-beckia, 
Ximenesia, Coreopsis, in part. Rough herbs, often wiih decur- 
rent leaves. About 60 species, mostly of New World; 12 in 
U. S. 

a» V. alternifolia (L. ) Brit. (C. altemifolia L., A. squarrosa 
Nutt. (Kew), A. alternifolia DC). Southeastern U. S. 
Actinomeris, Wing-stem, Stick-weed, (b) Y. helianthoides 
Michx. Iowa to Texas and Georgia. Sunflower Crown-beard. 
Plant reputed diuretic. 



SCIENTIFIC AND TOPULAK. 391 

2093. VERN6NL4, Schreb. 1771. Iron-weed. Compositae. 

iS^amed for William Vernon, English botanist, 17th Century. 
Syn. Belien, Hill 1762 not Moench 1794, Suprago, Gaertn. 
1791 ; Chrysocoma, Serratula, Cacalia, in part. Perennial herbs, 
some shrubby, with small discoid flower-heads. About 475 
species, warmer regions especially in S. America; 11 in U. S. 

a. Y. ^oveborac^usis (L. ) Willd., Ser. Noveboracensis L., B. 
Noveboracense Hill). Eastern U. S. New York or Common 
Iron- weed, Flat-top. 

2094. VER6nICA, L.Speedwell,Brooklime,etc.Scrophiilariaceae^ 
Dedicated to 8t. Veronica. Herbs, shrubs or even trees, 

many ornamental. About 200 species, widely distributed; 15 
in U. S. 

a. Y. Americana Schwein. British America, south to Pennsyl- 
vania, Nebraska and California. American Brooklime, Blue- 
bell*. Ptesembles (b) Y. Auagallis-aqiiatica L. Europe, 
Asia and northern N. America. Water Speedwell, Water 
Pimpernel. 

c. Y. Beccabunga L. Europe and Asia. Brooklime, Horse 

Well-grass, Well-ink (Ireland), Wall-ink (Scotland), Water- 
purpie (Scotland); Ger. Bachbungen; Fr. Beccabunga (Codex), 
Cresaonee. Fresh plant antiscorbutic, diuretic. 

d. Y. Chamaedrys L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Germander Speed- 

well, Angel' s-eyes. Bird's-eye, Blue-eye, Cat's-eye, God's-eye, 
Eye-bright, Forget-me-not (Scotland), Base Vervain; Fr. 
Veronique femelle. Petit chene. The narues Bird's-eye and 
Cat's-eye are given also to (e) Y. Byzantiiia (Sibth. & Sm.) 
B. S. P. (V. agrestis var Byzantina S. & S., V. Buxbaumii 
Tenore), Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S., Buxbaum's or 
Byzantine Speedwell^. 

f. Y. oflSciualis L. Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S. Common 
Speedwell, Fluellin (Llewellyn), Ground-hele, Paul's Betony* 
(a name given also to (g) Y. serpylifolia L., another natura- 
lized species). Upland Speedwell; Ger. Ehrenpreis, Wnnd- 
kraut, Heil-aller-Schaden, Gmndheil, Veroniken, Stah-up-un- 
ga-weg; Fr. Veronique male. Herb, H. veronicaj, H. betonica^ 
albse, astringent, alterative, diuretic. 

Other notable species are (h) Y. agrestis L., Europe, nat. 
in U. S., Field or Garden Speedwell, Procumbent Speedwell, 
Germander Chickweed, AVinterweed; (i) Y. hedcraefolia 
L., Europe and Asia, nat. in U. S., Ivy-leaved Speedwell, 
Ivy Chickweed, Morgeline, Mother-of-wheat, Small Henbit, 
Winterweed and (j) Y. peregriua L., widely distributed in 
Old and New World, Purslane Speedweell, Neckweed. 

2096. Y1BIJRNUM,L. Black Haw, Viburnum, etc. Caprifoliiiceae. 

The ancient Latin name. Shrubs or trees. About 100 spe- 
cies, widely distributed; 17 in U. S. 

a. Y. alnif61ium Marsh. (V. lantanoides Michx.). Canada to N. 
Carolina and Michigan. Hobble-bush, American Wayfaring- 



392 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

tree, Dogwood*, Moose-berry, Moose-bush, Tangle-foot, Tangle- 
legs, Trip-toe, Witch-hobble, Witch-hopple. Bark diuretic, 
antiperiodic. 

'). V. cassinoides L. (V. nudum var. cassinoides T. & Gr. ). 
Canada and northeastern U. S. Withe-rod (W^ythe-rod), 
Appalachian Tea*, False Paraguay Tea. Leaves used as tea. 

c. V. Lentago L. Canada to Georgia and Missouri. Nanny- 

berry, Nanny-bush, Nanny Plum, Black Haw*, Black Thorn*, 
Sheep-berry, Sweet-berry, Sweet Viburnum, Tea-plant*, Wild 
Raisin. Fruit edible. 

d. V. 6pulus L. (V. trilobura Marsh. ). Europe, Asia, northern 

N. America, south to New Jersey, Michigan and Oregon. 
Cranberry tree. High-bush Cranberry, Wild Guelder-rose, 
•Gueldres-rose, Cherry-wood, Cramp-bark tree. Dog Rowan-tree, 
White Dogwood (England), Whitten-tree, Red or Rose Elder, 
Marsh or Water Elder, White Elder, Gadrise, Gaiter-tree, 
Glatten, Love Rose, May Rose, Pincushion-tree, Squaw-bush, 
Witch-hobble, Witch-hopple; in cultivation Snowball-bush; 
Ger. Wasserholder, Wasserschwelke; Fr. Obier. Bark\ Vibur- 
num Opulus, U. S. P. ; uterine sedative, antispasmodic. Fruit 
acid. 

e.' V. prunifoliuni L. Connecticut to Michigan, south to Florida 
and Texas. Black Haw, Boots, Nanny-berry*, Sheep-berry, 
Sloe*, Stag-bush. Bark\ VilDurnum Prunifolium. U. S. P., 
uterine sedative, antispasmodic. Frmt edible. The name 
Black Haw is given also to (f) V. obovatiim Walt, and (g) 
V. rufo-tomentosuiii Small (V. prunifolium var. fermgineum 
^ T. & Gr. ), both of southeastern U. S. 

Other species worthy of note are (h) V. acerifoliiim L., 
Canada and northeastern U. S., Maple-leaved Arrow-wood, 
Dockmakie, Maple Guelder-rose; (i) V. dentatiim L., Canada 
and northeastern U. S., Arrow- wood, Mealy-tree, Withe-rod, 
Withe-wood; (j) V. Lantana L., Europe, Wayfaring-tree, 
Lithy-tree; /eaves and 6erries astringent; (k) V« molle Michx., 
eastern U. S., Soft-leaved Arrow-wood^, Black Alder*; (1) 
V. nudum L. (V. nudum var. Claytoni T.&Gr.), South- 
eastern U. S., Larger Withe-rod ( Wythe-rod) or Withe-wood, 
Naked Viburnum?, Nanny-berry, Possum Haw, Possum Thorn, 
Shawnee Haw; (m) Y. pauciflorum Pylaie (V. Opulus var. 
eradiatum Oakes ) , British America and northern U. S. , Few- 
flowered Cranberry-tree, Squash-berry; (n ; V. Tinus L., South- 
ern Europe, cult, for ornament in U. S., Laurestine. 

2096. ViCIA, L. Vetch, Tare. Papilionaceae. 

The ancient Latin name. Syn. Ervum, in part. Pea-like 
vines. About 1 20 species, north temperate zone and S. Amer- 
ica; 24 in U. S., including nat. species. 

a. V. sativa L. Europe, adv. in U. S. Common Vetch or Tare» 
Pebble Vetch, Spring Vetch. An important fodder plant. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR, 393 

V. AmericJina Muhl. Northern U. S. and northward. Amer- 
ican or Purple Veich, Pea- vine, Buffalo Pea. (c) V. Cracca 
L. Europe, Asia and northern N. Ameri^ja, south to Kentucky 
and Iowa, Tufted or Blue Vetch, Cow Vetch, Canada Pea, Cat- 
pea, Tine-g;ra8s; (d) V. hirsiita (L. ) Koch (E. hirsutum L., 
V. Mitchelli Kaf. ), Europe and northern Asia, nat. in U. S., 
Hairy Vetch or Tare, Strangle-tare, Tine-tare, Tine-weed; (e) 
V. Sepiiiin L., Europe and Asia, adv. in U. S., Bush Vetch, 
Wild lare, Crow Pea. 



f091. VICTORIA, Lindl. Victoria Regia. Nymphaeaceae. 

/ Named in honor of queen Victoria. A gigantic water lily. 

One species, Amazon and tributaries, (a) V. regia Lindl. 
(V. Reginai Hook., V. Regina J. E Gray). Victoria or Royal 
Water-liK, Water Maize, Irupe or Water-platter (Guiana). 
Seeds eticulent. 

2098. VIGNA, Savi. Cow Pea. Papilionaceac. 

Named for Dominico Vigna, Italian botanist, 17th Century. 
Syn. Dolichos, in part. Herbs, mostly climbing or trailing. 
About 30 species, tropical and sub-.ropical regions; 1 in U. S. 

a. V. Sinensis (L. ) Endl. (D. Sinensis L. 1756, D. Catjang L. 
1767, V. Catjang W^alp. ). Tropical Asia and Africa and 
widely cult., adv. in U. S. Cow Pea, China Bean, Black-eyed 
Bean, Chowlee, Tow-cok (Tow-cock). Seeds and pods esculent. 

2099. VIQUIERA, H. B. K. Viquiera. Compositae. 

Named for Dr. A. Viquier, French botanist. Herb^, some 
shrubby. About 70 species, warmer regions of America; 7 in 
U. S. (Mexican border). 

2100. VINCA, L. Periwinkle. Apocynaceae, 

The Latin name, originally Pervinca, whence the English 
periwinkle. Erect or trailing herbs with blue, pink or 
whiteflowers. About 12 species, all but one of Old World; 1 nat. 
in U. S. 

a. V. major L. Europe. Larger Periwinkle, Band plant, Cut- 

finger, Hundred-eyes; Ger. Grosses Sinngriin; Fr. Pervenche 
grande (Codex), icaves astringent, hemostatic. 

b. V. minor L. Europe, nat. in U. S. Periwinkle (Penny winkle 

Penny-winkler), Small Periwinkle, Hundred-eyes, Myrtlef, 
Running Myrtle; Ger. Kleines Sinngriin; Fr. Pervenche petite 
(Codex), ieares astringent, hemostatic. 

2101. VINCET6xICUM, Walt. 1788. Asclepiadaceae. 

From Greek, "subduing poison". Syn. Gonolobus, Michx. 
1803, Cynanchum, in part. Perennial vines with flowers in 
umbel -like cymes. About 75 species, New World; 6 in U. S. 

a. V. hirsiitiini (Michx.) Brit. (G. hirsutus Michx.). South- 
eastern U. S. Hairy Vincetoxicum^, Running Milk- weed, 
Negro-vine. 

2102. VIOLA, L. - Violet. - Violaceae. 

The Latin name. Herbs, a few shrubby. About 150 species, 
widely 'distributed; 57 in U. S. 



394 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. T. blfinda Willd. British America, south to N. Carolina aid 

California. Sweet White Violet, American Sweet Violet. 

b. V. Canadensis L. Canada, south to N. Carolina, Nebrasa 

and Arizona. Canada Violet, American Sweet Violet, Juie- 



c. V. ciicnlldta Ait. Canada and eastern U. S. Common Blie 

Violet, Meadow or Hooded Blue Violet. In common wih 
other species, called also Johnny-jump-up*, and the flowers (I7 
children) Chicken-fighters and Roosters. 

d. V. odorata L. Europe and northern Asia, cult, and adv. ii 

U. S. English Violet, Marsh or Sweet Violet; Ger. Marzviel- 
chen; Fr. Violette odorante (Codex); Sp. Violeta. Flowen 
fragrant, reputed refrigerant and lenitive. 

e. . V. pedata L. Ontario and eastern U. S. Bird's-foot Violet; 
Crow-foot, Horse, Horseshoe, Sand, Snake or Wood Violet, 
American Pansy, Johnny-jump-up, Velvets (applied particularly 
to var. bicolor). Fresh plunt (formerly official U. S. P. ) reputed 
emollient, laxative, etc. 

f. V, tricolor L. Europe and northern Asia; cult, and adv. in U. S, 
Pansy, Heart's-ease, Lady's-delight, Garden or Trinity Violet, 
Battle-field flower, Biddy's-eyes, Cat's-faces, Cupid' s-delight, 
Fancy, Flamy, Garden-gate, Heart's- pansy. Herb-trinity, 
Johnny-jump-up, Johnny-jumper, Kisses, Kiss-me, Love-in- 
idleness (Shakespere), Monkey's- face, None-so-pretty j. Step- 
mother; Ger. Stiefmiitterchen, Freisamkraut, Dreifaltigkeits- 
kraut, le-langer-ie-lieber; Fr. Pensee sauvage (Codex); Sp. 
Trinitaria. The wild-grown flowering herb (oflicial in 
U. S. P. 1880); Herba violae tricoloris, P. G., jaceEe, H. trini- 
tatis, alterative, discutient. 

2103. VIROLA, Aubl. Virola. Myristicaceae. 

Trees, the species referred by many botanists to Myristica. 
About 10 species, tropical S. America. 

a. V. sebifera Aubl. (M. sebifera Swz. ). Guiana. Malagueto de 
montana (Panama). Seeds Bource of Virola tallow, called also 
Ocuba wax, used for candles, etc. 

2104. VISCARIA, Roehl. Campion. Caryophyllaceae^ 

From Latin, "glutinous". Syn. Lychnis, in part. Herbs. 
About 6 species, north temperate and arctic zones; 1 in U. S. 
(a) V. Alpina (L. ) Roehl. (L. AlpinaL.). Northern Europe, 
Asia and N. America. Red Alpine Campion. 

2106. yiSCUM, L. - Mistletoe. - Lorauthaceae. 

The ancient Latin name, from Greek. Shrubby parasites. 
About 30 species, warm and temperate regions, Old World. 

a. V. dlbum L. Europe, growing often on apple, pear or plum trees. 
Mistletoe (Misseltoe, Miseltoe, Miselto), European Mistletoe-,; 
Ger. Mistel, Eichenmistel*; Fr. Gui de chene, Gillon; Sp. 
Visco, Muerdago. Branches, Stipites visci, Lignum visci^ 
antispasmodic, uterine stimulant; source of bird-lime. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 395 

2106. ViSMIA, Vandelli. Wax-tree. Hypericaceae. 

Named for Visme, botanist of Lisbon, Shrubs or trees. 
About 30 species, tropical Africa and America, (a) V. Gui- 
anensis. Mexico to Brazil. Gutta-gum tree, Wax-tree. Gum- 
resin, American Gamboge, (Gummi gutta), a drastic cathartic. 
Other species yield similar products. 

2107. VITEX, L. Vitex, etc. Verbenaceae. 

The Latin name of (a). Aromatic shrubs or trees, some 
yielding hard and durable timber (Teak of New Zealand, Lig- 
num vitae of Queensland). About 75 species, warmer regions 
of Old and New World; 1 in U. S. 

a. V. Agnus-castus L, Mediterranean region. Chaste-tree, 
Abraham' s-balm. Hemp-tree, Monk's Pepper-tree; Ger. Abra- 
hamstrauch, Keuschlamm. Monchspfefter. Seeds aromatic, 
(b) V. liguiim-vitae A. Cunn. is Queensland Lignum vitae. 

2108. VITIS, L. - Grape. - Vitaceae. 
The ancient Latin name. Climbing woody vines, mostly 

with tendrils. About 40 species, warm and temperate regions; 

25 in U. S. 

a. V, aestivalis Michx. Eastern U. S. Summer Grape, Small 

Grape, Original among others of Jacques, Cynthiana and 
Norton's Virginia varieties of cultivated grapes. 

b. V. cordifolia Michx. Eastern U. S., west to Nebraska. Frost 

Grape, Fox Grape, Chicken Grape, Possum Grape, Winter 
Grape. 

c. V. Labrusca L. New England to Georgia, west to Minnesota, 

also in Japan, Northern Fox Grape, Northern Plum Grape, 
Wild Grape, Wild Vine. The original of the Isabella, Concord, 
Catawba and many other varieties. The Delaware Grape is a 
cross with this and V. vinifera L, 

d. V. rotimdifolia Michx. (V. vulpina Torr, & Gr. not. L. ). 

Maryland to Texas and Mexico, also in eastern Asia, South- 
ern Fox Grape, Bullace Grape, Muscadine Grape. The origi- 
nal of the Scuppernong. Less hardy than other American 
Grapes, but resists phylloxera perfectly, 

e. V. vinifera L. Southern Europe to central Asia, widely cult. 

Wine Grape; European Hot-house or California Grape, includ- 
ing numerous varieties such as Tokay, Muscatel, etc. from 
which European wines are produced; Ger. Weinrebe, Wein- 
stock; Fr. Vigne. Fruit esculent. Fej-mented juice of the ripe 
fruit. Grape Wine; Vinum Album, U, S. P., Vinum Xericum 
Br., Vinum, P. G. ;Ger. Wein; Fr, V^in, Dried fruit, Raisins, 
Passulse, Uvse pass*; Ger. Rosinen, Zibeben; Fr, Raisins sees. 
From the seedless variety V. (minuta Risso, V. apyrena Auct, ), 
the black Corinth or Zante grape, are prepared the "currants" 
(i. e, Corinthian grapes) of commerce. 

f. V. vulpina L. (V, riparia Michx,, V. cordifolia var, riparia 

Gr. ), Canada, south to Maryland and Arkansas. River-side 
Grape, Sweet-scented Grape, Bull Grape, Frost or Winter Grape, 
.Aroyo Grape, Muscadine Grape. Source of the Clinton and 
Franklin varieties. 



396 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

2109. VITTARIA, Sm. Vittaria. Polypodiaceae. 

From Latin, a ''band" or ''fillet". Ferns with simple linear 
fronds. About 5 species, tropical regions; 1 in U. S. 

2110. VOUACAPOUA, Aubl. 1775 (Vuacapua).Papilionaceae. 

Syn. Andira, Lam. 1783 (Kew); Geoffrsea (Geoffroya), in 
part. Ornamental trees. About 25 species, mostly of Brazil. 

a, V. Araroba (Aguiar) Lyons (A. Araroba Ag. ). Brazil. Ara- 

roba or Arariba tree, Angelim Amargoso, Angelin amarzogo. 
The source of Goa powder, called also Bahia powder, Brazil 
powder, Kingworm powder; Pulvis goa, Po de Araroba, Po de 
Bahia; Ger. Goapiilver, Bahiapulver. From this is pre- 
pared Chrysarobin, Ohrysarotinum, U. S. P., antiseptic, dis- 
cutient. 

b. Y. inermis (Swz. ) Lyons (G. inermis Swz., A. inermis Kunth. ). 

West Lidies. Jamaica Cabbage-tree, Partridge-wood. Bark, 
Yellow Cabbage-tree bark, properties of (c). 

c V. retiisa (Poir. ) Lyons (G. retusa Poir., A. retusa Kunth). 
Surinam and Cayenne. Surinam Cabbage-tree. Bark, Surinam 
bark. Brown Cabbage-tree bark, Bark of (b) and (c) is called 
Worm bark, Andira; Ger. Kohlbaumrinde, Wurmrinde; Fr. 
Ecorce de geoflfree; emeto-cathartic, anthelmintic. 

d. V. verinifuga O. Kze. (G. vermifugaSt. Hil., A. vermifuga 
Mart, A. anthelmintica Benth. ). Brazil. Seeds of this and 
other species, as (e) V. Anbletii (Benth.) Lyons (A. Aubletii 
Benth. ) and (f) V. spiuulosa (Mart.) Lyons (A. spinulosa 
Mart, identified with (d) by Index Kew.), Angelim seeds, 
Angelim dolce; anthelmintic. 

2111. VOYRIA, Aubl. Voyria. Oeutianaceae. 

Herbs, parasitical on old tree-trunks. About 25 species, 
tropical America; 1 in U. S. 

2112. WALDSTEINIA, Willd. Waldsteinia. Rosaceae. 
Named for Franz Adam von Waldstein, Wartenburg, Ger- 
man botanist, d. 1823, Herbs with aspect of Fragaria. Four 
known species, north temperate zone; 2 in U, S. 

2113. WALTHERIA, L. Waltheria. Sterculiaceae. 

Named for Prof. Walther of Leipsic. Herbs or shrubs. 
About 30 species, tropical regions; 2 in U. S. (a) W. xiidica 
L. (W. Americana Lindl. ), is widely distributed in tropical 
countries, extending to southern U. S., and has been used medi- 
cinally; (b) W. glomenita Presl. of tropical America, is call- 
ed Matico* and Yerba del soldado;^hemostatic. 

2114. WAREA, Nutt. (not Waria, L. ) Warea. Cruciferae. 
Annual herbs. Three species in southern U. S. 

2116. WASHINUT6nIA, Raf. 1818. Sweet Cicely. Uoi belli ferae. 

Named in honor of George Washington. Syn. Osmorrhiza, 
Eaf. 1818, Myrrhis. Perennial herbs with aromatic, some- 
what fleshy clustered roots. About 15 species, eastern Asia 
and America; 5 in U. S. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 397 

a. W. Cldytoiii (Michx. ) Brit. (M. Claytoni Michx., O. brevisty- 

lis DC). Canada to N. Carolina and Nebraska. Woolly 
Sweet Cicely, Hairy Sweet Cicely, Sweet Chervil or Jarvil. 
See Myrrhis. 

b. W. longistylis (Torr.) Brit. (M. longistylis Torr., O. longisty- 

lisDC. ). Canada to Alabama and Texas. Smoother Sweet 
Cicely, Anise-root, Sweet Anise, Sweet Chervil or J arvil, Cicely- 
root. Root aromatic, carminative, stomachic. 

2116. WEDELIA, Jacq. 1760. Niebuhria. Compositae. 

Named for Prof. G. W. Wedel of Jena, 17th Century. Syn. 
Niebuhria, Neck. 1790, not DC. 1824 (Kew) nor Scop. 1777. 
Herbs and undershrubs, mostly littoral. About 50 species, 
warmer regions of Old and New World; 1 in U. S. [Wedelia, 
Loefl. 1758 is a genus of Nyctaginaceae, in Index Kewensis 
united with AUionia, Loefl. 1758. Heller catalogues one spe- 
cies, and one also of the foregoing.] 

2117. WHIPPLEA, Torr. Whipplea. Saxifragaceae. 

SufFrutescent plants. Two species, Pacific border of U. S. 

2118. WHITNEYA, Gray. Whitneya. Compositae. 

Named for Josiah D. Whitney of Cal. Geological Survey. 
Low perennial herb with aspect of Arnica. One species, Cali- 
fornia. ^ 

2119. WILLUGHBAEA, Neck. 1790. Mikania. Comp<»sitap. 

Named for Francis Willoughby, English naturalist, d. 1672. 
Syn. Mikania, Willd. 1804; Eupatorium, in part. Herbaceous 
vines, some shrubs, with suiall discoid tiower-heads. About 
150 species. New W^orld; 2 in U. S. 

a. W. scdndens (L. ) Kze. (E. scandens L., M. scandens Willd. ). 
Ontario and eastern U. S. Climbing Hemp-weed, Climbing 
Boneset. 

2120. WISLIZENIA, Engelm. Wislizenia. Capparidaceae. 

Annual herbs. Two species, Mexican border of LJ. S. 

2121. WISSADULA, Medic. Wissadula. Malvaceae. 
Hoary shrubs. About 8 species, tropical, all but one of New 

World; 2 in U.S. 

2122. WITHANIA, Pauquy 1824. Withania. Solanaceae. 

Syn. Physaloides, Moench 1794, not PhysalodeSjBoehm. 1760. 
Hoary or woolly shrubs. Four species, Mediterranean region 
and southern Asia. 

a. W. coagiilaus Dun. India. Fruit used as a substitute for ren- 
net in making cheese. 

2123. w6lFFIA, Horkel. Wolffia, Duckmeat. Lemnaceae. 
Named for N. M. von Wolft^ Polish naturalist, d. 1784. 

Plant consisting of a minute floating thallus. About 12 species; 
3 in U. S. The smallest of flowering plants, except the following. 



398 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

2124. WOLFFIELLA, Hegelm. Wolffiella. Lemnaceae. 
Latin, diminutive of **Wolffia. Syn. Wolffia, in part. Min- 
ute ffoating plants. About 7 species; 3 in U. S. 

2^125. W06DSIA,Il.Br.Woodsia,Flower-cupFern.Polypodiaceae. 
Named for Joseph Woods, English botanist, d, 1864. Syn. 
Hypopeltis, in part. Small or medium-sized ferns. About 15 
species; 7 in U. S. 

2126. WOODWARDIA, J.E. Smith. Chain-fern. Polypodiaceae. 

Named for Thomas J. Woodward, English botanist, d. 1820. 
Robust ferns. Six species; 3 in U. S. 

2127. WRIGHTIA, R. Br. Wrightia. Apocynaceae. 

Named for Dr. William Wright, botanist of Jamaica. Syn. 
Nerium, in part. Shrubs or trees. About 1 2 species, tropical 
Asia, Africa and Australia. See Holarrhena. (a) W. tiac- 
toria R. Br. (N. tinctorium Roxb.). India. Palay. Ivory- 
tree. One of the plants yielding indigo. 

2128. WULFENIA, Jacq. 1781. Wulfenia. Scrophulariaceae. 

Named for Rev. F. X. Wulfen, botanical author, d. 1804. 
Syn. Synthyris, Benth. 1846, also Gymnandra, in part. Herbs 
with dense spikes of pink or purple flovt^ers. About 12 species, 
mostly of New World; 9 in U. S. 

2129. WYETHIA, Nutt. Wyethia. Compositae. 

Named for Nathaniel J. Wyeth, American botanist. Stout 
low herbs with large heads of mostly yellow flowers. Twelve 
species, Pacific slope, U. S. 

2130. XANTHISMA, DC. 1836. Xanthisma. Compositae. 

From Greek, "dyed yellow". Syn. Centauridium, Tor. & 
Gr. 1840. Annual or biennial herb with showy yellow flowerg. 
One species, Texas. 

2131. XANTHIUM, L. Clotbur, Cocklebur. Ambrosiaceae. 

Ancient Greek name of X. strumarium, the plants yielding 
a "yellow" dye. Coarse, rough or spiny monoecious annuals. 
About 5 species widely distributed; 4 in U. S. (only one indi- 
genous). 

a. X. spinosum L. S. America (?) now widely nat. in U. S. 

and in Old World. Spiny Clotbur, Thorny Clotbur or Cockle- 
bur, Spring Clotbur, Thorny Clotweed or Bur- weed. Leaves 
antiperiodic, reputed a prophylatic against hydrophobia. 

b. X. strumdriiim L. Europe and Asia, widely nat. in U. S. and 

elsewhere. Common or Broad Cocklebur, Bur-weed, Button- 
bur, Bur Thistle, Small or Lesser Burdock*, Sea Burdock, Clot- 
bur (Clote-bur), Ditch-bur, Dike-bur, Louse-bur, Sheep-bur; 
Ger. Spitzklette, Kropfklette; Fr. Lampourde, Petit glouteron. 
Plant antisyphilitic, alterative. Seeds yield a bland fixed oil. 
Similar to this is (c) X. Canadense Mill., Canada to N. 
Carolina, Nevada and Mexico, American Cocklebur, Sea 
Cocklebur (Cucklebur), Hedge-hog Bur- weed, Canadian Bur. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 399 

2132. XANTHOCEPHALUM, Willd, Compositae. 

From Greek, * 'yellow head". Syn. Gutierrezia, in part. 
Herbs, some shrubby, with small flower-heads (yellow). About 
10 species, mostly of Mexico; 3 in southern U. S. 

2133. XANTH0RRH6EA, Smith. Black-boy tree. Liliaceae. 
From Greek, * 'yellow exudate". Robust plants, somewhat 

resembling Yucca, with the small flowers in a dense cylindrical 
spike. About 12 species, Australia. 

a. X. arborea R. Br. Australia. Black-boy tree. Resinous exu- 

date, Black-boy gum, red, like dragon's blood. 

b. X. hastilis R. Br. Australia, Grass Gum-tree, Grass-tree, Yel- 

low-gum tree. Fragrant yellow resinous exudate, Botany-bay 
resin, Acaroid resin or gum, antispasmodic, carminative. 

2134. X ANTHORRHIZA, L.Her.(Zanthorrhiza).Ranunciilaceae. 

From Greek, ''yellow root". Low shrubby perennial with 
yellow wood. One species, viz. (a) X. apiifolia L'Her. (X. 
simplicissima Marsh. ) . New York to Florida. Shrub Yellow- 
root, Parsley-leaved Yellowwort, Yellow- wood. Rhizome and 
root, bitter, tonic. 

2136. XANTH0S6mA, Schott. Blue Eddoes. Araceae. 
From Greek, yellow body". Herbs from a tuberous or 
thickened root-stock. About 20 species, tropical America; I 
in U. S. (a) X. sagittifoliuiii Schott. West Indies to south- 
ern Florida. Tannier (Tanier), Blue or Nut Eddoes. Tubers 
farinaceous, esculent, resembling Taro. 

2136 XANTHOXYLUM, L.1753. (Zanthoxylum). Rutaceae. 

From Greek, "yellow wood". Syn. Zanthoxylon, Walt., 

Fagara, L. 1759., Pterota, P. Br. 1756; Fagarastrum, in part. 

Trees or shrubs with odd-pinnate leaves. About 110 species, 

temperate and warm regions; 6 in U. S. 

a. X. alatum Roxb. of India, and (b) X. piperitum DO. of 

Japan (Japanese Pepper), produce pungently aromatic fruits 
used as condiments. 

•c. X. Americdnuni Mill. (X. fraxineum Willd.). Canada, south 
to Virginia and Missouri. Prickly Ash, Northern Prickly 
Ash, Angelica-tree, Pellitory bark, Suter-berry, Toothache- 
tree, Toothache-bush, Yellow-wood; Ger. Zahnwehrinde, Zahn- 
wehholz; Fr. Clavalier, Frene epineux. Bark of this and of 
(e); Xanthoxylura, U. S. P., pungent, sialagogue, alterative, 
emraenagogue. Berries used to flavor beer, etc. 

d. X. Capeiise Harv. (Fagarastrum Capense G. Don). South 
Africa. Wild Cardamom. Fruit aromatic, carminative. 

■e. X. CMva-Herculis L, (X. CarolinianumLam. ). Southeastern 
U. S. Southern Prickly Ash. Sea Ash, Hercules'-club, Yellow- 
Hercules, Pepper- wood, Wild Orange*, Yellow Prickly Ash, 
Yellow-wood, Prickly or West Indian Yellow-wood, German 
and French synonyms and properties of (c). This plant has 
been popularly confounded with 170 (f) q. v. 



400 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

f. X. Fagara (L.) Sarg. (X. Pterota H. B. K., X. Pterotum St 
Lag., P. Fa)J:ara Crantz), Tropical America to southern U. S, 
Bastard Iron wood, Wild Litne, Savin*. The South American 
(g) X. Naraiigilo Griseb. is said to be sudorific, sialagogue 
and diuretic, like Jaborandi. 

2137. XEROPHYLLUM, Michx. Turkey-beard. Melanthaceae. 
From Greek, '*dry leaf". Tall perennial herbs with ample 

terminal racemes of white flowers. Three species, all of U. S. 

2138. XIMENIA, L. Tallow-nut, etc. Olaeaceae. 
Named for Francisco Ximenen, Spanish naturalist, 17th Cen- 
tury. Shrubs or trees. About 5 species, tropical regions; 1 in 

U. S. 

a. X. Americana L. (X. inermisL., X. spinosa Salisb.). West 
Indies, Florida and Mexico. Tallow-nut, Wild Olive, called 
in Florida Hog Plum and Wild Lime, in West Indies Mountain 
or Seaside Plum, False Sandalwood, in Mexico Alvarillo del 
campo. Fruit edible. Flowers and ivood fragrant. 

2139. XOLISMA, Kaf. 1819. Privet Andromeda. Ericaceae. 
Syn. Lyonia, Nutt. 1818, not Raf. 1808, nor Ell. 1817; Andro- 
meda, Vaccinium, in part. Shrubs or small trees. About 10 
species, N. America; 3 in U. S. 

a. X. ligustrina (L. ) Brit. (V. ligustrinum L., A. ligustrina 
Muhl., L. ligustrina DC). Canada and eastern U. S. Privet 
Andromeda, Lyon's Andromeda?, Seedy Buck-berry, White 
Alder, White-bush, White Pepper. 

2140. XYLOPICRUM, P. Br. 1756. Bitter- wood. Anonaceae. 
From Greek, "bitter wood". Syn. Xylopia, L. 1759; Hab- 

zplia, Unona, Uvaria, in part. Trees or shrubs. About 35 
species, tropical regions, mostly of New World. 

a. X. Aethiopiciim (Rich.) Lyons (Xylopia Aethiopica Rich., 
H. Aethiopica A. DC. ). Western Africa. Fi^uit, African, 
Guinea or Negro Pepper, Piper aethiopicum of old writers. 
Several South American species also yield aromatic fruits used 
as cimdiments. (b) X. gldbra L. is the Bitter-wood of the 
West Indies. 

2141. XYLOKRHIZA, Nutt. Xylorrhiza. Compositae. 

From Greek, "wood root". Syn. Aster, in part. Herbs re- 
sembling Aster. Seven species in western U. S. 

2142. XYRIS, L. Yellow-eyed Grass, etc. Xyridaceae. 

Greek name of a species of Iris, "sharp". Scapose plants 
mostly with two- ranked equitant leaves and yellow flowers. 
About 40 species; 19 in U. S. 

a. X. Caroliiiiana Walt. (X. Jupicai Michx., P. elata Chapm.). 
Atlantic and Gulf States. Carolina Yellow-eyed Gracs. Leaves 
and roots used in cutaneous diseases, as are those of (b) X. 
ndica L., in India; (c) X. Americana Aubl., in Guiana 
and the related (d) Abolboda Brasili^usis Kunlh (X. 
vaginata Spreng. ), in Brazil. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 401 

2143. YEATESIA, Gray. (Gatesia). Yeatesia. Acanthaceae. 

One species in western tJ. S. 

2144. YtJCCA, L. Adam's-needle, etc. Liliaceae. 
The vernacular name (San Domingo). Robust, even arbores- 
cent plants, the showy white flowers in an ample panicle. 
About 16 species, N. America; 15 in southern U. S. Leaves of 
several species yield a fiber called dagger-fiber. The steins of 
some species are used by the Mexicans as a substitute for soap, 
called by them Amole. 

a. Y. aloifolia L. Southeastern U. S. Spanish-dagger, Dagger- 

plant, Spanish-bayonet, Adam's-needle-and-thread, Eve's- 
thread. Fruit succulent, edible, locally called banana. 

b. Y. arboresceus (Torr. ) Trelease. Mohave desert. A tree 

sometimes 40 feet high. Joshua tree. Seeds used for food by 
aborigines. 

c. Y. baccata Torr. Texas to California and Mexico. Spanish- 

bayonet, Mexican Banana, Soap-plant. Fruit edible. Leaves 
yield Tambigo fiber. 

d. Y. gloriosa L. (Y. integerrima Stokes). Southeastern U. S. 

Glorious Yucca^, Dwarf Palmetto*, Mound Lily. Still more 
ornamental is (e) Y. macrociirpa Coville, Texas to New 
Mexico and Mexico, 

f. Y. fllameutosa L. Southeastern U. S. and cult, in gardens. 
Adam' s-needle, Adam' s-needle-and-thread,Eve' s-thread, Thread- 
and-needle, Eve's-daming-needle, Bear' s-thread. Bear-grass, 
Silk-grass. 

2145. ZAMIA, L. Florida Arrow-root. Cycadaceae. 

From Latin, "fircone". Plants with palm-like foliage and 
a short thick caudex, often wholly subterranean. About 30 
species, tropical N. America; 2 in U. S. 

a. Z. integrifolia Jacq. Florida and West Indies, called in Flo- 
rida Coontee (Coontie, Koontee), in Jamaica Wild Sago. 
Starch from the tuber-like caudex, Florida Arrowroot. A 
similar product is obtained in the West Indies from other spe- 
cies. 

2146. ZANNICHELLIA, L. Zannichellia. Naidaceae^ 
Named for J. H. Zannichelli, Italian botanist, d. 1729. 

Obscure water- weeds. About 3 species, widely distributed; 1 
in U. S. 

2147. ZAISTEDESCHIA, Spreng. 1826,not Koch 1854. Araceae. 
Named for Francesco Zantedeschi, Italian botanist, 19th 

Century. Syn. Richardia, Kunth. not L.; Calla, in part. 
Marsh herbs from thickened rhizomes. About 5 species, south- 
em Africa. 

a. Z. Aetliiopica (L.) Spreng. (C. Aethiopica L., R. Africana 
Kunth (Kew), C. ambigua Salisb.). South Africa, cult, as a 
house plant. Calla, Calla Lilyf, Trumpet Lily, African Lily, 
Ethiopian Lily, Lily-of-the-Nile. Flunt acrid, like Indian 
Turnip. 



402 PLANT NAME3 AND SYNONYMS 

2148. ZEA, L, Maize, Indian Corn. Grramineae. 
Greek name of a grain used for fodder. A robust grass. 

One species, New World ( U. S. ) 

a. Z. Mays L. Probably originated in S. America, now universally 
cult. Maize, Indian Corn, Mealies (Australia, S. Africa), 
Guinea Wheat II, Turkey Com*, Turkey Wheat ||; Ger. Mais; 
Fr, Mais. The numerous varieties are arranged by Dr. Stur- 
tevant under six sub-species, viz: 1 Z. timicata, Pod Corns, 
in which each kernel is enclosed in an individual husk; 2. Z, 
ey^rta, Pop Corns, including 25 varieties; 3. Z. iuduraia, 
Flint Corns, 69 varieties; 4. Z. iudeutata, Dent Corns, 323 
varieties; 5. Z. amjlacea, Soft Corns, 27 varieties and 6. 
Z. Zaccarata, Sweet Corns, with shriveled kernels, 63 varie- 
ties. Styles and stigmas' Corn-silk; Zea, U. S. P., Stigmata 
mayidis; Ger. Maispistille; Fr. Filament de mais, diuretic. 
Unripe grain, source of Corn Starch, Amylum mayidis. Mipe 
grain supplies food for man and animals. Stalks used as 
fodder and formerly as a source of sugar. 

2149. ZEN6bIA, D. Don. Zenobia. Ericaceae. 
Syn. Andromeda, in part. Two species in U. S. 

2160. ZEPHYRANTHES, Herb. Swamp Lily. Amaryllidaceae. 

From Greek, "wind flower". Syn. Amaryllis, Atamasco, 
Habranthus, in part. Lily-like bulbous plants with one-flower- 
ed scapes. About 30 species, New World; 5 in U. S. 

a. Z. Atamasco (L. ) Herb. (Am. Atamasco L., At. Atamasco 
Greene). Southeastern U. S. Atamasco Lily, Dafibdil Lily, 
Easter Lily*, Fairy Lily, Swamp Lily, Stagger-grass. 

2151. ZEXMENIA, Llave & Lex. Zexmenia. Compositae. 

Transliteration of Ximenesia (Ximenezia). Shrubs. About 
35 species, mostly Mexican; 3 in U. S. (Mexican border). 

2162. ZINGIBER, Adans. (Zinziber). Ginger. Zingiberaceae. 

Latin, from ancient Greek name. Syn. Amomum, Cassumu- 
iiar, in part. Canna-like plants from tuberous rootstocks. 
About 25 species, India to Oceanica. 

a. Z. Cassumiinar Roxb. (C. RoxburghiiColla). India, Souroe 

of Cassumunar Ginger or Bengal root. 

b. Z. Zingiber (L.) Rusby. (Z. officinale Rose. (Kew), A. Zingi- 

ber L. ),. Tropical Asia, now cult, in all tropical countries. 
Ginger plant. Rhizome, Ginger; Zingiber, IJ. S. P., Br., 
Rhizoma Zingiberis, P. G.; Ger. Ingwer, Ingljer; Fr. Gingem- 
bre (Codex); Sp. Zengibre. Commercial varieties are Ja- 
maica and African ginger, black or "coated" and white or 
''scraped" ginger. The branchpd rhizomes are known as 
''hands" or "races". Stimulant, carminative, anodyne, deriva- 
tive; largely used as a condiment. Young rhizomes used for 
preserves in China and West Indies. 

C. Z. Zerumbet (L.) Roscoe (A. Zerumbet L.). Java. Source 
of Zerumbet root. 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR. 403 

2163, ZIZANIA, L. Indian Kice, Wild Kice. Gramineae. 
Ancient Greek name of Darnel. An aquatic grass. One spe- 
cies, N. America (U. S. ). (a) Z. aquiitica L. Canada and 
eastern U. S. Wild Rice, Indian Rice, Canada Rice, water 
Rice, Watei Oats, Reed. Seeds a favorite food of water-fowl, 
formerly collected for food by Indians. 

2154. ZIZIA, Koch. Zizia, Alexanders, etc. Umbelli ferae. 

Named for I. B. Ziz, Rhenish botanist. Syn. Smyrnium, 
Thaspium, in part. Perennial herbs with yellow flowers. 
Three species, all of U. S. 

a. Z. aiirea (L. ) Koch (S. aureum L., T. aureum var. apterum 
Gray ) . Canada and eastern U. S. , west to Dakota. Early or 
Golden Meadow- parsnip, Golden Alexanders, Wild Parsley. 

2166. ZiZYPHUS, L. Jujube, Lotus-tree. Rhamnaceae. 

The ancient Greek name of (c). Syn. Jujuba, Burm. 
Thorny shrubs or trees. About 65 species, mostly of tropical 
Asia and America; 3 in U. S. i 

a. Z. Jnjiiba Lam. China to Australia and tropical Africa. 
Chinese Date. Fruit esculent. Leaves food for the Tussa silk- 



b. z« Lotus Lam. Mediterranean region. Lotus-tree, Lote-tree, 
Lote-bush. Fruit, Italian Jujubes; esculent, but inferior to 
that of (c) ; believed by some to be the food of the Lotophagi. 

-c. Z. sativa Gaertn. (Z. vulgaris Lam.). Mediterranean region 
Jujube tree; Ger. Judendom; Ft. Jujubier (Codex). Fruit, 
French Jujubes, Frucius v. Baccse jujubae, Jujubse gallicse v. 
magnse; Ger. Jujuben, Brustbeeren; Sp. Azufaylas; esculent, 
demulcent, used in coughs. Other species also yield edible 
fruits as (d) Z. Joazeiro Mart, and (e) Z. Mistal Griseb., 
of S. America; ( f) Z. riigosa Lam., of India and (g) Z. Sinen- 
sis^Lam. , of China and Japan. 

h. Z. Spina-ChristiWilld. (Z. AfricanaMill). Northern Africa 
and southwest Asia. Christ's Thorn, Nebbuk tree. A hedge 
plant. Possibly the thorn from which our Savior's "crown", 
was plaited. See Paliurus. 

2156. ZONANTHEMIS, Greene. Zonanthemis. Compositae. 

Syn. Hemizonia, in part. Two species in U. S. 

2157. ZORNIA, Gmel. Zornia. Papilionaceae. 

Named for Johann Zorn, German apothecary. Herbs with 
digitately bifoliate or quadrifoliate leaves. About 12 species, 
New World; 1 in U. S. 

2168. ZOSTERA, L. Eel-grass, etc. Naidaceae. 

From Greek, girdle, alluding to the ribbon-like leaves. Syn. 
Alga, in part. Marine herbs with grass-like leaves. About 
6 species, widely distributed; 3 in U. S. 



404 PLANT NAMES AND SYNONYMS 

a. Z. marina L. (A. marina Lam., Z. maritima Gaertn.). Coasts 
of Europe, Asia and N. America. Eel-grass, Grass- weed, 
Grass-wrack, Sea-grass, Sea-Avrack* Bamacle-grass, Bellware, 
Sweet-grass, Tiresome-weed, Turtle-grass, Widgeon-grass, 
Wrack-grass. The dried plant, Sea- hay, Sea Sedge, Alva 
marina, used as bedding for horses, etc. 

2159. ZYGADESUS, Michx. Soap-plant, etc. Melauthaceae. 

From Greek, "yoke gland". Syn. Amianthium, Melanthium^ 
in part. Perennial herbs, the numerous white or whitish 
flowers in a terminal panicle. About 10 species, one in Siberia, 
the rest in N. America; 9 in U. S. 

a. Z, elegaus Pursh (Z. glaucus Nutt. ). British America, south 
to New York and N. Mexico. Glaucous Zygadenus§, called also 
Alkali-grass; (b) Z. Fremonti Torr, California, is called 
Soap-plant. 

c. Z. venenosus S. Wats. British Columbia to S. Dakota and 
California. Poisonous Zygadenus^, Death Camass, Hog Potato. 

2160. ZYGOPHYLLUM, Bean Caper, etc. Zygophyllaceae. 

From Greek, ''yoke leaf . Low shrubs, often spinescent. 
About 60 species, Old World and Australia, (a) Z. Fa- 
bago L. Levant. Bean Caper. Flower buds used as capers. 




NATIONAL FLOWERS. 



Athens Violet. 

Canada Sugar Maple. 

Egypt Lotus. 

England Eose. 

France Fleur de lis, 

Oermany Corn-flower. 

Ireland Shamrock. 

Italy Lily. 

Prussia Linden. 

Saxony Mignonette. 

Scotland Thistle. 

Spain Pomegranate. 

Wales Leek. 

For the United States Golden-rod is proposed, although some 
favor the Trailing Arbutus. 

STATE FLOWERS. 



California Eschscholtzia. 

Colorado Columbine. 

Delaware Peach Eose. 

Hawaiian Islands Ilima. 

Maine Pine (cone and tassel). 

Michigan Apple-blossom. 

Montana Bitter-root. 

Minnesota Cypripedium. 

Nebraska Golden-rod. 

Nevada Sunflower. 

New York Eose. 

N. Dakota Golden-rod. 

Oklahoma Ter Mistletoe. 

Rhode Island Violet. 

Utah Sego Lily. 

Vermont Eed Clover. 

Washington Ehododendron. 



82. 


a. 


34. 


a. 


101. 


b. 


223. 


a. 


263. 


f. 



ERRATA AND ADDENDA. 

(NUHBERS REFER TO PARAGRAPH, NOT TO PAGE.) 

2. a. Insert synonym Mast tree. 

2. f. For A. Picea (L. ) Lyons, read A. Picea (L. ) Lind. 

45. For Cichoreaceae, read Cichoriaceae. 

76. Insert, see Wedelia. 

81. For Alophila, read Alophia (bis) and insert, From Greek^ 
"withou